Neil deGrasse Tyson talks about exploring space with planetary scientist Carolyn Porco, a.k.a. Madame Saturn, who led the Cassini Imaging Science team. Now including 10 minutes of new Cosmic Queries with Neil, Bill Nye and Chuck Nice!
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now, his star talk truculent my job. Joan I like it. I told him everything. You know. This is what he told me I just got to forward, but he was a house me. You know it taught me I'll check nice and scenario with a jerk always good to have you did we face we're doing this? We ve got one of my favorite.
People in the world is a friend and colleague, Caroline Porco Chilcat, and I call or Madame Saturn, because she's head of NASA's imaging team for the Cassini mission to Saturn Loud and so she's ensure all the beautiful Did you ever seen a saturn? In the last ten years they came out of her life. Nice, I know, I know how could you not and so Cassini mission was launched in nineteen. Ninety seven Saturn is a long way away. It took seven years to get there well and so finally pulled into orbit. and a lot of things happen on admission. It had a little probe that it dropped, offers itself and plant down on what are centres, moons tighten, which is one of the few This is in the solar system that has an atmosphere right and it's a moon, because our know how atmosphere that's right, titans got an atmosphere, lift probe went down there and
or mountains and valleys and rivers and lakes, but the lakes were not made of water, they are made of liquefied methane. That's how cold it is. Methane, gas that comes out your stove that unite freezes. you're, not printed liquefied right, liquefied, it's an alien Scape and you know that we'll both clear through two thousand seventeen and then not guess what they can do with it now we can bring back so what I ve done. It had just left that is what we get poet unplug it down in the atmosphere. Just let it go about will know that there are still talking about it, but what little figure it out when we get closer to the time our airlines will know where we have, then all of our stuff is sitting up one block race, car, that's sadder, that will be the toilet, bow visions that have been there. So, let's go to my first clip with Carolyn Porco. She came to my office
interviewer and find out just wish come from where she been wish. You go and was so Carolyn your native New Yorker. I understand I am. I come from the Bronx, where you do a Debra wrongs report the Bronx North
sparked Pelham Bay, parliamentary cool, so your first night sky would have been the same as my first night sky. I have a story, I think like yours, about the night sky, the hidden planetary, not well. I have a story that starts with me waiting for the bus Westchester Square in the Bronx I used to work in the library and that have to catch the bus. It wishes to square, and I just remember looking up and seeing like one or two bright stars- probably wanted them with Jupiter and, like everybody else in New York, I had the same experience gonna haven that I guess apparently you dinner at the real universal right. My towards early did you know you wanted to do this, so I got into astronomy the backdoor. I was attracted more from my spiritual questioning when I was just a young teenage. I was like thirteen gone on eighty and I was thinking things like. What am I doing here? What is the meaning of life? I was probably very depressed. That's why I was thinking these things. Are you an existential thanks? I asked thirteen had enormous existential at the beginning of a troubled China, and I read about Hinduism. I read about Buddhism. I read about opera, you totally messed up, I was telling must have I even for a while that very very serious about my religion, Catholicism and for a period about four months. I went to church like four
times a week, and I did all the indulgence and you're still around thirteen yeah. I thought that just didn't cut it for me. I even did read about existential, isn't that was really depressing, but you know thinking about what is the meaning of life and in a who am I? Where am I got me thinking right? Where am I well aware, is where, beyond just being the Bronx sparingly
If you have any one you're in the broad range of exit central question, is there anything outside the Bronx? Not so I started reading about the universe in about galaxies and stars and so on, and that's how I became interested in astronomy debts. They first have ever heard by unanimous males, and none of this work, for you must male seem to get interested in astronomy. By doing things I grinding lenses and building telescopes, I was never a tinker. I was a seeker, that's high, describe myself. I was a secret and I got the answers to the question of the meaning of life. You know lay in the universe of this were a few thousand years ago. You could have been a profit think about it, because if you are young and you're having these kinds of questions, most adults, don't even think that way. So you would have been labelled as someone with a search for wisdom and then you'd acquired and shirt with others, and they probably would have like hung me, foreign to the verge of your own, emigrant girls and boys, I'm going to they burn girls from the Bronx everybody from regards gotta flora, and we got a story because you know where I think the bronze puts out a good product even make. I know you think about the prompt wonder: theirs is actually an existence, proof that you can grow up in the city.
