What will it take to send people to Mars safely, and bring them home again? StarTalk All-Stars host Astro Mike Massimino and co-host Maeve Higgins find out from John Charles, the Chief Scientist at NASA’s Human Research Program.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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This is my first meal. Astro MIKE talking to you from star talk all stars. I guess I'm actually in all star yeah I haven't been and also says I was there ten years old and little that was forty years ago, but I'm an all star again and your host tonight- and I have with me my friend- can I call you my friend if maybe Higgins, is nine new friend, where France and she's a tremendous great space enthusiasts, but more and more. A comedian. So saying thank you for being here. No thank you for having me your bed and a very excited because
Friend of mine, who I work with, that the Johnson space and adjourn Charles, really smart guy is a scientist he's actually achieve scientist. I haven't I fainted and then those teeth airspace scientists in any chief. Anything babies, I ain't gonna grow up to be a chief. You don't start out has achieved they. They check it out, like ok, we'll make this guy edgy. And John is a really smart, well spoken genius other than ever say this, but Certainly, as is the head of our NASA Human Research programme to scientists for the natural Human research programme, trying to get people to Mon Mars off the planet far away and taken care of whom we thank for making times it access to both those John join, one by the natural like that, I'm glad I made it. I'm really that you're here and going to talk about what it takes to get people to Mars. People on Mars? That's right! like you and me, maybe
you and me, but people like us. I people we want to send send to Mars. So let's talk a little bit about this now John Hume Human Research programme, here that she scientists for that. What exactly is the EU research programme and what are you doing as chief scientists like that Human Research programme as the way that we put up, but the research together to send astronauts to Mars. The idea is that our work is focused with laser like intensity, on solving the problems of astronauts. They leave low earth orbit and explore other destinations. We can talk about the bone. We can talk about asteroids, but the implicit goal is to Sun while the Mars we within a let's say thirty is risks that need to be addressed as we, Some people are beyond our low earth orbit, risks that relate to their bullshit radiation and the effects of of that isolation and confinement there'll, be isolated and can find an autonomous, Selby Self sufficient. To the extent that nobody has ever been before we have they the
going issues of acts of adaptation, weightlessness the of the medical care, how to take care of people there. There's just four or five or six people on this trip to bars? How do you take care of them? How do they take their themselves? Medically? On a trip of two and a half, yours round trip for the early days of our so so so many issues would. When did you start your research? go. The human research programme was initiated in two thousand five. There was just about the time that the The space shuttle programme was was gonna, be start winding down. We have allowed the last six years of shuttle missions the space station programme I was just getting wound up other space station Our venue for the research that we're doing and of the since then level
the charter has been focused on sending astronauts beyond lower than orbits, specifically to Mars, since this cross over with your time as an Austrian, I then make apparently so I was the shuttle astronaut back then thousand five years, so I ve been studying how humans can live and work in space, others as there's just as many aspects to that report, primarily no, I think we're we're focusing on today's. Had he had he keep people healthy healthy to withstand such a journey in its healthy, both physically healthy and mentally healthy, because we know two weeks in space is one thing: it has certain effects on the body in that's what, with the a research programme they started studying.
But really, thereby, I think the bigger focuses its space station is as China saying, where you up there for longer periods of time and now from Mars, you're gonna be up there, even even longer Ryan. Think do you know if you're a time affair Annie bearings on their research, unlike what your time and could have contributed to your knowledge, stone I'm I'm paused, I'm quite positive that we may made measurements on MIKE while he was an active astronaut, we seldom let any warm bodies get away from us a sufficiently if their willingness to come back a second time about the renewal that sounds very telling? We never let any more embodies get anything, but the other. The thing is not just surviving, I'm pretty confident. We can survive on a trip to Mars and survive on the way home. Our goal is to make sure people arrive on Mars Lake and do a lot of work, and you saw how much work Matt Damon was doing in the movie. He was, himself, but even when he wasn't by himself up to the whole crew as work hard. Our goal is to keep people in sufficient. Can.
