Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Chuck Nice answer fan-submitted Cosmic Queries on the Space Race, the global impact of the Apollo program and John F. Kennedy’s political influence. Now extended with more questions on time travel, wormholes, asteroids, and more.
NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/extended-classic-cosmic-queries-the-space-race/
Photo Credit: NASA.
See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free,
the universe is filled with secrets and mysteries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. You find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space inside us in and decided to euro conversion for the first time as worlds collide,
recently the domain? The brain tat glimpse into Grandma South vastly Brenda get LAB
this: you start talking, I'm your hopes, your personal astrophysicist photographs Thyssen. I work at the American Museum of Natural history, regular in New York City, where I also serve as director of the hidden planetarium and for this episode of start talk we're doing what we call
queries where questions come to me from arbs
the media and I dont rather I'll. Even I don't even know if they are. Until I walk,
and set out the microphone and I get help today
NEA was Avenant good Biederman
they walk back. Thank you. Thank you, Sir always gonna be so you do you read me what, if he's quite what's today's topic of today's topic is thus base race? Ok,
I found a little bit about a little bit about I got. I got this, but actually just so you know this may sound like a cheap lord, but it just so. I wrote a book called space chronicles right facing the autumn,
frontier came out two years ago. You know why I write books because you can.
Don't write, you can't have it and I know my limitation not arrived,
so that I never have to talk about that subject again really
a compile at all in there and somebody tell me about the other hand it is about, and I gonna walk away my guys. So now you just you
directing this in me when I'm trying to think about other stuff, but I'm sorry I'm sorry to do that. Oh, my god, I can't believe you just said that that you write a book city, diet of Europe. I would say that this is the household. I grew up in this solid.
Ass, my mother or my father. What does this mean and they will say, go look it up. Woe
well like yeah. That's what you're for what may have looked like evil parents with today. Turning turn you into an independent research.
Actually I get it I'm kind of uncas, and now it's funny, because I do the same thing to my children there, like myself,
those they dad do. You know what I like. I do. No do you.
It will find out.
That's so that works, whether or not you
actually no less.
Into our cosmic queries and, of course, we always start off with the patriarch patron question, and if you support is one patriotic, we will give your questions priority here at cosmic queries, ok painfully on where we
basically by your loyalty. Ok here we got Matthew,
message from Calgary Alberta, says and your opinion Doktor Thyssen. What was the most significant thing that the power programme achieved with
the exception of landing on the moon, while
that's a good question when you think about because everybody you say APOLLO program, it's mom landed, bang, that's the end of it, that's it, but he said
Give me something that is just as significant that we don't think about
beginning in nineteen seventy a little earlier, but in nineteen seventy was the first earth Day
nationally and then it became rapid international hit. If you will have us, our day is global.
Global now and it's a significant global celebration.
Our home planet.
Around that same time so night to whatever what else happened. Nineteen
Seventy one two and three. We would see
the passing of the comprehensive clean AIR Act, Clean Water ACT,
one. Seventy Noah was founded the National oceanic and atmospheric administration.
To monitor our climate and our oceans and our weather, and not only that the Environmental Protection Agency was founded in nineteen seventy by the time
to seventy three came around. Let a guess would be banned, DDT would be banned. The catalytic converter would be introduced all this happened.
Bring the years we were going to the moon.
At a time when we had a whole lot. Other stuff distracting us like
a cold war with the Soviet Union in a hot were in Southeast Asia and campus unrest from
and I wore a protest
the civil rights move,
and assassinations? Nineteen sixty eight would see to assassinations on domestic soil and so
So why am I saying all this because
While we had all these other potential distractions, we nonetheless paused to reflect on our
patient ship to our home planet. So I submit to you
That, though, we went to the moon to explore the moon,
on getting there and looking back. In fact, we would discover earth for the first time. Well, so it's like I've,
the Paradise, but I've never been to me.
This is exactly that. So. Can you put a dollar figure right on the fact that seeing earth.
In the sky from the moon was like a firmware update and our sense
of awareness and who we are important servers and our relationship to ok, that's
Actually that's a bit more excess.
I told him I was expecting for an answer hooker. I have to say that a damn good answer, because it's more of the the if it's more of a collective conscious
in the light and the man yes- and I don't think anyone started the programme with that expectation, but that is
Clearly, a consequence of it?
so I am a member.