Anne and form over the night sky, though never having seen it for real at night right and so the value of local planetarium, which in New York is the Hayden planetary. Absolute turns out this, like it's funny how how similar you stories are well minus the religion, part and the existential Export and Buddhism part and at other that, if their identity, if what you say what itself laddie. But I you just never know as as a kid what they're gonna become. You want to keep the ground fertile, rightly intellectual, quest for shit she's. eager right, so what TAT meant was she gonna, really land anywhere? She was always taking flight. She was always insert so to have gone through. These other philosophies meant there was a philosophy still waiting for her to find absolutely that's a beautiful
That is our main. Well, you know that's remit. She wasn't home watching tv right season, explore your auction. What watching the Beverly, hillbillies or whatever the hell out I was doing. If that's not explorers are rare among us three people who keep searching, you can be a spiritual intellectual explorer. You can be a physical explore. These are the people who leave, the cave and combat wiser with fruits from across the valley right right and where the rest of us like sitting by watching the barricade. Yes, I love explorers because I am the person waiting for them to come back with a further from the valid. It's us out of the question is the explorers or so highly revered. How come every and his white where's, that in the genetic make up of human beings, how can everyone is an export right? We know why life, because everyone whose not an explorer is back in the cat. That's true, they're back in the cave,
making baby it's. Why explorer it's out find in step? So so so there's an interesting sort of solar fact about that, but when exports from backed in everyone's make babies with explore recover replacement legs, but I'm just saying when we come back for my interview with Carol important. Madam sadder. Welcome back? You start talking near the grass tasting caused Chuck nice house. Yes, are tweeting Chuck most comic? Yes, sir, I follow you, I follow you do I laughed and most of the most Jack you got about a two eighty batting. That's bad so
the free. My interview with my friend and colleague, Carolyn Porco, whose power we want the world's experts on Saturn and was Saturn looks like and how sad and behave heavily NASA Imaging team for Cassini, still there still in orbit around Saturn Cool Rock in the boat gosh and everything somebody's chokes after the beyond say, saw came out. If you wanted you gotta, put a ring on grass. Is its comic there's a picture of Saturn, and butter and its is how Saturn got her ring, if you want me, I need more than you saying you left the house there was a ring was sad really how Saturn got a ring, so Jupiter put a ringlets what a ring you keep it up so Carolyn programmes,
fascinating background, she's a new Yorker and, let's find out about more but her academic trajectory. I went to the State University in New York and stony book to extol hometown girl, basically oil, India. So after that you went to Caltech for gradual idea and focused on what topics. Well, I went there because I was just told by the people who were my professors at the time it was actually the best place. I could possibly go. I didn't think I'd get in, but they encouraged me the best way to go for your interest. Yes, obviously, when I knew this much, I knew that I wanted to be a part of the American space program. I did not want to do stars and galaxies Rynason ships, two stars and galaxies museum- this planet- yes, that's right, maybe someday! I don't know, maybe they'll send you neo supper, but you I could assure that this budget to bring me back. Ok, so Caltech operates. The jet propulsion laboratory remind you. This was a nineteen. Seventy four, so the APOLLO program, of course, had came and went fellow had just ended in Germany, too ass a girl too, but we were sending spacecraft other planets, and I want to be part of that. So I was encouraged to apply to Caltech. I did I got in and I went site unseen. I find it remarkable. These days is due regard for parents to take
the kids to various colleges to see which ones radio around here to find out. I just said by guys I got on a plane and went to Caltech. I've never seen the place before and there I lived in California to do right by your dreams. Oh yeah yeah, I loved it, and so tell me in the seven I mean. Excuse me, I say I loved it. It was you know they said getting into. Caltech is incredibly hard. Getting into Caltech is easy compared to getting out. There was very hard to get out from you. I did it. I got my degree and got out that impunity a phd here right around. Then we are planning for the great Voyager planetary. Or were you open up an active enough to be a part of it? I wasn't part of it