So that they can work as hard as they ve ever worked their entire lives, because it's gonna be required on Mars mission to justify the truly tremendous expense and the Multi national effort to get there. So our goal is now really get their terms of stumble down the ladder and plant a flag, and then you know scuff little dost with your boots and get back on the rock at last our goal is for you to be on Mars for up to eighteen months very, very hard finding learn life on Mars. Whether there was life on Mars on his turning Mars, is a planet and essentially justifying the expense of the mission. That's that's that, So how long would the mission be altogether is of all the others be thirty months according to NASA design reference, passionate and bear in mind that this is not yet an approved programme. These are study parameters, but we expect them. To Mars will be on the order of two? one years, thirty months, long with a about a six month or so transit there, which just coincidentally looks like a space station duration eighteen months on the planet
talk about your layovers Dallas Fort Worth Airport. This isn't a teen month lay over on Mars and then a six or seven months, transit back to earth. A total of two and a half years, China's this thirty months that it's gonna take together. You explained six six to go a teen, their six back with it be if it is only certain times we can go or it could be even longer the net. But that's why we looking at that those links of I'm in and why are they not and not longer or shorter? What sort of a minimum minimum inclusive mission at the transit term from earth tomorrow? is dictated by over mechanics and did the earth and Mars have to be the right position for that, It really get from one to the other you'd hate to shop at Mars's orbit and Mars, not be there. So there's only a certain number of times in the the earth ear and the Mars year when there are the right positions with each other, and you can either
I would be so all great. If you showed up to marry the Mars is not, there would be disappointing violate the worst. Barbecue would be difficult to explain to Congress and your mother, you know, then you can either bring by Mars or just stay for maybe thirty days at the most and then come back to earth, but the launch window for that return is rapidly closing by the time we get there. If you do execute that their quick return, you have to swing back through the inner solar system as close to the sun as Venus, which brings in problems with radiation, exposure and heating and stuff like that and still takes. Long time to get back to earth is there's really, if you think about it, there's really not a convenient way to take a short trip to Mars. The shortest trip to Mars is going to be of the order of five hundred days. That's just the US fly by a swing passed and then come straight back to earth and if it's gonna justify like us,
at the expense of getting there. You may as well spent enough time to do something meaningful and that's really once we know what you stay the past the first thirty days or so you are committed to the eighteen months and that window is so that that is a sweet spot. When you can do it quickly and get their nest six months. If your midst that window you waiting for awhile origin right exactly right, so it is a certain times when you can go and you can't miss that can't miss the train. So stress I mean when you when you say that like and do you know how much money has already been spends like when you say that a multinational efforts and that all these all his expense so far, lady, do you have an idea of that money? What do you know the expenses, mostly they'll know and research results and so the space station as a hundred billion dollars worth of of investment. As I'm understanding,
the work in the European Council, which will take the astronauts from the launch pad, presumably at Kennedy, space that are up to the Mars transit vehicle and then bring him back again. At the end of the mission, the space launch system, the next generation big rocket, that's gonna, look like a Saturn five based on shuttle technology. All those things have several billion dollars a year and budgets. They ve been spending for for several years, but you know the Mars programme itself is still in the study phase, and so nobody has actually told us to go to Mars yet it was never essentially be illegal for NASA send somebody bars, because Congress has not authorized that particular expenditure. So what we're doing Congress has authorized does to research the Well, that's what we're doing now. What are your remain? Like research things? You mentioned the radiation problem. What does the EU looking ass? All other things are the psychological aspects. Imagine this is new and four or five of your closest personal friends locked up in a vehicle the size of let's say I went a beggar or two for two and a half years face too
he's with only each other to look at and the longer the mission go was up until the half way point you're gonna be getting further and further very loosely good. If you could two's who you Wentworth know if it was like me, Michael fast, and there I mean who you go with MIKE. I go with you, you wanna go journal go so they don't. Usually do that, though you don't get my bank rounding up losses in a pick, and you say we why'd you what tat, so, that's probably going to be the tradition will continue yeah. How did they put these guys together, but John we're gonna we're gonna move onto our cosmic query section. We ve got related questions from our audience. That may will hit us up with now fill and here's a question. What kinds of people should be sent to my eyes and psychologists terminal? as a medical doctors, and what do you think, John or
