Neil deGrasse Tyson and virtuoso comedian, musician, and actor Jack Black explore black holes, a simulation universe, quantum weirdness, Powers of Ten, Ant Man’s shrinking powers, and much more. With Chuck Nice, astrophysicist Charles Liu, climate scientist Kate Marvel, and Bill Nye.
Photo Credit: Brandon Royal.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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from the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming. All is based and start with science.
The universe, I'm your house near the grass ice in your personal astrophysicist and tonight we're going to explore the cosmic curiosity of accurate and musicians jack. Black he's had question for me on everything, from black holes to the size of the universe
itself. So let's do this. For my colleagues tonight, shock
welcome back always a pleasure buddy welcome back. Also joining us is my friend and astrophysicist, Charles,
Dr Welcome excellent vessel, the City University of New York and Staten Island, and you are our star talk resident Deacon chief. I am truly honoured. Thank you! So much so we got a dream team here to discuss my recent interview with multi, dimensional actor, a musician
jack black Dress, known for his leave roles in comedy films like school of rock hair like naturally, but
like come from panda, so I learn recently that he has genetic routes in math and science is taken out
You know my parents were both aerospace, engineer yeah, my mother. She asked
worked on, not one of the APOLLO missions for her her calling card or claim
fame was working on the Hubble space telescope.
So what town? Where you and where this was happening or Mozambique, California, California, my mom, worked over it here, don't be afraid some yards worldly contractors to NASA radio, your father was my father also urged to tear up here, and then they were both in the same field and he's fine.
Do geek kid they were very. There are very worried about me because I was
not going in the direction of a of an aerospace engineer.
So we have to say that we must and will have to put up. I am fascinated by other I'm interested in is just whenever I pick up a book on the subject. I can't get past the first age, ok, but I am still drawn.
The subject, not just as my parents were interested in it and and we're great at it, but also I'm just fascinate
by the enormity of the universe.
And who is in charge, you think you should have followed his parents footstep rocket scientist. You know, I think, maybe in a different universe made up just been, you know doing science based comedies. Oh that's all like you know,
school, a rocket science. So, Charles, besides you teach at a university, yes and science courses are typically required. Yes for the most liberal art schools, the end, if you major in liberal arts and any school, yes, you make, it takes some
Yes, so what do you do with students like Jack, who struggled to get password page, one and a half? And yet another book? Another book that books, fault, it's not Jack's for Jack is great
as he has this in a sort of desire to learn and be interested. But if he's turned off by the book get another book, ok processed, hurrah for the future
get another teacher? It's our fault. We help here, and I, like the rapporteur, that I, like very answer, is easy to blame us.
That's right and the most transformational figures in history and any field have always been those who had interest in something or an innate, maybe parental support for something like aerospace, begone onto do something else. Like performing arts, we got there took charge, you get bored reading science,
yeah you're, pretty size literate. Has that doesn't stop me from being book no enemies. I I enjoy it, but I am still board Jack. Work is also the front man in a rock they're called tenacious de such ass
our ban, its relations de Lacey, so I asked him about this dual identity with regular. I just
I myself, as a showman alike, to bar on the show. That's good! That's what I like to tell my kids. You know, don't they
about what you want to be when you grow up. I think that some of its false thing thing we will we put on our kids, think about what you wanna do when he rubbed his. If you're trying to blame, be something that suggests,
ego and, like I want the title, what do you really love to spend your time and I loved I'll, put putting on a show to get up in front of her
all three of those acting music comedy, that's where they get it and the truth be told. I wouldn't have an acting here for one for the music and vice
I needed to combine those to get it gone. I met Kyle my partner in my ban, tenacious d
in theory company we were in the actors Gang Theatre Company by wherever the word tenacious very as eighty that's a very as it were. It means to you now to die.
And lay go after your gall correct, and it was in reference originally that will give rise to a basketball players that there was a guy on tv retard.
About the leg, is playing tenaciously fans and tenacious d and
and it was just something. So I thought I about us naming ourselves after that, but I really got my career going once I started
band with Kyle and we were writing our own mature and your guitar? Yes, the singing.
The singing and telling stories through music.