Tv commercial with the native american stand on the
the two year and as I hear, the single tier went and people from garbage adamant that didn't happen. Until this period till we were going to the moon, we were totally
Garbage out the window, people for long before that right, don't ever got that about our semi seriously, garbage out the window pretty much all through human here,
all three women history and affect those great for anthropologists. They can find stuff along the Roman via right. You know that people- oh my god,
without a former examples. We put a bit around no, but you you it was. We didn't start thinking.
But as a as a cost
cultural, environmental problem until that that very well loud, its aid,
hey Matthew eyes. You know, I hope your
satisfied with that answer, because it was completely curve completely.
With that answer and then there's tank
that in turn, your call for you go right. Ok,
We go next question, o Opposite Manet. Let's
I'm sorry. I was I'm sorry from Facebook was no there's. The space race was annulled.
An extension of the cold war, arms race, but also the result.
President, John F Kennedy who play is that we get there in ten years. Do you know anyone today in the political sphere? Who could do the same? What kind of politician would be ideal in this regard
we gotta do more because wage wars or is there
other than we do because never forget it shows your
first impression is
you're good at did know, but you know what I'm not even doing Kennedy, I'm actually doing mare Quinn, be you know what can be done
You imitated tie fighter from star wars. Are you I thought with Canada?
would be easy to have the I so so
There is an assumption built into that question that the
political will and charisma, perhaps of Kennedy, was a significant force operating in
How and why we got to the moon, and
this is commonly thought, but I am contrary and in that regard or good right, no doubt Kennedy had charisma. No doubt
he had a sort of way
rallying people behind an idea. No doubt about that, but I submit that if we were
war, all that
We have just been empty rhetoric and nobody would assigned the Czech caught the Congress because
Congress is not as swayed by speeches as the public is absolutely.
And so its Congress, who writes the Czech that's right at the end of the day, so consider nineteen, eighty nine, the twentieth of July.
If the twentieth anniversary of the moon landing, who is there then sitting, President
I don't know where we're going. Walker, George Herbert Worker Bush, George Herbie, was goes to the steps of the
aerospace, museum, delivers a speech not fundamentally different from Kennedy Speech
We are Americans where Explorers Columbus set sail. This is our time we will
put men on Mars.
And have a space station who I was built a space station and we will put this? He was trying
give a Kennedy speech. Right, ok, fell flat on his face now why people simply because he's not Kennedy, I beg to differ care, not that he isn't not cannon
right. They send me some girl isn't. Nor can we allow what he isn't Kennedy it didn't work not because he is in Canada gripe. I claim that didn't work,
is to remember what happened and nineteen eighty nine peace broke out
at ease broke out in Europe has a terrible. Then that is the collapse.
Of the Soviet Empire right. That is the detective
bear down the wall. The wall came down in eighteen, eighty, nine, all of a sudden
our motivation for
or our military might the very thing that drove who
what we were, I as the carriers of freedom and the american way and in the face of
evil, communist, it all evaporated that ear
and he's trying to give a speech to get
don't go to Mars in the absence of a mortal enemy right,
so we would it either needed Martians Abbe the bath, but have been the best best right. We do need a margin, is evil. Martian, evil martians are already when exactly what I want to be cool. Each came out guns draw
studies shot Elliot or whatever the hell. That's the way ends I mean you ve got about
We must have already guns. I fell. Yes, really. They competition, no competition, that no
not only competition, because you can do that and yes and still succeed, but the greatest competition.
Our species knows is the threat of death. For
someone who might out compete you in a way that would kill you. So I claim that the biggest reason that failed was not because Bush lack the charisma Kennedy. What has happened is he lacked the cold war right by the way he proposed
You know it was their words. He said this, albeit with twenty five you. I forgot the exact time interval twenty five years plan and and it would be you're twenty five. Thirty, your plan and it'll cost a trillion dollars. Well, ok, so people free!
right, then that was the end of that right. There or or half a trillion dollars average route with half a trillion dollars, but no less than half a million. Unlike all right, ok, we can work with the who,
if you took NASA's budget at the time, which is between fifteen and twenty.