answer to that is the NASA does a pretty good job of picking astronauts, not not just brown those with MIKE here, but it seems like the dazzling confine people that are jet pilot concert. Penis neurosurgeons, gourmet, chefs and you're gonna need that kind of skilled. Next, with a small group of people going to to Mars was safe. For five or six people, they're gonna wanna have people I could do everything. Even a botanist might be a good idea. Are we going to be at least one doktor and the crew? Probably several people train that the emergency medical take level, but there's there the Unita have people are gonna, be good at fixing things does inevitably, things go break and there are people that are just good at fixing things and that's probably going to be the most important person in the crew. What about what about the teamwork personality aspect of a John can be trains, get what you're gonna be away together for a long time. You know the what what about, but about getting along
Well, I'm I know NASA is very good at selecting highly motivated, highly driven individualistic team players. People that know how to be individuals and do their job unique lean individually. That's required, but also how to blend into the team. At least I'm I'm told at like you have the perspective that I dont. Maybe that's that's not that way, but but I we're going to find people that want to go to Mars and are motivated to go to Mars. That of train themselves. Their entire lives to go to Mars will learn how to to be both. The star Are the team and one of the team players gotta go they. When I talk to people question answered, You become an astronaut in a lot of it is yours, else in Europe capabilities technically, but it's also being a good team player in n in in being being willing to succeed and fail as a team help your butt
when they need help and getting help from them when you needed and so and so, and at that sometimes is harder to find and in people yeah. You can read some of these other things, but it's hard to find someone can be a good teammate. Is that, working together the psychology behind a. Do you look into that closely like? I think you are. You said that I am you feeling people physically be able for the trip. How big a priority is the kind psychology behind them the astronauts, there. May we have several nothing All the risks are important, but we're really knows several of them are long pole. Do you say long pole in the tent and radiation exposure is a long pole in the tent oh care, autonomous medical care and nutrition food, but but among the top, for is psychology to psychological aspects of long duration flight both what happens inside of the persons Serbs I inside your own head and how you relate to other people, were also very concerned about things like sleep well are you a believer not worried about how much astronaut sleep primarily because of concerns that the
sleep. If you don't get enough sleepy, don't do a good job of astronaut and also because Mars has a different day night cycle in earth and were worried about people being able to sacred eyes their sort. There ok, the rhythms on our cycle and Mary Sue. You know it's only four hours and thirty eight minutes. That's thirty! Eight minutes! That's a half a time zone off each day its awaits a you get an extra. They would need to sleep more or less well blew it. They would have thirty minutes at the end of each twenty four hour cycle to figure out what to do for the next thirty eight minutes, but they know each day is going to be a little by little bit long. Compared to your normal life on earth turns out that some people can synchronize to that, and some people can't synchronized that some just and then find and some donor? That's? But your question was: what are we doing? What what kind of research work research and all those topics for researching the individual and how we can
primarily how we can help the individual's stay, focused and stay efficient and happy, and productive, even and stressful circumstances is a lot to this major. Now, there's not just a trip around the corner, a long way. One question that came up again and again I am is like how'd, you keep people entertain, say you're on this ship, for several months getting there like, and I guess a big part of life is like being happy being social being entertains. Happy crew members are productive crew member. What do you think about your oil? I that's it it's a topic that we are believe it or not. Also investigating, where researching that, like the goal is to have meaningful work to keep people motivated now. Obviously, illustration anonymous. Vehicle. There's gonna be a lot of mundane work. There's gonna be lots of housekeeping lots of cooking and cleaning up lots of scrubbing the toilet and scrubbing the walls and fixing.
Things and I have already trying to put people ass yet on a virus trip. There's also going to be a lot of simulations Alot of father. The work that like did before flight will have to be done in flight of ongoing training because all of us, with a six month transit, you ought to train people to the peak of perfection, didn't give a six month. Vacation forget everything. They learned then say. Ok today, and on Mars. I hope you how to do it they'll be honoured. Training during the entire time and flight, that's like in the summer of the school leg You get the summer. Outrider often forgets what going in our you just put it. What are you want to do some things receiving on the shuttle? We were only up there for two weeks, but when it came time to come home we practiced, we had a little program, help us practice what we going to do for for landings- and I was
