In Part 1 of this classic podcast, now extended with 10 minutes of new Cosmic Queries, Neil Tyson sits down with Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman to discuss experiments, physics, and urban legends.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now to start radio near the graph Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist. Actually, you might have personal astrophysicist, I pretend I'm your personal astrophysicist, also serve as director of near cities Hayden
term at the Museum of Natural history right here in New York City and that those chuckles on the other side was none other than check nice right, we'll come back as co host. Thank you. Tat shows on the myth, busters we all know and love the myth posed, doesn't love the midday postchaise through town, and I had him in my office and we chatted about like the genesis of their show and with what were they thinking these have an office gonna blow it up. Did they blow up your office because they blow up every year they touch stuff and break it. It's been a stable and the discovery channel for a ten year very sick, Well, you know how many shows last ten years very few, very few very low None of the shows up cyberattacks except my pay, so, as you may know, they use the scientific method basically to test or or valid eight or or or to debunk right myths rumors,
urban relating to certain scenes and movies that you say. Could that have happened? You note internet videos that go viral news stories have. This is what they do. So brilliant show a brilliant, so, let's find out just how they how it all began to check it out What will you guys thinking when you started to show the actually? We were hired tell it at the beginning. We had nothing to do with the pitch for myth. Busters, I wanted him anything to do so. You re faces is what you're saying what had happened and well. It was just a job. You know we don't pay the rent
somebody contacted Jamie said. Do you want to do this so called milk busters and, unlike like that's ever gonna, happen register as a matter of principle. I went ahead and try to because you gotta try thing, sir you're trying to mean screen tester, you trot actually, yes, so he called me up and said: listen. I got this coffin discovery, but this thing I don't think I could do it on my own, but you're a ham, so you want to shoot a demo real together. I had to think of whose him that I know, but also somebody that's good at doing what we do, because it wasn't just about talking. It was about replicating urban legends and the fact that we were guys it build. Things was part of this premise that we would actually replicate these things. We become a participant in the test now just an observer of something else in terms of you know being freelancers, where we're always try to look at what the next avenue, as I had actually just bought a laptop first powerbook that you could add digital video on and it was teaching my way back in the day way back the piecemeal, and I was teaching myself digital video editing, and so, when Janni com, I had all equipped
necessarily shot, but ended up being a fourteen minute, demo real and they end up kind of building the backbone of the show off. That demonstrates that, to shape the profile of the show, based on how you expressed your talents, knowing told us that we have done that for several years of work and any also have to understand a little bit of background. Adamantine were not exactly friends, but in fact we don't get along very well at all. In twenty one years we ve never had dinner alone to go, but we have
interests, and I would call out em up and come down check this out, bum tinkering in the shop and where we get professionally interested in what each other was Dylan, yeah and one of those cases. Prior to that, for example, was I had gotten these cordless drills? At that time there were new. There were really from NASA technology might add at twenty four votes, heavy duty, cordless high torque yeah, and so I did what anyone wooden way way way. He calls me absentee knows what are you doing haven't heard from and unlike for months and a set of having backers of my kids, Nicaragua down at the shop, and I just build something at I'm about to strap it on you wanna come check it out. I strap them on to some rollerblades, with a little bell gear of kind of a reduction going right into one of the wheels and had triggers in. I was riding around in the shop with powered skates. You had been the kid it well. I got this shop where I can build anything, so I call atom of any comes down and, unlike Jerkin, all trying to not get killed on these things. It's like an early tony stark reality trying to give
bugs out of the iron man I've licence that that sequence in Ireland is actually semi inspired by us. So I was in the habit of doing these. Things are periodically, but I call out em up when we got this call from production company and he comes down and we film this thing where she lived something on fire and ran away from it, and it turned out to be what the show was you being kids who haven't Roma. You have sent stuff on fire. You wouldn't rockets on your skateboards error somewhere in those like the second seasonably realise, while actually the structure of this show works best. When we are having the most fun. We don't see any reason to make that line between kids in adults and play just because you look at he had playing in you figure there. Just doin it causes are having fun but their understanding their world through these little adventures at their having these little experiments. It's often very nonlinear that in their building a foundation of understanding of the world and there's not really that