planning. Now, because I wish to urge was launched in making seventy seven seventy seven I was in graduate school when I got launched. I remember the excitement about it, and then I took a leave of absence cause. I was lost and trying to find my way, and by the time I came back, it would show that existential meandering earlier resurfaced, whether you will kindly yeah I've been wrestling with this on my life. Had an older woman worked sensitive to your need, really would be more sensitive anyway, so there I am Caltech struggling along too intimidated so much because everyone there is so incredibly smart diamond, would have been there other. So here I remember when I was about to say for my old age rise winning physicist. I see Richard Feynman Walkin around talking to himself. That was a common seen Caltech. He was a brilliant. He probably no one else, can stop it. You don't fall for you know, we'd, be you know the cookies and t before seminal reason. You see people melon around having pleasantries and find it would be on a blackboard, probably writing string theory or something- and I was so intimidated- and this is a regret, a mine, so scared- I didn't, take a classroom, but anyway, so I took leave of absence at one point. I was caught loss. The project I was working on didn't go well. I went off to live in the mountains outside a bolder. I lived in a cab and I was charming would believe in and I was trying to live like an or go hippy kind of person. Ten years too late, you're seventies excellently in a little late, but there I was end. Then I went back to Caltech as I just hated the thought that I had quit and I went back and I got immediately involving Voyager and the rest was history at stake. I found myself you needed that hitching a ride on what I consider to be humankind's greatest scientific exploration. You need that little excursion to foreigners overdue yeah and land land you're playing a brought. My spacecraft, infra lamps, usually lander, spaceship suffered as a result of that. Actually, I encourage people in two ways. I saved probably good for people to take a break between neither college in graduate school, maybe even between a high school in college, just to go out and taste what the world is likely for you. You know how restrictive and everything constructive academia convert all about rules yeah only take a break gorner, but it's also not official environment economics has, even though I think it's special and I'm glad I was nurtured and raised in it. I think people need to see what the real world is like in. So that help me not. Everybody takes a stray path. Gags actually coming pursues a Phd Ashraf physicists and she was chop and wood and a cabin outside a bolder colorado and unlikely departure for especially for a new Yorker from the broad exactly a year.
So she was recital people who are using an axe in the Bronx are not shopping. What I'm just set in motion we talk about my car, I could I got people you, I know you do and they have access in. That's what scares me so so she she would. rather than Voyager and voyagers and extraordinary mission, because what we knew at the time was here's a mission that we're gonna send to more than one planet. But how do you do that? Because the planets different parts scattered around the galaxy, but we were able to. We might might planetary brethren at the time were able to calculate a trajectory for that spacecraft that could get gravity assists from one. to another and visit most of the planets in this
a system by doing so without using any extra fuel. So when you said gravity assess what I'd like, I M Ling side effect. What I mean is if you tried to go from planet planet at will. That takes fuel right, and this is just a it's. It's radio, transmitting antenna and some scientific experiment there's no, engine pack. On this thing it's got some adjustment fuel, but that's about it once this thing is set into emotion. It is a ballistic particle in the our system and what you want to do is aim it right, so that it could slingshot around one planet, come out in a direction in the next planet is right and then slingshot around goaded third planted in the fourth plants. I planetary, pinball planetary, Billiards, nice. It's like a four cushion pool shot. It was night, it was sweet, it was sweet. It was newtons laws of mode
gin and gravity, just rock in it, and so yes, so it's like a swinging, its slingshot effect, but by doing so, if you do it right in the right direction, you can gain energy for having done so, and so this is how you can make. sure this thing just doesn't slowdown and stop and fall back to earth right and so with we built it was called the grand planetary tour
the Grand Brianna glaring tore hours, because a beautiful thing sounds like a sixties, ban, grandfather, rail road and we open enough with the grand planetarium love it. I love. I love it when bans take our names or the fifth dimension, when Breach five dimensions yet, but they were, they are already was the sixties. Yes, you did have access to dimensionality, I gotta say I'd know what got them there too, and then the Heineken, the first Heineken Party commercial, where this guy walks enemies dancing in places everyone as he walks through the crowd break. The ban in the background is called the asteroid. Galaxy tore sweetie got out. I was loving it between the then asked for a galaxy. Didn't access nodded, took it to combine asteroid again.