This kind of an employee Malaysia simulation, yet certain things you want in may want its findings, one really up fresh in your mind and that's that's it. One thing I that urgent, just either was really put was meaningful work anymore, something that you think is meaningful. You can't you say I got out here and label of your oranges. You know uneasily something that is meaningful and and for months or my friends have come back from I'm. There was on a long duration mission, but but the genoa, The guy you Polly her this latter men, women come back, so you need a hobby and, and most of em like photography. They take a lot of rose up and they do interesting things cameras and videos and so on, and the social media part of it contact with your family and so on. To keeping on and great though, at this the wider question. What would the average stay consist of further new marine settlers? Who did this question can give came from Jason higher men ass through Facebook, so the average day, so that would be like
I mean it's already blow my mind that they have this extra thirty seven minutes to fail and beware but the day look like fur further first people on Mars. Well, I think it's gotta look very much like you saw about Damon's day in New York to wake up in the morning and make sure the habitat still intact and and make sure you're you're food crops. Are growing because we hope to be able to grow food on Mars to supplement the further were bringing with us and and there's gonna be like. I said there are lots of important, do outside the habitat and your space suit. Looking for evidence of life, looking for evidence that the document, the history of Mars, probably gonna, send robots furs, another kind of robots out turn first to find interesting places, and one of the interesting aspects of sending people to Mars to look for life is the possibility that sending people to Mars to look for life will be exactly the wrong thing to do because astronauts. I'm sorry MIKE astronauts. Our sloppy astronauts are leaky surgeries
there, there spacesuits leak they leaker whatever's on the inside of the suit, which in this case might be microbes. They brought with them from earth in, wouldn't you hate the goals sampling, a source of potential life on Mars and find evidence of life and find out if it came from earth, but it's very possible we're going to send robots out first to find and then sample of the venues that might have life and even confirm, there's life and then send the astronauts out of sensitive document it and clean it up when you don't clean it up or or just make sure it's still intact. So we leave it like. We found it so all fascinating stuff, but we're going to have to because short break but will be right back with Morse Start talk. All stars join Charles Hanky hung round of enlargement. Hang in there. John will be right back May, thanks again over right back hey secret for you
gonna consider singing all of the ads on this show just one way to get out a hearing there go to patriarch arms last started. Talk and the porters at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite park, has player and net, I hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not happy hear me sing if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean, I'm just sing it I mean just SAM. This is a I am asked MIKE Mike Mass back with you on star talk. All stars with my co host May pagan
may still here yet Hereat and John Charles are our guests chief scientists on the human research programme you so with this? Aren't you John L, I feel like I'm not leaving excellent and during the bridegroom talking a little bit about you know, games. You could play when you're or we could play now, maybe but games we played as kids- and I remember this this game I played called Melvin. The moon, man and it was back in the sixties before Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, Melvin. Apparently did- and we have seen a graphic right there One of our genius young people found this thing by play this game. When I was my parents went on vacation because they can, if they can and will put up with me anymore, they data governing a shrubbery of my uncle Romeo, my aunt and in Queens New York in College Point Queens and a dog. This gig was saying I was run around queen. Because in trouble at that point as like those of four years old or something- and it gave me this the play with Melvin, the moon man. What was that?
amid the games again. Having followed the name of the game was to keep me occupy, can get into a lot of trouble in Queens New York back in the sixties. As for your own New York City was a lot different back. Then maybe you are young, you don't know what it was John of Europe and in New York City back then about not back then, but sunset. There were a lot of fun. Now it's not my back. Then it was given to how to keep me occupies you save more dangerous, Mars or queens. Nineteen, seventy wings and a nineteen seventeen is really the you know it's funny. I was at my uncle Romeo's we were. I was getting ready to go work at the at the Marshall Space Flight Center Johnny. I know you've been down there. A lot haven't you. I was a grad student at MIT and I had this this old car it was. It was a very rare car with cold a disaster, very many of us. I had one of these vehicles I had a drive from New York down to Huntsville Alabama after the summer and my uncle Romeo's neighbour, this guy named Maddie was a mechanic and I brought might before we're gonna a trip.