much difference as far as adults. A lot of scientists go in this linear direction and there are times it that's the way to do things in that's very productive, but a lot of the most important discoveries that have been made have been off to decide on some tangent. We say this at the end of our term. Show that someone once said that that phrase the typifies where this cover is not Eureka that that's funny yet, and I was ass, a chasm of who said that's when you should really pay attention to one side who says that cod, crazy. Do it's never Adam Savage and Jamie Hineman to miss but missed busters. You know what I found really strange is that these guys,
living in a real world. Acme labs you're, like a lively coyote, make an rocket display its glowing stuff. I don't know they were used in animal forever. So you know they are. Their background is in special effects, preparing special effects for movies. You don't. I just learn recently, there's a difference between special effects and visual effects. Ok, I think I know the difference would you be in this, but special effects or mechanical models that you film and away? They look real and visual effects. You do at all on the complaint: a computer, yes, so they're all school. They make something you're going to go in the lab and make that happen, and what what beats me if they know, and they understand that if you play your doing science, if you play without rules, I just break something: try something and kids. Do this all the time ass. If you haven't you, my laboratory succeeded
it feels like sends you allow them to do experiments in your her believe it or not. Yes, ideal night and matter of fact, my son and I told my son- is a boat ass, good agar aids. The last experiment we did was: we grew crystals and he but a crystal meth start early Jack breaking Nickelodeon break crystals are growing. What kind of crystal did you grow? I'm gonna be honest. I don't know what I hope you up later authorities by the current grow sugar crystal. For going to Slovenia created detour, Beecher experiment that would have an eye, but now it comes in a little packets, but the idea was to get him to keep a log and to chart the progress, and I think one of the great take away a myth. Bastards
its trains you to think more deeply about things that happened in front of the right and take good data. When we come back more of starkly interview with the mythical Please. Welcome back. You start Hog radio station proposed today nice try tweeting at Chuck mice common. Thank you, sir. Yes, I am! U guy follow you by the way followed by many people. I want you to know, I feel honoured you aren't lives were today we're talking about the myth, busters they break the practically legendary. At this point, without a doubt, the two of them together at the visited New York, I they got him in my office and we just talk for like an hour, topped up, let job. So, let's wait, let's find out what their background is and how they got into this and what it's all about special effects which triggered their interests
this entire career that they ve had for themselves. Adam. How many times have you worked on? I guess dozen you most known film among that? Doesn't hours episodes one in to a regional while two down into no? That was ten. When those came, you were ten we're gonna attack of the clubs and the phantom menace ok space cowboys. I help build the space shuttle for that movie. Perishing tribute forty four space cobbler yeah. What as to your shovel mission, did they fly on. I dont know two hundred, that's really late. That was very way and very wishful thinking has wanted to go in with only one hundred and thirty four. I think when considering their dead, the gravity shuttle missed was one fifty eight, oh yeah, that's right in its own right, I mean all taken shows beyond you re out. That's how you know how unreal they could be. Nasa supplied us with all these binders of idle mission, payload Bay Set ups and the payload, they was my personal job and so every piece of
women in the space Cowboys Shuttle Bay is from a real shuttle mission is just from, like thirty all at once, asked not look at that and they laugh Yorkers beery synchrony over ledgers, unaware- and here is a secret about film space stuff, which is that we looked all over India tons of camera, testifying proper gold foiled that exposed and looked right to the godfather. You NASA missions, it turns out, it's a roller wrapper, no yup, so Ireland, when we did it later on and minister, like MAGIC Gatt and later on, when we did Amu landing Hoax episode on Miss Busters, we bought cases of rulers and took off papers and use those for our gold foiled in Geneva to someone run eight hundred commercials on a couple dozen feature film commercials yet, and future films. Arachnid phobia.