We in dollars and today's annual budget, and then
multiply that over
thirty years right, you get him
trillion dollars. Don't worry, we already are allocating, have a trillion dollars to NASA over
same amount of time, right so to say that's de away
because it's too much money, that's a false argument: right,
it was all over. You might have to reach all mass it with its budget, but it was a false argument to think it's too much money. That's all
So I'm unconvinced by people saying that George Herbert Worker Bush was absent. The charisma Kenny.
So so I dont stridently has anything to do with politicians by has to do with whether we think we're gonna die. Ok
and there you have it by the way. Just to let you know you are gonna die, so we should. We should do it, irrespective I think
if we really want to go to Mars, die by unnatural, causing today down with
If we really want to go to Mars, we should we. Scientists should get together and n n n it at this somewhat conspiratorial.
Way, I tell the world that there's oil on Mars. Yet, but then we beat, we be
lying, but we gotta Mars. You know, why does why then there's terrorist on Mars and why this oil on earth? Because we have life on earth
so maybe ok, maybe it was apparent, there's an episode of Mars where there was life life sunk down and then it made only so that before it will be called on Mars and get away and we'd be there next week. But what I do, what I do about it we should go to China and groups, could tell the leaders of tat. Can you would leak a memo than to me
we would then have to be true. Just like a member states want to put military bases on my home. That said, there were done. You go we're on Mars, our Mars. In ten months and months, one month fund designed build a spacecraft normal to get there. We go to Mars, not because it is easy, but of course it is hard and the Chinese once again awful awful impersonation aright,
this move on what that's that's pretty cool. I am, I agree with what you say it's not about. I think people put too much emphasis on the importance of the presidency and there
unaware of how much power the president really has our whole system as it does not have right. Our whole system of government is designed to keep power out of the hands of the president. Three cisely present doesn't run away like a dictator right right, rat Silva. You know people often overestimate what the president can and cannot do exactly in a court of law.
Move on to recover more questionable, Caitlin segment goals that we never got eyes.
It can of Facebook. Thank you. Isaac as it has a pronounced able, may now you're going to U Isaac from embassy.
What Isaacs, hometown Borg? That's right? What kind of computing power did mission control and the shuttle have during the APOLLO era
tell you what I've read about that, because I didn't calculate this myself, but their bit. There been comments that the computer- I don't believe this, but whose fun to read it and say it the computing power of singing
reading card. Now, there's a chip in their letter open it up a happy birthday to happen at happy birthday. Do so so
Mary had been a little more than that. I don't know the answer for sure, because I don't know these
I could have. Research should, of course be slightly
My question is how to get rid of it, but
it is no doubt, no doubt any
we're carrying our argued pocket is greater than any
What was going on when we went to the moon, wait a minute now. Ok, I do believe that, because of the microbes
Sesar is that we use in order to try to run our found by the wet, but by the way,
By the way the miniaturization of electronics is
entirely driven in its initial stages by NASA? Ok, we had electronics filling in short for so our parents. Are
and parents: yes had radios the size of furniture in their living room barrette where they were gathered round and listens, and radios listen to radio shows and was any
I'm saying tree. I want to carry this on my hip
just a non thought gray, doesn't mean they might not welcome it, but no one is even thinking that way. I got your right. Nasa is saying we need this.
Technology and we need to launch it and it costs ten thousand dollars a pound pay to put anything in orbit. So we
frank, this freak, this down shrinking back to the lab, is, I think, a downright now. Ok. So this
miniaturization drives a whole frontier that somebody then becomes a commercial commodity is absolutely. I just had
Firstly, what you just said, because about grandparents and radio
sit around the radio listening to their programming? When I was a kid we sat around the television, I
however, once thought I,
carry that television or my head: never guess what
do my new phone is a freaking television. I can watch the internet or any tv show. I want on demand on my phone. I am carrying the tv on my hip, exactly amazing,
That is not an end. If you don't think about it. Just tvs! This
you do when you get home and you turn around right right, but no longer get our man a super cool
so. It's a brazen! I would say yourself: do you remember the movie APOLLO thirteen to try to save the guy's lives and they said here
the only thing they have available. They dump out this back onto the table. Engineers save their lives, said okay, but wait a minute they. So we need this
slide rule our dear now we got were now
but we can do our roads are the rest. Everybody gotta abacus, we're gonna save a life over it, so
so any oh yeah yeah. I saw you with David blown away, so back then computers. We used for timing, things and simple, simple and simple calculations, and the rest was very mechanical, a Catholic back that back when
the right stuff. Right now the right suffers own computer. We gonna break when we come back. Let more cosmic queries from you on the past present.
secret for you.