By man by road, might dramatic house around Miss Street there now in front of my uncle's housework and on a car like Manet, make sure it is car works and is like we must manage to go well, you know I gotta I've gotta go only done Alabama, afraid some might happen. If I get stuck on the way, goes you worried about DR now Bam, whose do you realize what you standing right now. I think A lot of my emergency training and the survival training. I did as an astronaut paled in comparison navigating in New York City Subway system? leaning, I join. You guys should work that in into Europe working yours, getting your work into some kind of navigating New York. Working, I'm going to Mars, I'm just wondering how you, but in an I did, I did find Hansel was good, I love ones Alabama and I think I've I've been in ok, but what are we, I can about which are never going to Mars and about like humans going to my humans going more like curious about the movie
You ve mentioned a few times. I write it down the martian ends. I understand them Andy we're he did. He get advice from NASA at some point like it seems to be quite realistic. Now I think you talked about the site has done and what it was like us than people of art. What what did you do? I get asked a question about that movie, almost all the time when every speaker where I know about gravity of the martian that I like it and from my perspective, John, I just thought I'd look see a space movie. I just try to look and see almost all the time when ever I speak, there were no by gravity or the martian that I like it and, from my perspective, John, I guess what I look see a space movie. I just try to look and see. The astronaut was cool. I really don't you like me. George cloning was cool yeah. He let you know whatever yeah. You know it's a lot of science, things wrong with it, but as long as George Clay look cool that was fine, Matt Damon, what's coolly got stuck with an antenna in the chest and saw himself up
I won't. I would look at that. I would go I would screen, but people think because I'm an astronaut, I would very coolly pull it out of my chest and saw myself up Matthew, Mokanna, hey, that guy needed he needed a drink. You too intense. I was a little disappointed that, with that movie interstellar because progress the them there s not betrayed of each school year, she's cool, I'm good weather, but young? What are you about the moving to March- I'm sure you get questions all time about. That was your opinion, but I enjoyed it. I thought it was probably the best space booby since two thousand one and we can argue about whether it was better than two thousand and one my wife says she prefers not to go to space movies with me, because all I do is Huff and puff and roll my eyes later on the abuse leader, the entire movie, but she said I would buy. I behaved myself while this time, in fact, the only snide comment that either of us made was was one she made during one of the climactic EPA seems she noticed. The astronaut was not tethered to the spade I've after nice that I would never happen. How could that past
How could they make a movie without in it? So I but otherwise I thought it was a lot of fun. I've been way. Indeed, it has said that the opening of anything other than the that that blows everything around and causes the problem couldn't happen on Mars. The atmosphere is too thin and the dust does not sandy grainy granular, like that it is more than the the texture of smoke particles said. He said I excellent. I ask my question during a queue at one time. He says yes, I know, but I needed to start the movie. Some that's how I chose do it. These are not already done so I particularly like irregularity. It is in that he didn't know that you had Alex Sopranos, he actually fame to Johnson Space Center and a series of a series of book talks and curious from all nerd. So he was very well prepared for the audience and we all John John was a plant Yang on areas I gotta go. I was wrong, in the EPA seeing those space. What you see the answer to the immense add my my son, and I saw it together and he said the same thing was that what kind of Spain
we're going to hit me for my son, Peter. My son was picked up on it yesterday I was very I think my you know when you see you great movie about space like it makes you think highly of North Africa resembling so what are you to judge those those good for us? Wasn't it must be gray, like pr rise like that My you know when you see you great movie about space like it makes you think highly of North Africa. I resent so. What are you to judge those those good for us? Wasn't it agree? I think we got what we say used it for a lot of publicity. We publicity. We reason, link a lot of the one. Your mission space station work to it in and things like that Oh yeah, that was great joy, but is also the serious part to what the movie portrayed, which was how to You keep a crew a lot. He was in a survival situation, but still there there must be a lot of parallels with the work you are doing what you saw that movie righted food in water and life support, and so on. You exactly well enough. The food was was one of the action
potato was like another supporting actor and low and the whole movie The latter might in the whole history of airlines, but but but by your pals died. Aren't you could perhaps have you heard what non Bennet said about potatoes in space, though? Why? now don't dance tat. It is one of my best friend and a very entertaining guy in a genius very for an astronaut, let me add, I gotta go you're already say this time. You ve done patents that he has never seen a potato space station on the shuttle that it was not sliced and had its eyes cut out. So there's no way a potato. Others in space would have been able to grow and introduce more potatoes, but Don Don did actually grow stuff in space and the Argo and stuff on respect, but time Don growers he grew sunflower, any grew of e squash, yeah that it was kind of on his own.