Such walls you'd your dad yet, and so what do you think of Jackson, parenting philosophy of having his kids pursue what they want to do, rather than what they want to be alone spent ass, a cause? It's I'm just thinking. If it's something wanna be that import like you said it applies title and some kind of achievement that it when it looks at your title, but
Just do something nobody's gonna has just because it is just wanna, do nothing while lay and on your cows and eaten up your boots. Your tv hook, it human time,
How do you know the food in your family household? Was your food whole body? It didn't it didn't take long for Jack to turn the interview around me and he started. Ask me questions this one about black holes. Irregular!
is there a black hole in the middle of the milky way Galaxy our Gallagher S, ok, not a regular back over supermassive black hole for every galaxy. We ve ever had the precision of measurement to ask the question there
feel to us a black hole in their centre and so even galaxies. We have yet to test. What would you say almost certainly has a black hole were done with that question now we're onto what is the black hole doing to its environment said flaming stars that come to close, it was the black hole necessary for two nuclear. Eight. The galaxy in the first place was at the first thing. That form did it form
later. These are all questions. We ask here's the question I want to ask you know when you take a bath and you pop the drain and the vortex happens and there's little.
Tor NATO of water going down the drain. That's what the milky way looks like to me is that what the black hole is? Is it the drain and are we all? Will that be our fate? Now we are safe from the black hole. We are in orbit around the black hole, we're safe, but is it the same phenomenon? Get too close? Yes,
If you get too close, but the milky way is spinning around yeah, but all that material is safe. It is not a vortex feeding the black hole. You can sleep,
Could I told you of your view grappling with that as well.
Yeah. I know what we're not just article in the dream: we're not just a toilet ball ready to go down
I just love the breadth and you put his minded such ear. Like you told him, homeowners account so trolls Gimme, the latest on the evidence for black holes in the centres of galaxies wants, is just as you said. Every time you look at the centre of the galaxy with enough precision, we basically always find a black hole. Silk. That's settled science, now we're looking for two black holes or three black or which came for
A black hole of the galaxy that still uncertain looks like the cause. Montraville simulations will allow that to happen either way. But if you go from the very beginning, when the first stars form, it is true that the first black holes form before the first galaxies, so most likely starts with the black hole, but that doesn't mean that the other way can also work so the egg creating the chicken. So what is at the centre of a black hole? What was something called the singularity? It's a point with zeal.
The volume and infinite density, but we don't know why those you see one common aware. I feel I have
my heart. I agree. We literally do not know the physics of those singularity and we can find out because we can you be a close enough to the singularity
is a thing called the event horizon around the black hole. If you study
the event horizon and you shine a flashlight up. The light goes up and back down it never escapes. So we can't even send radio signals and say we send a
these probed down at the black hole receive is what the singularity looks like still can't send signals. We won't know as we go ourselves, but then we can tell anybody else beyond as well
and as soon as you prefer, beautiful name for a point of no return, the event horizon.
You call that sucker. You may never come back. I know it sounds like my grandmother went off
Don't worry, she's dead.
We know all you got up next. In my conversations with Jack Black, we discuss the physics of shrinking as in a man when start
returns is distorted not off from the american dream. It actually free repeating my conversations with cosmical curious actor, Jack black. He asked me about the Quantum Rome with the laws of physics. Get weird sugar is the quantum weirdness really just about if you really break it down. Is that when you look at a thing it changes? The thing is that what is really about that's an important aspect of it. I mean it's weird. If it's true ok, so I wrote a book recently score astrophysics for people in a hurry. I have a quote from the book, something that I want people to know. That is
The universe is under no obligation to make sense to you, because your senses are forge over a million years in this seringueira
not wanting to be eaten by a tiger or alliance. We, our senses, are good for that. Oh that's! Moving the speed not faster, not flower, of IRAN.
Does a day. Sun rises. Sunsets
time without when I put
on a billion year timescale. It's better awareness, we're not honed at the timescale, the vibration of an atom in the twentyth century,
started. Look at the edge of the universe and down into the atom we were seeing stuff. They completely defied anything you're, five senses every dreamt of imagined or could relate to, and we started saying to ourselves.
It is true simply because we measure it to be true, not because it makes any sense at all.
That was awesome. Madeline no, like ours, is waiting for you. This is like go like Street Southern Baptist.