seeing the same phrases a little, not right, but why did I began given proffered outcome? Sit there musicians come on, let's get a break their music, so it's great that four people just wondering what does it take to become a scientist? It's not How narrow and defined your trajectory is. It is how broad is your ambition light and how open is request for now. You too can take the grand planetary tour and she did it and sheet, but she will learn in I've come eclipse where we had. I played out. Ok, no we'll find out. You are right now listening to start talk, radio, we're on the web, STAR talk, radio dot net and we actually tweet at STAR Talk radio and were facebook. Sty talk ready. I think
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we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just SAM, We are back on start operating out of nice across the table from yes, sir we're Argo Sound studios in New York City. Yes, we are here, that's cool my smiles through the wind up it s. What we ve got my interview with Carolyn Porker she's, a fellow astrophysicist planetary scientist. We find what made her tick because she's delivering US images of Saturn as head of the Cassini Imaging team and in her life trajectory we find out some of the people who had an influence on her, which includes Carl Sagan soccer up. So I think that sometimes I think
you guys got across a I've Carl Sagan generally. Do everybody's got Carl Sagan story. You know he was very influential, influential guy, that's this kind of what it's all about. Let's find out what her Carl Sagan story is all about. I was immediately drawn to Carl Sagan: stick if you wealth measures a billions and billions billions and billions that we have to try to Carl saying that because call never said, he'd ever said they could say it anyway, but still I give you b plus ok anyway, I don't know where you picked up with what Carl Sagan was doing, but I got completely hooked when I was an undergraduate and my professor at Tobias Owen, who is a colleague of Carl's, invited Carl to come and give a seminar in the spring of nineteen. Seventy two to talk about the just fresh results from demand and nine mission to first orbital mission of Mars and in preparation for that. The assignment was to read the book intelligent life in the universe infected with you, which corporate and co authored yeah. That's a translation of the original russian book written by prohibiting shores, cloths he's very high to say it is a case where it shouldn't be. I don't, I would say we think Russia. What are they doing? Really? Yes, but you know the genesis of that book. Sagan was very audacious as a young man. He took a book that was already written and spliced Intuit he's on paragraphs in words and thoughts, and they went to a lot of money and says hey what do you think of this, but this audacious actual resignation, but the book I was pushed away like a chapter, we can read the book over the whole semester, something I stayed up all night and read the book as I felt entranced by it. I just was completely hoped so first books of its kind to be published, probably scientific at my inform- do assessment version, the universe, Airways, precisely scientifically informed assessment of a topic that people always thought was so fluffy in science fiction that serious scientists never paid attention to it. That was, I think, one of Carl's greatest contributions was getting people. You know to consider this topic in a serious fashion. Anyway, that's how I came to know of Karl tricky to embrace all mission statement. I came to embrace this mission statement, but I mean I don't feel like in the course of what I ve done and I've done a lot of Carl Sagan type things I don't ever feel like. I'm copying him I feel like. I was drawn to his message because of the spiritual quest. I told you a bizarre, I feel, like Carl, really tapped into he kind of offered people, the spirituality in science and the study of a strong you, don't you agree over two percent, the turn astronomy from science into a humanity's herdsmen Beth. It really yeah, of course, strongly that built in potential, because people look up and out into the universe anytime, someone
think of where their gods live. It's never under their feet. I did it. I ll knock down. They methodically, and I wonder has to do with one which will join. You know we look up at our parents. It might even be like a physiological tangle, yeah you're, someone out into the thesis on that. Looking up, you look up to something bigger than you and more important in you. Yes, you start out that way. You yeah their effect. Look up is even idiom right. I look up to
They are literally, if I'm toward a new and looking up to you, but we all know that means yap. I hold you in high regard right. We hold the universe and high resigned, because we have to look up to see a moment. If you had a look down to see the universe and might have been a whole different will differ. The important issue of physics went to bed the spiritual endeavour, but people nothing of digging interacts as being the spiritual other than Joe physicists themselves or shadow Giorgio physicist, the earth so the Spirit of the universe. So so we locked out, so we have a spurt up in the sky and without their no spirit on the rocks. I think we just concluded that no scarce in the rocks ass, a shame why you like raw, like rocks You never told me that I am a big fan of rock you rock collector. I you know I, for a little while I had a little tiny recollection broker a little while at its core.