Lunch. So is this is the area of mechanical miles? We autonomous e g- I yes, yes, you guys and honour. It doesn't exist right that you, the last wave of who could do that at Yale and even through. The course of our experience with them. They started out with stuff like erected phobia, were cable driven those spider in Iraq phobia had an organ, grinder kind of a device to add a stack of cams and lovers. Each one pulled on specific cable that went into spider and James Design that ring Yoni each of those spy, This would have maybe thirty wolden acts. Movement in its legs and so on. If anything, when you design special effects like that, the move
then, has they portfolio artifacts yet left over from nowadays, there's nothing, it's funny when you tore through industrial eight magic now, that's all they have is all those practical models, but their growing more and more distant NEA. Wouldn't you name it any kind of soft rancor bar or be old any and all the little penny commercials for now on reuniting anyone. He hurried away, yeah they might be as simple as or shots Minos your pouring beer or asserted. There's a classic Jamie worked on new member, the York, Peppermint Patty Commercial, where the parent petticoats get the sensation, and you see at Break Jamie built. That he's got an honest yeah, that's about eight inches in diameter and other Hershey's kiss, adds whether dancing around, and that was a kind of thing it would do all the way up to the more advanced puppets and towards the end of that run. The puppets had gone from cable, controlled things to very sophisticated, robotic kinds of things. One of my favorites that I think are
it was done, while myth busters was happening, was they are ya, seven up the marginal where I had to take a seven up machine and put tank treads on it and it had to fire soon. Turns out the slot where you normally pick him up so tat, he was seven items bringing this oddity. You yeah, so this machine had electric car motors in it and these big tank treads and it was already a controlled and it would hold area a magazine of about a dozen was like a twelve pack of seven up cans. That would load in any press a button and they would MT. That's lot about. I got. Can I carried whether they would come out about four hundred miles an hour, so you just tested against us. Out of the building their working in and it sounded like. We were under mortified Then we realized we were because not only the velocity of the can sort out there is the fact that Canada, under pressure
When are you explode? Can under pressure on impact? The beautiful thing was: what was left of the can, after it had the wall was like a piece of tinfoil. It was perfectly flat, knew nothing was the little boys. There are two eyes: yes, that's how many, but I just love. So the kid come out here. While our wasn't fast- and I like to read more power about four hundred miles an hour. My god does not affect the return days, seven up machine into Tiananmen. Where so so its entry, Thank you never know what your background will bring into a future interflora how you MIKE relies on that later, because here's all their background that nobody's using exactly yet there still sort of rolled it into their current creativity, how to devise the experiments that they test. I how they so that the two to happen
worry to really is any. No one. What a cool things there is you get to see how many applications real life applications? Science has? Yes, it's light. Who would think that you know here? You are studying these laws and properties in school in school, and then you have a job where they all actually come into play into real life on an everyday basis. Actually where's tweeting during the Superbowl. My opening tweet was football, the greatest expression of the laws of physics in the universe, spin, stabilize projectile momentum, transfer, high energy, yes, office, physics is everywhere. We ve got another clipper these guys in this segment. Here when we talked about some unexpected limits, they came up against when they first started out as myth, busters alligators sewers. Is that a myth must horrible thing well
was on our list at the very beginning, as obvious as it is. One thing was New York wanted, no part of us investigating that fear cushion actually. Well then, we started to really look like it. Well, how would we do it so? The way we want to test that is going to New York sewers and as such, all the same conditions that we find down there and see if you can raise an alligator in those candidates with we analyzed animal royalty I mean you're very potentially killing alligator to do that. We could be nourishing it with some kind of sewage arrest that continent Super outright paper like this is part of the left and right now mutant, ninja animal cruelty. That's the thing where you know so we're never gonna put a poor little microwave. That's funny as it is to write me to the next,
on our seas in what we are doing promos- and we said we gotta, tease this. So we got a puddle and we put it on top of a microwave Jane. He goes don't you want to treat in their programmes that three that all such a crap Europe people are funny. That stuff, I remember, and before this and affects doing commercials some it's a commercial where they had garlic, puppet that gets chopped and burned, and act, and we got hail from the public and railways looking here, whose violence in effigy we'll kill us puppet and its garlic. It's odd that do your chopping up, a girl, a puppet and getting mail about it, Yet nations go to war every day, an actual human beings get right up and shot like but you're getting now on a garlic puppet. This
Oh, my god, so we're area. We are areas because that is what is salient point. People are dying every day at the hands of other people, but your concern about a puppet made of guard. Maybe you don't owe me like. I could see it now. Sarah Maclaughlan comes out. I am Sarah Maclaughlan. Do you know a puppet? That's accruing appears in the Van angel Jimmy. Since goes, please stop this carnage against the public's ridiculous. You know people got their issues if that's what it is absolutely soap. So the point is: if the myth busters, they collect all he's urban legends and see if they can work. What I find interesting is this. Hard enough to know that sometimes you can't do the expiring in situ, rightly idea, even though they didn't follow through on it, that they might create a sewer environment and a controlled lab, and then you can actually follow through