And I will reign light. It was three day and cool
Will you of your question?
ethical to try to explain the observer effect. Sure everybody, the Quantum Mechanics yeah, the regular observer perfect, is very simple, like if you taking say a tyre pressure gauge and you just trying to measure tyre pressure every time you push
the little air comes out, sovereign countries affected right afford causes illogical that it merits right. So that's an observer effect on the non quantum level on the quantum level,
You can just put a machine to look at a sub atomic particle thing and it will lock in a quantum state and therefore you ve changed whatever. That thing was doing just because you're trying to measuring one of my favorite observer effects is, if there's a coin, the falls in the in this car see. Yet when the body
right and he reached for the active reaching for it spreads more and then it goes causes right around. But if you're not doing it is happy just sit right there right those lists, in effect an observer phenomena, that's right, you're trying to interact with it. The active interacting with it changes
state. That's right and the quantum mechanical level. The amounts of energy required to change this state of something is so tiny that just the active measuring it will cause it to be completely different from what it was just a nanosecond before sorry, you say that we can never
An accurate measurement is when the man asked a national scale
and was grey Quantum Mechanics is so different from our daily existence that you can almost imagine doing anything right, sugars, cat, for example, very famous you sooner.
Cats in there, but you don't know where the cat is alive or dead until you open the box. So that
is imagination, while that's all
true why we eyes gurgling up now
in new age philosophies and what I think it's the latest new thing
right a hundred years ago, regular visits, or we might consider regular physics- was the coolest here right now we have this quantum physics.
And it's been well- will be seventy or eighty years or so, since quantum mechanics firmly established, and now it goes into the realm of the imagination and pop culture, Jack Black sings about a superhero named wonder boy, and when I asked him about it, the quantum realm came up again.
Check it out, what wonder boy Just-
between you and me was actually stolen from my favorite comic book. There's a comical miracle man by Alan more genius. He did the watchman, but before the watchman there is one of the water and that there is there was a character in there, but it was. It was very much like the matrix where is inside and in fact I think, matrix dollar thing.
For a miracle man. If you look back a bit, I swear he whispered to me from the three cameras bogus conspirator, which were united in the millions of people go outside of that circle. But you know I was thinking about superpowers and I was thinking that the best one is from aunt man to be able to control your size and go down to the tiniest ties, subatomic level and, conversely, giant too, you know the size of I mean, although you would kill you
drawing, would you say a size mattered? Yes, well! Does it not drop? How realistic is it for a man's ability to shrink to the size of a name,
utterly unrealistic? Ok, what would it we're? Ok, there is so much space actually between the subatomic parts of atoms and molecule. Do that if you took say Manhattan where we are now and took all of Manhattan, all of its skyscrapers taxicabs people took the spy
out from between the protons neutrons in electrons, squish them together at all fit inside chucks knows well yeah and trucks noses perfectly ordinary size by the way to savour yeah. Well, thank you, for that
So you can certainly imagine aunt Mary shrinking down the still plenty of space left baggage by changing the physical Constance. Last no, and the reason is now, you have a circumstance we beating up against these particles pushing to close to one another completely changing their quantum mechanical structures, not dimension that even before you go Quantum Mechanical, let's say he is the size of an ant. His voice is gonna, be the
pitch of like a cricket, because the air frame whatever's beside the size of a letter. You don't have enough air to make a large enough tube to create those. So he should we shrinking meagre.
You may remember you, that's the that's the smallest tiniest problem with shrinking down. I, like your movie better
so so, even if you did do that
What do you do with all the mess that was our cause there? He is riding the backs of aunt. That's right for you to squash would totally collapse so which would mean that the man,
does going somewhere right by which
is it. The mass would literally disappear from our universe and that's taller night liberated yeah it. That means you would have to turn into energy whatever masses there. The amount of mass turned into energy in both the atomic bombs dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki was less.
Than that of a tick tock. So you take good hundred pound human being or something and turning the size of an aunt. You are wiping out the entire continent, and you know I can calculate that
but with E m C Square, that's right. That would become a ton of energy
Yes, you ve, never heard of it. Turn is just two thousand pounds we contemplate whether reality
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Free space inside down to earth you need to start
the review of natural history right here in New York City, repeating my interview with actor jet black, and I ask him: is he a cypher with chicken up? Well, you know I just
This movie? Jumanji? That's got some sites, Ionia kind of here. I saw that the original scared me right. This is kind of no. I don't want that to be possible at re living
Williams run Williams right this one's more like the hollow, not Polygram
like a virtual reality game and I've heard telling me. Is it true that there's a theory out there that this
Oh thing, this whole universe, wherein is actually some advanced alien to
knowledge, a virtual reality game, it's hard
two, it's hard to say no to their it's hard. For me to say we have evidence that that's not so we don't have evidence that that matter, but would I be part of the game to watch our free gap? Seated said he ever play, Mario, yet the supermarket brothers, Yemen a watch donkey time, the usher? Ok, so there's
there the characters, the collecting coins and their jumping. Now, if you had the computing power to render that world so real that the characters believed they had three will then, who are you to say the day in that game or any different from we on earth? In this universe, having been programmed by a more intelligent
species and we just characters their Mario gay
sutras? How likely is it that we are living in an age?