Gonna. Consider singing all of the ads on this show
just one way to get out a hearing. There go to patriarch arms last started, talk and surf
where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad Free
You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
I hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me sing if you support us at patriarch dot coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just saying
This is starting to use the word back, I nice with me.
Yes, you do surface cosmic queries. Addition, that's correct! A fan, favorite cosmic varies beloved this. You know why, because this is the thing that we do want star talk that belongs solely to the fans
It really is Vanessa, it's their show. It's really, you know we're. Just here is a conduit to carry out their whim, so I shouldn't tell them that I really don't like doing
rather just sit there
someone else through the top you're making me talk are eager, but before we gotta check has ceased to doing stand up
all the time pretty much everything. So here's thing I don't travel as much too on the road which I did a lot of requests by two reasons: one I have a small and so I'd like to be home of more than one child. I have one of them a small one of those very small, because I'm an idiot.
We just had a new baby two years ago, as a new baby like there is such a thing as a whole, we had an old baby had all years ago. I got a dearth of Benjamin, but anyway,
and but I always do stand up in New York City and surrounding area pretty much every weekend. I love your work just
That's why we have you here to expand always lobby firm that sorting out. Ok, let's get back into our queries: aid in astronomy from Instagram
sir, your enemies in his handle ass. It is loved like that, will live in the universe and I can't help not tell gotta let people know so he says what was
light for the command module pilots when they went around the backside of the moon, and why did this?
Sylvia and one moon Rockets, all
instead of what was it like, let me say on the backs of the moon. What are you experience
on the backside, the moon that you're not experiencing on two fronts, and rightly so.
First, as you may remember, the APOLLO missions all sent three astronauts to the moon, two of them deployed down to the surface
one did not write stayed in orbit around the moon, new lunch waiting for them finnish drama gulf
guard better known as the Goober driver Paolo itself
I wondered if I would just snuck in Britain crammed three people into
the lander end
I don't know you gonna get traveller
Just now I have to sit and wait. The car will be right out nuclear, we're gonna, walk round the moon walk round them. You do me a favor, and can you just keep the car rather leave would cover the carbon anybody. We're just gonna, take a little stroll on the moon, a mood guess so
Here's the thing when you
but to the backside of the moon, you are one
who, in diameter away from the other two astronauts check. That is the record
for the lonely as person ever our so called,
cuz your father out, then you're farther waiver by yourself. Next closest person right in that moment is
Moon diameter, aware that is farther than any other solo person has been
why this right so
that just one. Little fact that is the lonely place. We have ever found ourselves,
That's pretty cool little. What makes a toy what makes it extra lonely is when you're behind the moon right, then them
what is between you and earth right.
And the radio signals don't penetrate through the moon. So you also radio silence, my God
we're alone and alone. If you double along the double along with alone squared right, you can communicate with anybody either correct. This is
in the future when we're thinking of moon colonies, and you want to inhabit the far side of the moon. The farce, I'd never faces earth. The moon is. Its rotation is with cold title III, locked where
it's actually rotating, but at the exact rate that it takes. The Gore
the earth, was always turning its one. Faced,
the Jew, no matter where it is called title
It's a very natural thing in the universe, dont think too much about it. Can't I'm thinking about that! We take something, has something that's what a coincidence essential for us to do that it will get lies in its a natural thing, so so so
when we think about moon colonies. If you can just pitch tent on the far side of the moon, you can still want communication channels opened up,
hold convert separate conversation about radio transmitter repeaters that are on the
of the moon, where signals can come from the backside and they worked away back over to the front side in the
its way back, I sent you, send a signal to the booster booster sensitive, exactly exactly, and so did say, repeater whatever. Whatever is the mechanism fight so so for me now
I'm sorry, let me move over here requirement about. Furthermore, let me just move here of that.