on how and when and where that would happen, everybody wants an alligator in the sewer, I'm certain eight. You know what I that's one of my favorite urban legends there is is every time I'm waiting for the subway, I'm just somewhat hopeful Then a client albino alligator will show up instead of the entering an albino. Do you know that the the you know why we fear reptiles lights been interesting? They hypothesize because back before but the dinosaurs went extinct. Our mammal ancestors were running underfoot, trying to avoid becoming there their lunch your orders, and so they were reptiles light and so deep within our dna we fear, reptiles and all the old the movie aliens riding around us. This time. I thought it was because they were a key where we can more starts radios interview with the myth. Buses have secret for you,
I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one. And where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just SAM
Banks are talk, radio, your astrophysicist here the occasion jerk nice with me. Yes, here we talk about the riff buster talk about some of the universe before we get back into a you were talking about- and I was thinking about this- how reptiles and I was thinking while that is best because everyone has of this fear of reptiles. Yet we think it takes all the way back to when we're running away from T Rex. Basically, sixty five million years ago, our mammal ancestors, deep within our dna code, is a fear of reptiles, night and an and look at all the bee movies, that and even in starch or even started famous, or that was after all, if there ever was absolutely right. I just want to think about that. That is, and you know, checks a lot of this is slopes dot com. If you ever gone there yet just go and hang out, you know tell other people about it. They report on whether anything
legends are true or not right and the poodle in the oven. That's the classic IST case, urban Legend, and these are no, of course it's not true, but it tells us that people fear technology that they don't understand that make sense. So I got another clip with the myths busters, and we talk about how special effects that they worked on Crete, the illusion of reality, but the myth busters do the said I find out the thing about special effects, is that you're allowed to make something. Look like it is doing that without actually doing that women have such as we have to do the same. It's gotta be ever got everything to real real at yeah you know and television. Sometimes you have to shoot things out of order and occasionally with the location or some sort of scheduling problem will have to shoot a sequence. That's gonna happen before a sequence that were shooting subsequently and in those cases
will only do that if we really sure about what the result of an experiments gonna be an every time. We do that What's an experiment doesn't turned out the way we expect, and so we have learnt, never put our eggs in one basket. Let us entered ever count on it. I'm a shower length checker. I know if you do something before that should have been after right, because your shadows don't lie and usually not thinking of her shadow. It's true. I saw doc everyone's, it showed scenes in Africa. There is a thunderstorm in the background, and I noticed that the thunder and the lightning were happening simultaneous. I said: what, may you decide to do that? I wasn't criticising. I wonder what point say I'm gonna take this right and then it looked like you
little embarrassed degradation you got me on that they show the actual footage and most recent you know where I had actually put your attention on the wrong again. It was distracting. We had this with one of our first giant explosions. We blow up a symmetric with eight hundred pounds of cement truck yeah. Why the myth is that you can clean out a dirty symmetric with a stick of dynamite, and it actually turns out that that's true, you actually and more easily remove cement from the inside of a symmetric with dynamite yeah, it's like a crusty thing that is on the inside and its brutal and falls off from showed basically cracks and then comes in its like a softening of red. Exactly so, we decided to take us to the end, the green. We fill the symmetric full of dried cement and then we blew it up with em foe and we were a mile and a half across a body of water from the explosion and the explosion took eight seconds to actually reach us. We can watch the pressure wave coming across the water towards us and hit us in the chest and the camera man
who had been instructed the shows about Ottoman Jamie? We have other cameras covering the explosion focused on them. He did not turn around and get us so the shot that you see in the show of us jumping totally but you knew it did happen gather. Yet we were there. We jump, whereas the caravan didn't get us. So we, so long ass- you can't get bored another Bosnia person do over by the way people forget who knows that at rocket launchers, because the nearest location it Cape Canaveral is about three miles away, but this is Florida, so there's a lot more. She went areas, so We see the shuttle launch, he'll, hear anything and the sound moves. You see, bird start to rise up. The marsh and then you see it ripple alongside then you here, but people are just
like that. You have to know to look around and to catch the resident lovely thing that delay. This is why a thousand people got injured and Chelyabinsk. Russia. That's why? Because the asteroid that blew up over, that town was bright, within the sun. In early morning, during their breakfast, he was an air blast and so light is beaming. Through there, I'll have to limp Steven Spielberg alien style. He read so they say whom. What is that I didn't even know note I am well, then the shockwave hits the glass in the entire city shatters people's faces. It's a good, no effort. The sun comes out at night job, look out the waiting to find out whether what we offer the door at the door is perfectly see now if they have been
captain nobody would have gone to the window, because when you see a bright light, suddenly your window in Compton, you know the police court? After that? We only about yesterday again is PETE they like blowin stuff up and who would have thought this about cement trucks. My goodness used to make it a tap on the outside to crack it or something out there and then do still have a truck when it's done and therefore of what uses this activity to clean out of a truck haven't truck, don't even under and when we come back with my interview with the myth, busters you just more about specific test that they ve done with the most expensive one, for example, gonna find out by Canada the cement truck isn't there. I can't even right we'll be right. There.