inversion of the symptoms game. We have no idea
we agree with- and we have no, it is question- has been asked for centuries, starting with renewed Descartes from almost the fifteen hundred. So at all,.
This time. There is still no real way to figure out whether we are brains and that's that are so carefully controlled or whether actually were living out a real life. So the matrix is real. Well read it open fill you dont have to imagine that its higher and tell
Just to its credit, the matrix remember we ve had billions of years of evolution, we're programme by DNA,
rna by our environment by epigenetic. It could be that this video game just happened by chance and therefore we are the product of a video game, but not of a higher intelligence doesn't even matter if we refer newish, almost dots.
To some extent it be nice to know and calling it the site are exactly it's really no big deal if you have a crappy day,
tomorrow, you just push a four truckers. Is born your mind, this country, I think, actually in a way it does it at their brains with something I want to do. Whatever is a little game. So I like to share with us is we're talking about videogame. Our car blackjack tomorrow
works. Are I need you to just list as many
I am blowing backs as you can. Almost yearnest brought like, I think, are so wait. Take a second. I got an I got that you go. I wrote you blow member, so in one centimeter of your lower colon lives and works more microbes, then all humans who
ever been borne out was low, and that was a good when you become a cover. Ok, ok. That means when we think we are in charge of this world. Ok, all we actually are to those microbes is a dark and vessel of anaerobic fecal man.
Oh, my god is my blowing. I keep it going. Ok, one more one: more ok, maybe ok! The universe will never recall apps. It is on a one way: expansion to oblivion, as the temperature drops to absolute zero and the density of space also goes to zero so because universe will end
not with a bang but with a whimper, not in fire, but an ice lots.
Jack Black contained.
Our mine blowing conversation with a discussion about the concept of free will check it out. Do you believe in
free will or do you believe that we are everything we say and do is the way it has to be so. Freewill doesn't mean that everything is exactly predetermined.
Necessarily can simply mean that you don't have as many options as you think you do
You think you have unlimited options, but when you actually decide you picking a month things now, if
now. This is where I feel like I'm really smart. You tell me if I am smart is there?
is no free will?
as I that's kind of my belief, is that no
everything that we do. We had to do because we're like computers
there is only one path in this and if that's true, that everything is happening, the way it has to happen.
Then, in a way time,
exist because it's already-
happened if it has to happen a certain way than in a way,
It's already happened. Ok, so, first as deep in arms and you officially deep
Thank you. That's what I guess that's what I was looking for. You heard that we have it
We got it on
we get that American. So what you're saying is that
in the time line of life, you were born you without your life and then you die, and if that is predetermined, then the concept of the passage of time has no meaning. So the very question when, were you born
as always borne right here. When did you go to school? I always went to school. It's right there this by saying that in this and in the light of this room, this spot is always. There is twelve feet from that spot. That's not a thing that is happening it just,
so the intersection of all our lives? If there is no free, well, you're right time is an illusion, an illusion of being a prisoner of the present.
Glaring clear that such a thing, physics has anything to say about freeware, absolutely Billy.
You have a circumstance now where we know that we can make choices by, for example, I can decide in ten minutes that I'm gonna walk over there. However, in between that
ten minute period and now are literally thousands or millions of micro decisions, individual chemical or physical reactions in the subatomic level, in our brains in our bodies and if each one of those is predetermined, because there is no choice. Let's say nature requires that you have this many of that molecule in that many that Margo they have to do this, then, if every single step is predetermine, maybe my decision ten minutes later has been pre determined because of all those individual
steps yeah. So do so you're saying that physics is telling us that we will not be an illusion, correct, but Freewill might not be an illusion if, indeed,
under a thousand to one odds or a million to one odds. Those chemicals or those molecules can do things that are unexpected every once in a while, and that's what quantum mechanics allows in uncertain for quantum physics would disrupt any pre determinism career of free will, yes, doctor
we ve met. Maybe we want quantum because we get a he'd quantum. That may well be exactly what physics is telling us about. Free will show what you think
mean an illusion. What I think is that you always do this now seriously. You always like everything comes down to time relatively with you and inject black was like you know what I've been there before work seriously. We at long last.