the rocks in you in your blood and in my head, an eruption you're not irrelevant, because you're not exactly Norbert Carolyn speaks from the heart and I think you we feel that when she talks we did we sense it as she we feel her hers. She saw a child like enthusiasm, absolutely for which you talkin about very passionate. An enthusiast Kennedy asked Anne. You put your three parts that in four parts Carl Sagan who are two parts, one three parts, the other. You got a whole, you got it, you have a you, have the person who would be heir apparent to going to the most majestic planet and telling you want everyone about it. ace, spiritual, look at you, waxing poetic about Carroll and very clean Saturn is mostly gas, and if you it's densities less than that of water, so
it would actually float and few here with itself wait a minute we gotta go out when we come back. start, thought radio, minimum. Rebecca Start or Video Neil Address Thyssen coasting jackknife! Yes, sir love have nature. I love being here. We got my interview with the planetary scientists, a friend and colleague, Carolyn Pork, yes, fascinating woman did I leave you dangling? Yes, you did and I get that you. Basically, how do you do that?
you hit ran out of time. Are you hit me with their Saturn floats thing, for everybody knew that nobody knows. What do you mean by Saturn would flow. Ok, people say things are heavy or like a really mean that when they talk about it, usually there really referencing the density of a thing. Ok, so Yes, a watermelon is heavy, but it floats got rights. So Saturn is a density, is so low cost so much gas in it right that any piece of it you scooped out. If he scooped out an average piece, it would flow I'm water, nice, and when I was a kid, I wanted a rubber Saturn. Instead, a rubber, Ducky Saturn floated that's great play within my term, but no one made it serve any get right on that lets. You, kids kit, top people, one of those rights so Carolyn is. It is headed the imaging team Cassini, let's find out, let's find out what that is. I want to know who she is.
The pictures that we create was regarded the imaging too on the head of the imaging team and they are kickass fricking also, especially because we never see certain from these extra angles. The spaceship gets because the spaceship is orbiting the planet, and so you showing his pictures with Saturn eclipsing, the son, I'm gonna, be on the backside of Saturn. See that I now it spectacular, but I do want to say that I have made it my calling to make our pictures process them to be as beautiful as possible. I just went over the top with this, and no one had really gone through this kind of effort before they very, very beautiful and proud of that they, like my babies, but no you realize. Maybe you know the story. The idea of even putting her normal camera on space probe was a controversial decision when it was first on back in the nineteen. Sixty four, the poet doesn't really know the scientist, don't really care about photographs, they want a measure, something else through a measure, the magnetic field or the polarization they want, a measured things that are not just what the thing looks like so now you raise this too high arc right. Yes, I have, but a camera is just a telescope with a two dimensional array of detectors. The detectors gather scientific information, just the fact that we can composite it into a beautiful picture does not under mine the scientific utility of the information collected in the picture, so they are still scientifically useful. But it is true that in the very beginning of the space programme, the first spacecraft to go to a planet- I'm not talking about our Luna missions, but the first spacecraft to go to a plan and, I think, was launched in nineteen. Sixty two was the magnitude of Venus, and I am told it was Carl Sagan was arguing to put a camera on the instrument, payload vision that some combination across her going Bruce Murray. I guess I guess I'm hearing now. The Bismarck played a role in this. Two of them are ahead of the jury, proportionately Anna and, above all, a professor from Professor mine Geology, I'd Caltech YAP, and they, I guess for arguing for the camera and many other people the opposing side, one. There was no camera mona too, but on every mission, since they put the idea on the table to be reckoned with him later, missions right and the people who opposed it would just in the end shown to be ridiculous out there, but they thought images were for kids and it turned out that they have collected some of the most scientifically useful information images. Tat turns out to have been regularly. I did my thesis on basically on dynamics by measuring the positions of rings and so on in images, but while very haven't. Who would I mean it's so weird that people would think that imaging of another planet held respect where you get there right is not a good thing. Like you know, it's gone
Casey. Without a camp, let's go to parents. Did you bring your pictures? I would help needs, but how do you mean a lot pictures? I want the parents in oh I'll, just tell people, so there is a skeleton. Looking structure, that's a kind of needle like and its spewed call, you should see. That's ridiculous, so I mean every remission has had since then Sir said, Sir, we're good there's a similar sort of power points, That's very society, which is an organization founded by Carl Sagan. Others from now headed by bill. My by the way the pledge society wanted to put a microphone. on one of the missions to MAR so Mars has blowing wins. You be able to hear what's going on and Israel resistance to that idea, but these are extending our senses to another place right me y know. Why not? I mean that's great, like I said the people, the head up their boat, but she said: oh, they just weren't there I mean