Rebecca start? Talk, radio, Shack nice with me. Yes, this myth butter too crazy. I love these lift buster to Adam Savage and Jamie Hymen. Adam in my office has already, but I had to coordinate all the stuff in my office because no telling what baby grab instead breaking blowing things up and running dynamite in your desk there at all at all times, for testing and idea? There's no one here their this isn't do not just want in right, crazy people right, there's someone, thinks this is true. Let's test it, the art of the tests and what in my office ask them? What's the most expensive episode of myth, busters that they ever conducted?
cool. Let's find out. The third timely revisited the rocket car in a regional Darwin award. Myth were a guy strapped, a military genesis and take off rocket to his impala and supposedly flew a mile through the air and that it into a mountain, and they pulled his teeth, that of the wreckage to identify, and that was actually very first as we want to reduce as well first ten years, it's something I want to do. Then we did it a second time where we got these really powerful rockets that blew up on the stand. So you spent twenty grand on these rockets everything we did work perfectly. The rockets blue, took us another five years against discovery to fork over enough, don't do it for real, and this time we did to launch as last summer in the Mojave Desert, one with a car hitting a bump in the road and the other, with a real straight up ramp, but why's that interesting Chirrup Rockets. On my car, I fly well there's two things to this. The first is the current version of a jet pack, essentially, except that rockets are shaped like cars, for a very good reason.
And so the first thing we did it. We put the normal GINO amount of power on the card and only accelerated the cargo hundred fifty miles an hour in traditionally admit bustle and get to a place like that. We want to find out what would it take to replicate the behaviour that is stated in the myth that get the cartoon celery two three fifty miles an hour and fly, perhaps roughly a mile through the most of you go backwards in time there many shifting Marty. So then we could be focused capacity, but the man said to get the car up to that speed and we attempted to balance correctly using you know model rocketry formulas to get the rocks in the right place. The question as is, if you have the car balance and the Rockets in the right place, and they have enough power, will they actually make the car fly, straighten true and
Was the answer we hadn't fully come too? As the second part, I was half of the design concern in power. Have you ever straight rocket? How do you point it? How do I m at Rio? Well, we of course could have gone to a place where we start to add fins and do other things to the scarf. We get people that same. Why don't you just put fins on the younger aiming and we say that's a car shaped rocket. We won a rocket car gotcha yeah virus, there's an ethical difference. You form it was said that you be able to fly three or four miles an hour. Yes, but dividing the amount of rocket power. So did it never really got to choose? to be. They were so unstable that day the ushers and no they had survey know who they are, and I ask him what to say. I guess on an infinitely straight track, maybe, but with us going off above in the road, it's too one state.
While they bounce value. By doing what I was talking about, which is they interact with the ground running at you guys have a whole euphemistic vocabulary. The other vapor term is catastrophic failure badly. My favorite engineering. We use that all the time on the show or in rocket propulsion wore their rocket launchers. It succeed and others that are rich in learning opportunities, so that one cost them. You know when all is said and done like tens of thousands of dollars just for the Rockets in cars, so they made a brief mention of the Darwin words at the beginning it was. It was rumoured that the person who did that originally, who died. Of course, right was was eligible and possibly one the dark eternity didn't when the Darwin worked, whether not even happened right. You know about the darn, yes for the dumbest ideas ever know.