I said this outcome. Listen, listen to this future! Now, I'm here to restaurant. What's your timeline timeline of life. Without your wife,
So what are you think? You're gonna get here time. Ok, so you a cab
prisoner of the present I'm hanging up now.
Allow me to
reaffirm. We are indeed prisoners of the present yes forever transitioning from inaccessible passed into our unknowable future up. Next, in my conversations with Jack Black, we discuss the timeline
our own extinction. When start operators
future space and the secrets of our planet reveal start. I
all of the universe and the American Museum of Natural history. We're featuring my recent conversation with lovable curious, multi, talented Jack Black check it out. We are actually acted in the same series. What does he asked whether we would ass well ass? I had a cameo
As a little cartoon weasel in ice age vies, yes, the I think I think you're in the first one year, I played a tiger Sabre Photography,
and I was starving, and I was there? I was not a likeable want blogger,
so I was a character helping them to save the world because an ice age, five is an asteroid. That's gonna render them all extinct all year
But what was weird to me as IRAN, China help them not go extinct from an asteroid. Yet every single eye, sage mammal in ice age, goes extinct. Everything I say not form an asteroid,
although the Sabre to Tiger the Mastodon ray the giant flaws
they're all gone, so I said what had withheld by saving them for wouldn't through all this, just to say no, they did dead, hey
While we are on the subject, I hope you don't mind me asking another question go, but you reminded me: somethin: are we gonna go extinct? Is highly
likely ray it's a worrying a race against time kind of. Like I'm just saying the average life expectancy of male species is about between two and three,
billion years, we're early in the interval, so we can hope for a much longer, but we have the power to do much better.
Then that joining us now to discuss the possibility of our own extinction? Is climate scientists, Kate, marble
well yeah associate research scientists at NASA Goddard Institute for Space studies of the Columbia University. So keep me, we just talk about climate coming out of the ice age and all died, and it leads us to wonder what right now do, we think is the greatest threat to the survival of the human species.
Climate or something else, so here's the thing, I actually don't think climate change is going to make humans go extinct anytime soon.
But the thing is, I have higher standards than not going extinct.
So I dont think were doomed, but I do think that what climate change threatens
is human civilization and human happiness, and I think that something, that's even more important to me, were already starting to see some of the worst consequences of climate change for never think about it and where you describe it, other threats that we consider like asteroids are super volcanoes or even nuclear exchange. They lead to climate change of the Rome so that, if you don't die where the explosion of worthy event happened,
This event still touches you cause. The atmosphere is different, exactly exactly but here's the thing. I am not an asteroid and you're, not a super volcano.
We are so sure the scientific community that the climate changes
we're seeing right now are due to human activities. So you cannot negotiate with a super volcano right, but not yet, but we have
power to change our own actions. We have the power to make decisions to alter the course of climate change.
Kind of amazing when you think about it, but she told how do you think we'll go extinct? Well, we have free, will don't we
This case, and that it has an is that we have the free will to change our behaviour to power in strange our behave, so I think that we will go extinct by something over which we actually have no control, for example, of where you have confidence that we will not render our own selves extinct from our own too.
I believe there will be all right, maybe a large percentage of us we'll succumb to our own stupidity, but the entire species will not go unless we have say a rogue black
we're coming through the solar system, ripping us away from our sun and thus freezing this out to nothing. Something that we don't have control over will eventually be our greatest threat
We ve got the October two thousand and eight in? U S report on climate, so that freaked alot of people? I am, I kind of feeling that's a good thing. We should be freaked out about that, but I feel like a lot of the way that it's gotten reported is we have a cliff and we're gonna fall off a cliff? What what did it say? So it said. Basically, we have limited time to limit global warming to a degree and a half celsius above pre industrial. We are already at a degree to three clear
have above pre industrial levels so before we started point while out of the ground exactly the for the industrial revolution, and can we change that Fahrenheit? So people in America didn't take it seriously? I just don't understand what the hell is happening with the conversation around climate change, that you know, we don't talk to people in ways that they can understand. How can we say, aerosols and instead of shit in the air like seriously? What do we do that we say Celsius? No one,
finally become Celsius of Amerika. What we do is America, gentle Mark a low temperatures and burn height. I will I will pass your thoughts today. This is yet to show this could so it introduced the concept of a cliff. It did not introduce the concept of uclaf because it's not a cliff. I feel like a lot of people.