where more polite about it. Yet then either I think you were right. Butt head of the Bible where we come back more of my interview with planetary scientist, Madame Saturn Carolyn, poor girl. Welcome back to start talk, radio, only autograph station, Chuck nice with me in studio here in New York City. Yes, Sir Jack love to have you here, always a pleasure, we're like towards the end of my interview with planetary scientist, Carolyn Porco. She visited me at the hay
by the time limit of a memory lane for her being a Bronx native in every her first night sky, the same as my first night sky, the nice guy Laden Planetarium and I made sure to chat with her for about an hour while she visited and she she can't say enough about the Voyager spacecraft after having visited all these planets on this gravitational multi p, Could trajectory yeah. It then left. The solar system. Let's find out with that
I did think it was a momentous juncture and its symbolic. Ok, you're right, it's only hardware but its symbolic, because I mean even the message. It carries all those pictures and symbols manner the riddles matter. Cereals really really matter, think of myth, Smith, zero built around symbols, and so this was so symbolic and I wrote a little piece for I think it was an efficient who was the BBC or something- and I said this event- voyagers passage out of the influence of the sun and into interstellar space was like humanity's arrival at eternities door out beautiful, that's beautiful. I kept thinking, it was sure manatee just walk in at the front door. Yet out into the symbol of figures creatively. Rounded openwork soldier was justifiably then a page one story with the mere terms, of course, and what really brings people along in understanding or at least appreciating what scientists do the work? The scientists do in teasing out the workings of nature, which is kind of like their fundamental job and Cotonou. This he intuitively knew this is, is to make them appreciate the symbolism in what scientists do and also the spiritual nourishment, and it provides while sorted major after and breaks the fact
learn something new about the universe. You are enlightened in ways
They go beyond just intellectual, you can be lightened emotionally yeah and I think Baron lies this whole duality of. Do you look at the immensity of the universe and the almost non existent scale of our little planet, and does it frightened you or do you feel empowered write to me and I'm guessing you too, with the fact that we can even know anything about the universe to me is enormously empowering. So I don't look at the university. Their pictures look at the galaxy the milky way and appreciate- which I think is one of the cruellest experiences around right. Looking at the milky way, listening audience know that she's gesturing, with her hands upward and outward sky medical listening audience know that I'm an italian American and I can't talk without my ass up to look at the milky way and appreciate that you looking edge onto a disk. That's enormous! That kind of thing right. I mean to me it's empowering to know that, but so many people seem to say, oh, but I feel so insignificant. Then I think sciences completely. Empowering so have you ever thought of starting a halt? You mean I'm not a cultivated happier. If you keep this up, I thought he's gonna come out of people who do feel lonely small. You give them the universe that there is a requirement for cocoa armed. You know that conference that both of us were at the Beyond belief conference, where I said you ought to be the first reverend of our church and science operators to thirty six on the care preserve, you're versu stuff. When is the silken studio soccer right and I said to the audience, I said that I thought you should be the first version of the church of science. We sort of movement, we could get you good. Salary should not occur at its role as a sector up. There are no no, no light Sabre lifesaver, ok, but anyway, where was I going with this? I have no. I did you know, you know those videos of us all of us here was a conference talking about what does it mean to believe in something and is a justified as at night there was much more than the science play. What role is religion play and believe in? Should they continue to where they are changed? There was a workshop about, maybe only a hundred people. Well, it was a workshop where we didn't actually do much. We never accomplish anything, but we talked a lot worse. These view to videos right you you have one I have won by some group took mine because of what I said in ITALY, and I said things like: we should start in church. It was kind of time sheep and they christened me Saint Carolyn Year is not a meeting on Saint now in some kind of group. I don't know what they are, but I'm Saint kept, but, of course, to miracles are not according to them. Oh relax, the modern requirements, dumbing down, health care work, so she's tone
Living this spiritual boundary between science and the sole science and emotion, re science and insight into our place in the cosmos, and so she surely a chip off Carl Sagan. right there, I kind of like the idea of a church of science. That's all I'm saying is. I am all about not paying taxes. What that's that's great, that's reason to be religious. That's true, but it's the best reason at age at nice your listening to start talk, and when we come back Leland, in return for a final settlement. To answer your cosmic queries about the universe. To see me.