Jesus I'm roaming tariffs will return roaming. Do I'm sorry, I'm gonna move talk where this is cost we have fortune. Sorry. Can I give up later
a weirdly, perverse version of that right
I was on a presidential commission-
study, the let the the climate of
aerospace around the world relative to here on earth climate, I mean that the business climate,
and so in one of our trips we go to China.
And China has these. Have they ve got plans to go to space? I did before they launched their first taken out. Ok,
was what they call astronauts, antagonize you're taken out, and so so there's this this underbelly of,
technology that were reading about an hearing about- and I always wondered you know- is it real? Is there so
I'm on the great wall of China Sweet and it there. It is
just like the photos going
to the miss? Aren't you kid
There is no end in either Direction Europe. I do not see any technology at all
in any degree or no antennas, there's no nothing made of metal. There is just a wall while
and I said, let me try something I pull out my cell phone. Ok, the foot phone at the time I call
a moment tat I call it was in fact the motor was started, and I call my because it gets a bright idea. Thank you how to get my, I call my mother in Westchester New York. She said. Oh,
I you are you home already that's how good the connection was nice. It was. It was
clear connection who certainly didn't have spread
one of the basic connections I've ever had in a cell phone ever from the great wall of China with no visible cellphone towers, and I then, at that time you would walk past a tree
United States, whose I'm sorry I lost my single exotic. Let me get out in the open here away from the blades of grass with whatever. So so, that's how I knew
China was gonna, make whatever they want happen happen la moment. That's a pretty well
I'll. Do that moment level? Wait! I thought! That's that's! Actually America story at a really telling because it makes that's right. You don't see anything and it's there.
Why did I even say that I was for some are related to the question whether we would we were talking about the amount, just just the dark side and did the acts
Repeater and all that kind of stuff? You know about the guy with with where the the command module pilot? There was a question: what was the question now
like you'd know I'm sorry now
Lastly, Isaac. I answer the question: what is God Jesus Christ, we're
it should not be met God and Jesus and the same. Then it must be in a really bad situation.
Now. You don't answer the question perfectly. What was that
I don't know what it was like for their pilot all about
That's what I want and that's exactly what it was eaten a sandwich weight and just
and by the way, I'm I'm gonna say that is the lonely existence ever not.
It is because of where he is and not just because
of his isolation, but because of the context of that isolation,
you're alone and your friends
A walking on the moon, its triple
it's like I'm alone. I can communicate with anybody and I'm
even the car warm and there on the moon just getting all the glory around. I check we have time for a cousin,
Where is the lightning around? Let's do it you're going to sound bite answers sound bite, anti you're gonna be ok here without Chris Mcnamara, ninety seven from Instagram. What is the biggest thing the moon taught us about earth. For me, I haven't I my personal list
I think I'm going to the moon and getting direct measurements of its mineral content in soil content. For me, the coolest thing was
covering that the moon is the product
collision between Mars size Proton planet outside.
Wiping earth's crust in the early solar system having that material
that had been side, swiped guy
Another cosmic body that orbits earth that we now call the moon, the moon for its size should have much much more iron in it right, but it doesn't
has already been sifted out, we'll have to
make that happen well on earth. The iron all went to the core mostly
and went to the core, so the crust,
hardly any iron and if you can make a new cosmic object out of the crust. You're gonna have heart,
any iron in your substance, so the moon has to
Fifthly out low iron, and it is completely consistent with a scenario nice and and people ask me if I want to go back in time and see something happened I wanted.
The collision of that more size, protein planet with earth and watch the moon get formed. We think it would have formed within a few months that click yes that quickly.
A quickly, there have been a bad language here s a nice guys, you gotta get quick. I was too long. I got an answer faster here. We go at sea
Six! Twenty one wants to know this fishermen there
Would you like some sea bass? Who do you think one one that space race outside? I call it a tie United States
Russia. Ok, you know why, because they were the first to put anything in space a they were the first to put a living creature in space. They are the first to put a human and space. They are the first to put a woman in space. They were the first to put up with.