Linking all we have twelve wanted that were a couple of points. In that way we have twelve years to limit warming and if, in twelve years we haven't done it then boom we're all gone and it's not a cliff it's so
and we are running down that slow as this is a slippery?
thank you and the other grass I set out, for it
All of you can go to help so that are there other species, if not us whose survival is put at risk by our own, our own negligent. Absolutely, and when we talk about the difference between a world that degree and a half warmer celsius, sorry or a degree, that's too well, that's two degrees.
My reply by nice. It's easy we're talking about a world in which ninety percent of the coral reefs are gone. First is a world in which a hundred per cent of the coral reefs are gone, and so what is the direct fall out of ninety percent of coral ecosystems being destroyed? What does that mean to me
sit in my apartment in New York City or in the middle of the country in Kansas. What what's that mean to me? I feel it s. Actually a really good points right, because when we talk about climate change, we talk about polar.
And most people like I like polar bears, but I'm really know any
and I feel like that's not the best way to talk about climate change because who is affected by climate change. Is people so
people working in the tourism industry, around coral reefs really care about coral reefs people who are fishermen, people who care about ocean health, they really care about coral reefs, but you know in New York City we care about sea level rise. We care about changes to precipitation patterns by twenty one hundred. The subway is projected the flood every year, veneering trouble
the New York Subway under business as usual, but by twenty one hundred by twenty one hundred every well at least have an excuse for being late. Brca canoe, desserts, sequencer species that will go extinct in order area checklist is excellent as to what I will
is that there are some species that have proven very, very resistant to human activities, and these are the species that we really hate, because you see them Allah pigeon such rats cockroaches. So there are some species.
Incredibly resilient and made you really well under climate change. But the point is that
Former winters mean law,
Greetings: seasons for rats, and so when people say okay,
change. Is gonna be good for some species? That's probably true, but I dont think humans are one of those species. Well, our star talk fans have their own questions on this very topic and that
this now cosmic queries.
We took your questions about the threat of climate change and I bet climate scientists, Kate, marble here to help me out so.
You got this question, how can I earn less? Let's go right there
from a kill in Philadelphia. He says this: is it true other planets in our solar
system are going through a warming trend. If so, could that contribute to the rise of the temperature here on earth, say no
Next week there was some reports at Mars was getting warmer as much as earth was getting warmer. So I feel like, if you take a picture of Mars when there's a dust storm
and then you take a picture of Mars a little bit later, when the dust from is dissipated, it looks like Mars has gotten warmer when the dust storm has just gone away, the only thing that could make all of the planet's warmer at the same time.
Is if the sun we're getting stronger. If we were seeing changes and solar luminosity and were not in fact the sunset,
we're getting slightly slightly weaker, so the sun getting stronger, can't explain climate change that we're sitting on earth.
There. You go Jack now ride from Michael Limit Lantern Georgia in the future Rama episode the crimes of the heart
That's a good one earth psalms global warming by having every robot than their exhaust upwards from a single point on earth to push the planet slightly further from the sun was cooling. Would earth actually experience in if our orbit increased just so, if we're farther away from the sun? Would it help? I just feel like you
say it's too hard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. If you say, let's move the earth and so would ever effort, it is to shift earth out of its orbit. It's gotta be less effort to reduce greenhouse gases,
my feeling is that the extra physicists, don't I'm totally folding with your unequal, could calculation, even if you push earth out a million miles further, it only reduces the sun's entered energy by point. One percent by a feeling, tat, does bring up a really good question
back to your discussion about the ice ages. So we know the earth wobbles a little back on its orbit over time. Spans of tens of thousands are hundreds of thousands of years
and little tiny changes in those orbital parameters. Can we combat Lanka? Bitch
we can actually lead to ice ages, and so
pretty sure we know what caused the ice ages
and we're pretty sure that it's not the earth orbit. That's causing climate change right now,
One more question from Russell: barely an amateur Springs Louisiana. He says climate denies or excited about the mass a report stating that the amount of sea ice in an article has actually increased over the last few years. Please explain why this is happening in an article as we lose ice in the Arctic, so the Arctic and an article two very different place. It's on the planet and articles a giant com.