studio arm of reach away is real. Nice will come up with a bill. You gotta help me with this garden for I'm ready to help cosmic query queer. Prepare you go right, cosmic query partner here I give it Neither of us have seen these question. That is correct and you pull them out of a grab ban. Yes, let's go for here we go. Let's start with James, Clever James from bank or made nice hails from Bangalore ME here's what he wants it up. I've been reading your book death by black hole. I got this Don't forget, thus worry, you're, spaghetti fiery eyes were not, and nothing like death by chocolate. You mention that scientists knew there were holes in the periodic table well before they were discovered, just wondering how they knew. Maybe a b
brief history on how they were originally organ. Oozed Lou brief history of this issue- and I am not a textbook time- oh yeah, but how did they were magic check? Every Mendel have predicted even the boiling points of certain elements when we realise that they could be arranged in periods. Yes, please I tabled element. You have all the essential elements, some of which were discovered by alchemists and others who cared about the sort of thing in the day, right eye, you find out these elements, all combine and make molecules with the same other families of elements. So what common is that they make the elements we have in common is that they make molecules with this other sets of atoms. That's kind of injury, right and then these bees and then there's other set of elements that make molecules with different
other set of elements, and they boil at these boiling point, so you can have this great quality exactly so you can start grouping them in ways that hey these, these are more alike than they are different. Ok and then they are more like each other than anything else is in, and you start doing this, then you lay them out, and then you find out when you get good at it. You ll find out how much they want how Right avenue line about by how much they way, and there is a gap between us sequence of what ways this much and then there's a gap in many ways? And then you pick it up later right after you satisfy this yourself that you have pure forms of these different things and the people, with great diligence earlier but the magician would say it's all done with mirrors in chemistry. We say it's all done with sin. Burners molecule ants lettering show on this radio broadcasts right that Bill Nuys Business Card has, on its back a periodic table elements. Very.
I put hydrogen off on its own So he has you may now, because if you talk to a normal person like men, I'm a chemist. He will tell you hydrogen donates. Protons goes like as it if you talk to a crazy person, astrophysicist hydrogens, like a metal bloke behaves with material in the deepen down near the centre of Jupiter. Hydrogen is under such high pressure is at its properties, change and Did you behaves as a metal, not as a gas Morgan investigate that in twenty sixteen with the Juno spacecraft pay in June, always not an acronym was jupiters wife. They just named for Grace what happened with those by the way it in with hydrogen. Acting as a metal? We can actually conduct electricity and when you have electrically can materials in the centre of your planet? You have a magnetic field yeah. You do look at TAT, oh tat. This is a task snap, James, you,
way more than you park and for MR with that question, just what happens when you bring bill nigh into the picture Let us move on I would, though he would go. This one is from press I came to us through our very own website, start talked a net increase would like tonight. Jack? I dare you got you like that. So Chris would like to know why Does the model of an atom seem so similar to the model of the solar system due to lead us and trans orbiting nucleus? What is it meals Bore was thinking about it. That's what he was thinking he was so where wages are clever news bore, is not a comment on my charming, whether charming physicists, Dana's, physicists, fell, differ from a hundred years ago bill it. Well I mean do you that was what he had in his head. But now, when you look at the orbits of electrons the rats, we don't, we were using
adjective or form orbital. They don't white resembled the orbit serve planets around the sun. Ok, but in the end, what diplomatic right that we have its orbiting son at any. Looking adamantly have electrons orbiting nuclear what's inside and they were imagining orbits all way down, but no but the big debate, site, where they are some more. Is that the? If you imagine a sphere enclosed by the earth orbit around the sun, its most we empty and so in view imagine a sphere of an electron orbiting, a nucleus, it's mostly empty start, shooting neutrons Johnson, a nuclear of atoms and most of them go few right on through get up there s a lot of most of them, Most of space is empty. Most of the universe, large and small is made of nothing. They made him nothing. I know the feeling
That's all right. Let's keep on moving on. I was very good. Thank you Chris. For that question I hears what Jean went to no Jean where these vary from? This is also from star talk that ok and Jean would like. The engine does not tell us where he hails from figure. Jean says, when look for a Goldilocks planet. Is there a cut off for its mass, if it's too massive we'd, be crushed by the gravity and end How many newtons can us humans or we humans in door? I'm ready to start doing extra pushups. If that is the bill, what's with the highest jeez they're afraid of pilot can take guy was really take seven. Seventeen months for a few moments and click apply sustained three. Maybe three these are the same essentially right- would it be like to be on a heavier planet, a planet where