Person in space through are the first to have a space station. They invented the rocket equation that enable all this to happen in the first place, and we went to the moon first though, so. Ok,
to me. I'm saying you are we
didn't do anything to stop first, and we got to me that we will also give you give the people from credit here please next, what I was a great as an area since the bonus loaded absorbing whether their black person was a Cuban really open up
so Brent, Ralph, Brent relevance to know this is the moon is loaded with helium three, which is useful for alternative energy. How do you think laws will form in retaliation to mining, the moon or something
you gonna mine, the moon, nice, so helium ceiling
Ray is a version of helium missing. One proton dealing here have to protons to neutrons there'll be hearing for take away a neutron. Helium three guys was
ok, Healy, three is one of the things that is emanate,
from the sun in the solar, wind and it comes through space, it gets
urged in these surface of the moon and sits there, and there are a whole books given
onto mining quite simply scooping up the topsoil of the moon
collecting this helium three and using it for nuclear fusion reactors, so
a whole plan that people have for this
there's been some rebuttals is: will it really recoup the cost? What I'm so, but to healing three yeah? We need law,
I was going into the future who owns the moon, who owns asteroid, who
The mining rights do they have to be shared, who pay for it? This there
some laws related to this, but for me it's still undiscovered territory.
And this is why the the future and space is not just about astronauts scientists and engineers, there's the rest of what life is lawyers, the artists, the politics all of this has to come together. If we are going to turn what is sitting there above our heads, we call them
into our backing, we gonna break. When we come back, we will continue with nice meeting. You.
H of nice here, you're listening to an extended episode of STAR talk when we come back a brand new said when a cosmic queries about the universe with myself,
your hosts drafted little, the grass Thyssen, the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star die
suddenly. I agree with every big zaki I gotta I gotta gig tonight are given a public talk on astrophysics. There is some learning that goes on in the town. Apparently I was
So that's the most exciting thing. I've ever heard happening in Vegas.
So are we know we always win we, but on the other grass Thyssen, for you really betting on the universe. When you bet
make us all I am is a conduit to it. Oh, I meant that on the black anyway
Annalisa ass. He could dreamily says my daughter's ages. Eight eleven want to know will actually be easier to travel for
in time, rather than backward, and what with that require? Oh,
easily travel forward in time it? We ve known how to do that, since nineteen o five,
Einstein special theory of relativity laser
a whole recipe of how you can move into the future
All you have to do is
into a sort of a lower gravity field relative to other people. Origin.
Travel very fast and your clock will take slower,
the net of everybody else that you ve left behind memory
return you'll, be younger than you are twin. For example, if you had left, you
when back on earth
In that sense, you are travelling into the future. That's easy:
and we ve known how to do that travelling backwards. That's the problem and it takes
we think we can do that. I have some colleagues who made some calculations
their assert that, depending on it or
trajectory. You take around
the black hole you come out and end up in the past.
When you started
so, but that takes extra
Mary set up to make happen, but right now no
problem travelling into future, so it's either.
Lower gravity travel faster than the speed of light,
a very good moisturize
and not only that the GPS satellites would.
Farther away from the centre of the earth and we are they experienced less gravity than we do, and gps clocks tick faster.
Then our clocks, yet we're getting our time from them and so.
They know this in advance. Rather, we ve programmed in the relativity correction to compensate for this fact so that when they do give us, the time is the right time, not the relativistic too.
That it wants to keep by being weird, is an orbit awesome.
I know you re the next question how theoretically my time,
be a worm. Whole work. Well, oh yeah, so
Oh what a wormhole enables is by the way. If you manage to travel someplace faster than light, you have them
Cassidy to move backwards in time that we got that one established as well.
We just don't have any easy way to travel faster than light, but
One way, that's been celebrated in science fiction and you can write it out on paper legitimately is a wormhole
we're all over here and I want to get over there and I want to get their quickly
Yes it before the end of the commercial break. Ok, sir! You
travel through a wormhole that changes the effective
Distance between where you are and we are going, and then you sort of
look around when you get there. You fine! Oh my gosh, I travelled
hundred thousand light years in a matter of a moment. Ok we're
you do that you have
the capacity to move backwards in time relative to when you left now,
you don't get to visit yourself? You in a sort of a different space time trajectory
So you can't shake hands with yourself before you left that that's that's what you're thinking of doing now and
it is a huge paradox that people worry about and many people
putting Stephen Hawking, the lake Stephen Hawking worried whether this paradox would prevent backwards. Time travel
really? Because if you go back in time and prevent Europe,
Erin from meeting one another than they were
I've ever given birth to you to go back
in time to prevent them from meeting one another. First of all, allow me to say I stopped listening when you say
as it has with myself. Eric bargain, wants to know this. What would
you say is the most accurate time travel show or a movie and why
it's really hard
do an accurate movie.