That's very very cold and protect the north pole is, is mostly water, so we're talking about it's not really. It's apples and oranges. The Arctic, as one of the fastest woman places on earth, one of the other faster swarming places on earth is western.
So saying an article is gaining ice is like
paying Amerika has really good beagles, that's
crew in New York, but if you go outside
that's not true, and I do so not trees, so not, and so because
arnica is large and varied in the east? It's not losing ice as quickly as it is in the west, but the ice that its losing in the west. That Iceland is accelerating and that's got scientists really worried. Sub regional cherry picking the located raised from there to make these are beers points that deniers used to actually further an argument that a specious to begin with
I know you say that cause you're scientists right that our right up next, my friend bill. Neither science guy demonstrates the physics of size and scale
and start talk. Return is destroyed. My interview with actor. Well, it turns out, is a fountain of cosmic curiosity check. It out
You ever see that movie. When I was a kid in school, there is a movie that that show hours at him. Yes, protocols and radios right
So if you go down to the electron from the Adam, always to the edge of the universe and back and then go powers
ten all the way to everything, some
in between there. Where are we in those powers of ten? Are we smack dab in the middle?
closer to the smallest than we are the largest gray question omega urge we're pretty close to the middle because the middle, but the exact
middle, its body a little bigger than we have done so the way to quantify the question is how many powers of ten bigger than us is the universe in how many powers of ten smaller than us is the nucleus of an atom? Is it is an atomic particle
That would be the two limits of what matters in the universe. We are a little closer to the big size.
Send the little really
closure of the big size, yeah.
Raise it on me
I told you I get there all the answers up in the house,
of the universe itself. We are twenty six powers of ten lower from the observable universe and we're fifteen powers at ten higher up from the size, our programme backward yeah.
My little bit reacted. Anything goes down below the size of protons to subatomic. Particles are relevant to the big bang itself, you
are getting we're right back in the Middle EAST. Where I was held there, you go ok, so we can measure from corks on a smaller scale, up to the size of the universe and the biggest scale. So this curious as colleagues and scientists here what what scale of the universe interests you, the most Charles, I think the most interesting
scale is the scale of dna nice, whether or not we are alive or whether we think or whether we can reproduces completely based on molecular scales where they're, just at the border, between quantum mechanical and classical physics, that's a really interesting boundary from your case
I think the most interesting scale is between one and ten metres, because that's us I am I
actually started my career as an astrophysicist until I realise that really this is the best place in the entire universe. The earth is awesome and its great in large part, because everybody I like lives here, nobody likes between one intermediate, exactly that power of what my buddy build, neither side
Guy scented, a dispatch on this topic related to size and scale check. Some people might say that these are real trains, of course, are real
friends what you mean by real or even train? I mean these are real miniature trains
Just that afford out there were, you are, is only three and a half millimetres down here. It's one, eighty seven scale,
so whether our train is carrying a miniature circus to the next town or bringing you create a book in a box car. The same rule
nature, apply, I mean whether it's a supernova
locomotive or the atoms that make it all up. Make
trains of any size operate properly, means
our urging the rules of nature of scales and speeds, we can't change the laws of physics.
track. Ninety one leaving for midway lays Gmos. Please take your seats and have a safe journey.
before we wrap this up, we got one final clip with the always curious jet black check it out like a just pond.
The enormity of the universe. That's the thing that I like to do. It's my go to method.
Vision when I'm alone- and I'm just thinking about my place here and what is it all about? It's all just about the the strange incredible size of this place. You know so it doesnt disrupt you're existential eggs. It brings peace to it. There is a place to it because, when you think about them,
the the stresses in the worries and the problems, and then you imagine the enormity of the universe at all for similar with Greece scale from. I worry about half of all the cosmic perspective
Well, there it is. You don't need to be an astrophysicist to have a cosmic perspective. That's our showed
Thanks to chalk nice, Charles Kate model, I bring your hope we are facing,
I you keep looking up, wish you'd, listen to talk commercial, free, joint star talk on paper,
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.