or heavier I mean was gonna have a not well not while you are heavier on the same planet. That's different! That's just getting fat right! We're talking about yourself going to a plan to its having. If the same calculator G force to about three Gigi can sustain a boy that seems like a lot seated feels like a like one and a half dust. Our Sagen, real, quick and when I got when we started doing loop, says that we might buddy Navy pilot when we started doing that, you can keep your jar closed and the oxygen mass poles away from your face of origin. This aspect guys like us. We talk all over town or even I couldn't give me so you can have goldilocks planets, but if you want to think by humans living on an that's another thing, you know who doesn't care a rat's ass about gravity, bacteria bacteria, their lives thrive within the surface tension of the floods in which they are embedded in. The relationship- and
role of gravity in the life of a bacterium is negligible. Anyway, you have really deep in the ocean waters almost uncompress born live your life. There is some evidence view all the way down that you're proteins, flattened out and they can't hold their shape. That would be bad. Your well there's no living things all the way. We did something to think about written answer. Why ology we're coming up on four minutes? We gotta do lightning rapture. Yes, we do re testing about. There's a girl. Careless gets was monies. We can ok so made no name for this women here it is what is a plant ES implicitly and wise and important in finding a planet. That's habitable for humans. How much could we deviate from the earth as interest to so we are three percent closer to the sun in the inter than we are in the northern hemisphere, this number will be, and so we have some eccentricity in our own planet arrive. If the exits Christie gets severe, the old spend time
very close. Your ho and very far away right. The temperatures can reach streams and civilization was founded on the stability of climate. An extreme is once again we are discouraged from the one data we have. Who knows there could be some actions of extremely eccentric orbit out there and they think we're weird oh yeah, I think maybe they're happy with hide variations and things I could take you know doesn't give due to care about eccentricity what anything that lives deep down under earth right because they don't experience any that climate change. That's going on on on its traveller nice, so much that simple them out about it. Ok, Joshua cows and he says on the idea that there are more special dimensions? Then three? Why don't we Papa to invisible objects in the port commission? If you can pick up a flat lander? Why can't we hit be hit by it? For example, afore the asteroid from an access We didn't see coming two things. We do have a fourth dimension. It's time. The second thing is: maybe
That's not how works. Ok, Can we afford the rational asteroid? Isn't a real thing, but we actually really have no ok, but asteroid deflection is a four dimensional problem. Take a deal, so that's an engineer telling you what the practicality of its members let me get dimension on your right, so so here's the thing. You're in a higher dimension. Ok, you never actually have to intercept the lower dimension. That's the point boom that that's it as their existing on different planets. It's you never even have to go. There's exact so and if you do it could look mysterious, like particles popping in and out of existence, which is just what we see in quantum physics The matter is that the weirdest stuff in physics, is our our dimensions manifesting themselves through our measly three three spatial them since, in one time, damage weather. go Joshua they'll just got to me ass we go. This is from TIM Press and answered, So now, if the concept of the multi verse alot of people who are interested in this stuff will be possible,
for us to see or physically interact. Why don't? We ever physically interact and to do so he said we love that there's three day. Why don't we ever interact into it doesn't make. Any sense is not evidence that there are multi versus, or is that means that their so extraordinary, indifferent and far away that we never to attack them going to do to the model. This isn't a higher dimension can have expanding on our audience. You can see the waving hands its hands so so, when you're in higher dimensions right, you can expand and higher dimensions without ever carrying with the lower and lower dominance- and this is my point, so they have what's wrong with Anton ads Did you hear Josh was, as you could add, two sheets of paper and have them except to infinity and never intersect one another exactly we infinitely large and not intersect everything else. It's out their day,
that's all I'm saying one thing that we pay very very quickly, assuming two black holes came into close to each other when they managed to create one black hole. Indeed, you two black holes, you get a black hole twice that size if they're the same mass and at that with a view, rising twice as large and it'll send a ripple through fabric of space time that possibly might get measured by our laser interfere metric gravitational waves observatory in Louisiana Legal. U S of la like you handle! I go. It's caught a black hole merits baby thanks for listening to start talk, radio. I hope you enjoy this episode. Many thanks to our comedian, guest experts. I've been your hopes. the other grass Thyssen until next time. I beg you to keep.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.