That's not the Darwin. No, but yes, that's an element of the darn. Ok, it's the it has to be an idea that you execute. That is so dumb that you end up dead from it. I didn't know that that was a progress within that takes your genes out of the gene pool all day. You go here a firefly and those who are making separately. But may I make a sure that you, breed right, actually or or the active you performing this stupid thing? If it doesn't kill you, ITALY sterilize as you, which is far from a darwinian perspective, this disease as you are no longer going to add its so forget it you got exactly, and so you don't actually want to win a darn award. Now I've got a great trick, but I can only do it once the first person to form, a black hole when a Darwin award. So so, once again I mean I'd want to misrepresent the portfolio of their activities. Yes, did people love blow and stuff up?
a lot of. It is not blowing up that simple things and thought the people had and they wanted to test. It happened out now. Here's the thing and I'm not on that disparaging these guys at are. However, if what ailed your, however we're gonna go to break Chuck has, however, what we're gonna go to break will come back and we'll find out. Why you're not disparaging and authority. We're back I'd, start radio, the overdraft hasten here, your personal astrophysicist, with czech nice personal stand of coming. I beg you, guess that everyone should have a personal to change. How things look right now we're out of bed. I know you so what
reviewing the myth, Busters Adam Savage and Jamie Hymen professionally. There there like a special effects, prompt builders. You know in the old days and they just converted all that town to building experiments to test poppy. A law and before we broke, you had some comment about the Darwin awards. What was yours is my point. Ok, if you, starting with something called the d, I went to war, which presupposes that you are the biggest dumb, but on the face of the earth. Why are you have to replicate? Like you don't owe me it's like seriously you starting off with people whose S? Words? Are you know how you what's the matter? You don't start with the last word on this last week. Why do you have to replicate to see whether or not its viable. That's Molly point. I'm told other remember this summit.
In one of Kurt Vonnegut novels they he hypothesize. What are the last words ever spoken by any one in the human species? Ok, it's it's. What scientists say to the other: I wonder what happens if we do it this way and that's how civilization created to an end to it so in our next and final clip talk about unexpected outcomes. Their experiments. Could you think it so? Google one one right, you don't know you do the experiment and find out with checking every idea you have. You have some expected outcome. Yes, what happens if nothing else
not because you didn't design experiment right, but because the outcome was not anything you expect it happens all the time actually in its targeted, refreshing where's is arguably our favorite part of this whole ginea. That's one of the biggest surprises that we had when we got into doing this starting out as not scientists by training we overtime
I'm doing the shell realise that when you fail, you can't help but learn something if you pay attention, if we go through an experiment in everything turns out the way we expected in the way that we wanted it to us, not even interesting, and we just went through the motions inner. You would think. Ok, well, you pat yourself on the back for doing a good job, but not in a new place. You're, not a new place in union grow from that and for us, that's where the real value is in its counter intuitive that when we go into something- and we totally screw up things in turn out the way that we wanted to or expected them to were overjoyed because we get right into it and ask questions. Why and as long as we feel like our methodology is sound. What we ve got his good data and good data that doesn't match what we expect.
It is really good days. I'm not interested me! I really is one of the things that we ve been able to do over the past ten years and separatist goes build a set of relationships with different types of locations that give us different latitudes of what we can do their set stuff on fire bluster far drive cars around and because of those relationships we are able. When we come to a result, we didn't expect to call back to the say. Tomorrow's location is off. I need to buy me a totally different location to do this totally different set of experiments and thus the narratives you end up? Seeing added on the show are genuinely driven by the narrative itself. We don't write down. What's gonna happen, if we do right down an outline of what we expect to happen, we almost never vote does happen. Shapes work does have an example of good soon absolutely, and we really feel like that has a freshness to it that the audience can smell, and this is what I find so profound about what we ve done here with the show. Is it we're not looking at this like? Let's do it