We'll have interesting plot lines,
so, given that they take some Lucy Goosey steps with it with time travel, I have to say that doctor who
as a tv series
the most invested in the authenticity of their time, travel, storytelling and so
I thought about the contradictions and the paradoxes and they have their own solutions to all that
on states side, I would say: there's nothing like the original back to future movie, the first one that one they thought it through
they imagine consequences they
So I give both of them sort of equal high ranking and
special mention you gotta labelling, TAT, Berwin, Tabs excellent adventure come on.
That's. That's a special runner up special mention for time. Travel exploits
three very good. The most disturbing over the three definitely backs at a future where you have to make sure that your parents smash so that you
can be boy,
I know you're ready, Daniel Junius wants to know what happens when we fall into a black hole before we get into it. Can you just let the people know what is a black hole, black hole, a region of space where matter has condemned to such a high density that the gravity at its surface, this the surface gravity is so high that you cannot escape it even at the speed of light you are forever trapped. It is the fabric of the space time continuum warped back on itself and once you fall in, you will never come and it is the human version
of the roads. Motel you check in, but you don't check out. A black hole is what we call them black and when you following on from others, what we call it a whole because we tell it like it is in astrophysics lack of life. If you happen to fall in a black hole, which is my preferred form of death, is better and getting hit by a bus ride. So if you fallen in a feat first dive to this cosmic abyss, you will not survive because you will not miss the title. Forces of gravity will create quite a calamity when you stretched head to toe. Are you sure you wanna go? Those title forces will increase
to the point where your body will just happen to likely at the base of the spy, then each of those two pieces will snap into too soon become one to two to four to eight to sixteen. Until you by four came all the way down to the centre of the black hole and you become a stream of atoms and that's not even the worst part, the worst part is: you are funneled extrude it through the fact
of space time so that you used to be this wide now you're, this narrow, and so this phenomenon this this exclusion like to pay
from a tube. We have a word for death by black hole, is called spaghetti. Vacation speak
if occasions as like a meal to die for see what I did their kill me, but keep this video like four dead yoke
I know you're ready for the next one. Ever concern wants to know this. There is a black hole,
the middle of our galaxy is there a giant black hole
something giant in the middle of our universe and something
let all the multiverse. If we follow that logic now-
that's all around time
Why were you offer me? It's a no? No! No! There is no center of the universe. The all the universe was in the same place at this.
In time nearly fourteen billion years ago, then you could think of it sort of his a center but
today that we are expanding and all pieces expanding away from every place else. It feels like we're at the center, but we're not.
Any more than when you're a ship at sea and
we're in the middle of your own horizon. You equally distance
every edge of your horizon, that's mean you're an assent or anything. So no
there's no known center of the universe and therefore I can say with some confidence: there's no black hole there,
Ok, we'll dance for making me feel less important than already do, knowing that I'm not the center of the universe, but wait a minute how bout
black holes at the centre of our galaxy? We got. One Andromeda got one
bigger than ours were black hole envy, but that's another show long ago we didn't,
Oh, if black holes are becoming in the centres of galaxies with the help of the Hubble telescope, which has good precise ways to look down and the centre every galaxy we ve had the capacity to check has revealed a black hole to us. Thus, we will extrapolate and assert that a black hole
a natural phenomena in the centre of all our seas of the universe. I neo it's time for another question. Damn Birmingham wants to know. What's the most exciting thing we don't know about black holes, there's good theoretical ideas about what would happen if you survive a trip through the black hole and come out on the other side over equations. Tell us that an entire new space time opens up for you when she left the universe you were just in. You will never return to it, but you enter another delay. Our equations tell us it's there, but there's no way to test that and come back and tell anybody about it. So that remains. For me, one of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe is each black hole,
a universe unto itself check back to you and that a super cool, I'm a cop out a black rabbit. All I is turns our gas rights. Are you ready LEO I'm ready, jerk Daniel ticking?