I ain't were looking at this just totally naturally like we want to do a good job at this, and we realising that when we fail, we learn things and so we're. Ok with that we'd like that, it's not something this artificial! It's really lies not in our culture, the value of a failure. Now you get blamed for failing a totally new right and that's gonna change. Reading commander Chris Hadfield spoke about the NASA being, you know in movies, something goes beep and an astronaut in the movie Gus. What's that, and that would never happen at NASA because they ve gone over every beat that could ever happen. They ve gone over every worst case scenario. They could do and that's what makes them so good at what they do when they actually get out and into space, and that kind of culture is a brilliant way to do problem solving chuck. I think that in the American on about the rest of the world, but in America you're so quick to blame you for failure, yes I think, if our Bremer wired, that we view the world as a laboratory than failure would be viewed, failure would be viewed
completely differently. Yeah would be tell me what you learned right. What happened there right yet with add that to the data rather than you idiot, you bet you're right, you screwed up, you did that's right, you're right where fired people are not interpreting failure as learning experiences, and I think that's a problem. Yes, we gonna change. Failure is a learning experience than my life is brilliant. My love It is an exercise in GMO. Yes, now here's the thing up the differences, you don't want to fail in the same way, a second time there's the problem. Seller therein lies the raw there. If you don't want to make mistakes in twice, you wanna make new mistakes that you are right, and so this was wanted heads of NASA a few years ago? Try to make the point. If you you're gone, where no one has gone before suffers, what happened? Several break people will die right. You don't want to die for reasons that you could have foreseen cats, a difference. They
you wanna be the guy who beams down to the planet him? You know you're, not coming back as you're an answer It's never been an episode before just never wear red sure they learn funding jack. We gotta take a break When we come back, we can reach into the grab bag of cosmic curiosity. Yes, we got a lot of people out there who just have questions, and they just want to answer absolute with some figure in let's that's save less eglon, for that will be back in a moment later. This is the Keyword airport,
Is this being this time or is it well now? These are just a general questions. General enquiries from our listener, general grub, so to grab back its grab that ok. I have not seen these questions before that's what makes this exciting is the fact that you do not know what you are going to be asked: we're not trying to stump you, but if you do ourselves, don't go next Westley and that's how you know that you're, actually smart, only smart people do not like hey man. I don't know. I don't know right is the dummies that are just like, where you see no reason why that I'd say you're radically. I got ok. Here's our first question, MRS from travel, Thomas, I wonder what color here I'm sorry, I'm sorry that was wrong. I know that was rough. This from Tribune Thomas, if the multi burst theory is true, is it possible to travel to other universes? How would it be part
before us to exist in those universes. If they have different laws of physics own, that is cool evidence suggests not Evans Codes, theoretical analysis of Quantum x and general relativity, Sir ass that there may in fact be a multi verse. We have no data on this right now, so these are ideas at the front, the exploration of physics, and if there is a multi, Paris. It means we are just one of many other universe is all with different bubbles, there's an evil. Nice, somewhere or not another universe? I would say that check. Nice had a moustache and beer, but you got one, and this is my does not so that's the good Chuck nice, you all the evil with vigour,
when did not think that actually now makes it so much because we all think we're good it automatically make. So, let's Hitler saying I'm good, I'm a good man! That's funny! You just gave me a picture of like really mice Hitler in another multi. Where is another multiverse, I'm in the bad people? Don't like him, cause he's nice exactly exactly so so each of these universes would have a likely that they have a slightly different laws of physics. Ok, perhaps a different charge on the electron, a different gravitational constant, the gravitational doesn't it it is a its return. In the equations of gravity. The Isaac Newton first wrote down a cat, tells you it's a measure of how strong gravity is relative, their forces in the universe. If those are slightly different and you gotta take. To that universal. I'm sorry, sorry for yeah right,
things are going to work out very well for you. They will not end where they will not learn of her. So you really do need a universe with the same laws of physics, because the very forces at Bonn the molecules in atoms in your body, which rely on the values of the laws of physics that are in our universe. Right. So yeah, you, u dont, send someone else internet universe to check it out. First right like what you know. What's his face that the little robot I forget now forget it, what was the little robot, which robotic Another Steven, Spielberg, robot and the world had been district why women ascend while ease and while it- and while I regret it, is somewhat of a crash tests, dummies that are worth the cool with down with this kind of they die every day every day. Thanks for that question hour, I travel way to go this one is from our love it James Brown NASA.
Is that what we do that again, that's about it as Eddie Murphy, say: that's a whole James Brown Lear and write them. So this wrong doings brown to quote Doktor Thyssen, he's calling you heavy elements are forged in the Cubicles of dying star crucible of crucibles of dying stars, but did you misread that an ivy miss right? I miss red, that's what we have you for college did. I am, but I'm only here because I'm charming in other words, to get protons to stick together. They need high heat and pressures. So why wasn't there enough pressure to create anything heavier than hydrogen and helium inward ever started the big? Yeah, this guy has done some think alike. Ok, so good, a good one. At the beginning of the universe. He knows that the condition
we're just right to not only forge matter out of energy. This is where you get Europe protons that are the nuclei of hydrogen hydras. The simplest testimonies the corner. The priorities at our table begins there that right right there, one proton step. The first step and helium has two protons and with him as three protons and men It goes on and on and on carbon has six protons everybody's got it unique number protons and that's the identity of elements, so here we start with hydrogen. We take protons slant, together. We make helium ok, so why do we keep making elements in the early universe, we do a little bit of lithium is made trace amounts and that's because the universe that time was a little depressed, and neither is there really is a little bit make somebody some left the summer day right watch what happens? Why the universe under high temperatures could have
in making heavier elements. It is also expand. A right is becoming less dense and add your density drops the likelihood of particles colliding rolls down exactly. What's the difference between living in New York, city and living in roar. Kansas, your chances of having accident go way down when you're in Ok, we're up their chances of, walking into someone Password Ireland, bright colors let us in acts of collision of any kind right principle braggin, so so, yes and so while the universe is expanding matter is now becoming less stance, is also cooling and so to speak. Each of these particles drop got, and so in fact you can look at how much hydrogen and and helium is in the universe. In parts of the Euro, instead of not been altered, severely and go back and did do
what those conditions must have been at this Dane time. You can go back and derive these from first principles and those tuneup. Those two calculations match up that That's why we have very high confidence in what was going on in the early universe, nice and where is it a star? You make your heart hydrogen. You have a helium and you just keep going up the chain and you are hot you're dance. The stuff doesn't get less dense down there. It gets even more dance. You good good to go say so. Ok, that's right! You I said it gets it doesnt have vigilant, gets its it's their contained The universe is expanding and call it right ass, the different great question: that is a great way to go: James Brat Danes vacuum here we go. This is from a brand Kearny TAT, Missus Allen, turnings early work during our did. You misery that that is now spread. That's misspelled! Ok, ok,
Alan Turing touring touring early work was on self organization. Organizing systems, given the cosmic perspective would entropy give way to equilibrium, and then began self Organization or is the you can order. We see in the universe just you tell me, so is it good Some of these people are doing their homes. Some people are doing our homework. My check about, I gotta tell you, man, o Brien, you make me work here. I organ deprive you going to do so Meat limit, let unpack the ass pleased there. I saw the universe as we expand is cooling right. The entropy is increasing this of the disorder in the universe, and so so you can If you have disorder, how do you have, if disorders increasing? How do you ever have order you get disorder,
there is no source of energy pumping into the system got it. Is that simple? So why is their order on earth wise their life? eyes their complex life rather than complete disorder, because we're in orbit around a sign that is providing energy right, but in the big Sure the sun will ultimately die correct and will not regenerate and any thing on earth We then also diet I wish I, along with it right because that was our source of energy, propping up the complexity of our systems against disorder that would otherwise ensue right? So So it's only about. Where did you? What is your sword? of energy and what is not at all. It comes down to gotcha star. Our great source of energy, they last a long time, the very efficient, and so that's why you can have pockets of complex stuff going on there, the oecd light bulbs of the universe. Here they keep on governance. Is people go near Riah so stretch, thereby that, but I am help
he obtained ok rather make it were made up for by other sort of early days as a Nobel Prize in Physics, yes, for nineteen, for two thousand and fourteen was on the discovery of blue Ellie days right, which gave us a white light. Is that what it is and gives us and allows us to have white knight. Yes, Europe, because we had read OECD right greener and green entities as art or large energy. We need to being that big there has to be made, are GB, gives you white and every other color in the spectrum Sweet Nobel Prize Nobel Prize. Yes, I was to just one little color got so Nobel Prize. If I had known you, could it would not that long ago, kidney? That's all it took, was one little bit our eye. What there you have it wouldn't like thirty, two to weed out on yeah we're we're gonna have to save these questions were
the time may, without a time already man. I gotta, talk faster next time. Now you don't, this was united. Nobody's was great yeah yeah! Ok, I learn some stuff then comes to algorithms and we got the your James. You been listening to start for radio dealings Thyssen Chuck nice things were being with me as I always my pleasure and as always, keep looking, which you can listen, the star talk, commercial, free joint start. Compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear? Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.