wants to know what is the easiest way to defend the earth from asked rule
I I'm, even though they were trying to attack us. What you want to do is first,
find out that is headed our way, then, as early as you possibly can slowly deflected out of harm's way, because if the earlier you get it, you will have two deflected by very much and
angle accumulates and gets wider and wider and wider so that a completely MRS earth, the
Eight or you do this,
the more significant you have to deflect it so that it does not hitter
it was headed right at us. You have to afflicted the entire,
amateur of the earth just to avoid collision. So
earlier, the better, in all cases,
would you do that? Well, one
as you can like paint one side of the asteroid jet black.
Nell absorb more sunlight in the other side.
And when that happens, it radiates at a different different rate from one side to the.
And the difference in radiation rate has a pressure. The pushes it into a new orbit, but there's still issues at how much spray painting a need for this. What what would you act?
we take out there to accomplish this and these asteroids a large the.
The ones who are worried about two miles across ok and if your european kilometers across, but that's a lot of spray paint. So what's is another way to do it? Yes, you can send a spaceship out there and have it space probe and pocket near the asteroid. So here's the asteroid in here
space probe just park there now what's gonna happen is the gravity is going to want to attract them to one another? But you don't let that happen. You fire little Wretch Rockets
so the pools thee, the very special
a little farther away and then,
asteroids falls towards it
very steady, but it is in effect a gravitational tractor beam. It's like a gravitational,
in that way, you can measure how effective it
how long you should do it, and so that clearly, the best way to protect her from asteroids
so blowing up Armageddon style, that's not a good choice
no in America, especially, were really good at below and stuff up.
We're not as good as no knowing where the pieces will land. So
you. Don't know what effect exploding will have after you, ve
so with sand eel is Bruce. Willis is a problem. Not only will the way put, it is if we are going to blow it up
for whatever reason, I'd send Bruce Willow.
I mean it's time for another question: Matthew Vincent Liberal wants to know this, how
All of the asteroid bells form
I am genuinely curious also if there were an asteroid headed towards
How would it be known to the public
First, let me say where they are: most of them are between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter Honey
thousands of them and the craggy chunks of rock left
from the formation of the solar system and we think many them
try to become planets like planet decimals and that an end,
solar system back then, was basically a shooting gallery and, as the trinity
plans to get broken up into bits and pieces, so they're real.
The vagabonds of the solar system, Santa's space garbage, like PLUTO Chuck
can we started a joke? It I'm just a guy. How about the second half of mass question, how we gonna know the world.
Have all the movies always show governments detecting the asteroid, with some special telescopes and keeping it a secret. Excuse me
you cannot keep the sky a secret.
Above all our heads, and there are countless thousands
amateur astronomers, with back yard, telescopes that look into the universe and findings
things, and so you realize it most comets up until
recent. We most comments were found by
asteroids too. So now we have specialised home,
copes with their control by us, not by the government. So yet, if we, if we fight
one, you gotta know the next day the next day, because their stuff go pro
and then everybody will find out at the same time very likely via the internet
it is no secret. Anybody can keep Sarney Otto believe you. I got a feeling there not telling anybody anything and then they're gonna take
that information and escape on their own or maybe this is what I would do, I'm an awful.
Person. I now on a serious, no actually saw this comment in the Facebook group comments. Re Parker said this:
I don't care, I wanna hear about asteroids. If we get hit so be it not, we do about it there
things that are a lot more important than rocks
This is why you want scientists and engineers in your midst.
As when something that might render view extinct arises.
On his way towards earth. They will turn them
look up and say how
We prevent that
and though use methods and tools and ingenious ideas and values,
be the difference
between you being alive, say you don't care, and you
extinct. Where your thoughts than wouldn't matter to anyone have a job,
ass man? We gonna call it a rap right there
you ve, been listening to, and possibly even watching start off. I've been your hosting you'll, be there stifling your personal have to visit Chuck. Nice has accurately almost
thanks for coming through helping me get through this and, as always, I beg you to keep looking up,
wait for Galileo job the organs wish. You could listen. Mr talk, commercial, free, joint, start,
compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.