But he did his own little export, but they have grown. Also, let us on a space station on perhaps the actual seeds we fly up to do that that can research tat eventually led to growing a friendly, really down paradise? I didn't think it was like an accidental. No one is growing some answers. My do things their interests it on their own experiments, and this was that the lettuce was a real growing. I let us was a real project. Tat they had in was successful, flying to grow their own food in space, yeah yeah, which results in either results in their good. Hopefully, guideline is going to ask and I wider yeah. That's it ain't gonna, good ones. A cow: how on earth could you provide water for people our minds? Could you find that their what's gonna happen there, all you have to it will probably at least start are kept for water and then they, but the point is of with any luck. You can generate water out of
in situ resources and, of course, what you have on Mars in situ as carbon dioxide is a very fine atmosphere, but us almost completely carbon dioxide and, if you along the right kind of of machinery. That knows how to crack carbon dioxide, and if you brought along a tank of hydrogen with you, you can get oxygen and water out of the reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen user. Chemistry. Those far are being on my capability to explain, but but it's a possibility. So, if you're a bitter there for the long term, you got a plan ahead and bring either, but stuff with your or make it from my local resources you're also going to Reese, I got it. Aren't you John Reed, I So we're doing on this, as my friend don petty to referred to earlier describes. Today's coffee is tomorrow's coffee,
you you drink, something you peered at an you drink it again or for I am getting up aim Starbucks, there's a couple stepson between her by the way, but there's gonna be the plan to I would assume richer exactly and what would it look like to live like? Where would you live in my like? What would it look like what would you're you know? I was going to say: tents, that's because I've seen the movie but like what would like. Where would you sleep and live habitat you're habitat, yet the word not a habitat would probably look very much like, like you saw the movie in that, was actually based on a habitat that we're doing studies that on the ground, which was, of course primarily designed for studies back in the desert. So it's probably look something like or re purpose spaceship I'd be inflatable, it might be rigid. Ized certainly worked were only not just now doing. Research on the right way, Do that. So there's no final answer. Yet it's out there
burning man festival, I don't know if you every cent anybody on a research ship to burning man where you have like bring your own water, intense and everyone is really space, those Woodstock erected. I think they were moving onto their queries year. What do we got? We're gonna, good questions, yet thinner read a good question. One is for you actually make any. Over emeralds nutmeg on Instagram? I don't know if that's their emerald, nutmeg call name have pretty cool person to because they say Yo Astro, Ms Ike peace, my dude, that's how they open really. Yet if you were standing in front of the future astronauts prior to boarding their ship to Mars, what advice are parting words? Would you give them bring me back a souvenir really what the first, I would be worried about me. First, what advice? What I I may have some good advice for him to. I would think, but my my advice is my advice. They give,
call my friends when, when the newer guys, especially and it's kind of itches- and it was a former astronaut there's a some of my friends like fluid and is also some of the newer people that are flying for the first time- and I tell him enjoy it- take a look out the window for me: cuz, it is strong ordinary experience, and you never want to take it for granted, and I don't think astronaut to do take it for granted that they would do a pretty good job of appreciating what we get to do. But we never can appreciate it enough, and so my advice to them is even given the opportunity to do something great and just enjoy joint as much as you can look out the window as much as you can look out the window for me, and they usually several do that for me that I'm jealous that there looking at the women on that but that would be my advice on what do you have for improve on that bike? I always say you know if Mars is not in your travel. Plans are on the wrong spaceship, but other than that, I think you said it all
ok, we got another question. I am this one is from Matthew, dulling cough. Is it and is an ethical to pollute planners with? Humans, John, that's another topic that is actually being studied as you did. You know that mark that NASA has a planetary protection officer and I don't think they were the dark suits in the dark sunglasses. They, they actually do pay attention to the issues of contaminating Mars and ass, also has, or has a contract, with emphasis so by that advisers us on exactly those issues. So we have to decide as a society whether going down hers and determining whether others say life on Mars and and the importance of that and think of the philosophical obligations that, but does that justify what will entail inevitably be it a change in the way that life can live on bars and I'm thinkin, nor, even though things like microbes, not certainly nothing large enough. Those two scuttle across a picture tv cameras, framers like
but just what are? What are the ethical implications? Those questions are still being discussed, so you I didn't know that the NASA had an ethicists down there. I don't like yeah what other countries back queries do they deal with. I wonder this exercise that works when we work. We. We worry about things like the ethical limits to the research we can do in flight, wouldn't windows it become coercion made or the MIKE had described as a whole, but better, probably but So the idea of putting somebody in space is a tremendous motivator to sign up for almost anything that somebody like me would like them to do. What are they run legal limits? We will eat dirt nice. I will do anything to fly in space when not so much anymore. Cause I've been there.
That is an extremely good motivator end, but in so you have to be careful and they that's. Why a lot of times we need people like John and other scientists in our management. There almost protect us from as nationals will would want to do their job and do most anything and will sometimes take risks that wish with that. Our management would not feel comfortable with, and so we had a we had. One of our things was you never asked the crew whether or not there ready to fly, because their answer is yes, and so too
Well, they said they would go. That's not! You need someone to make those decisions for you, because the crew is motivated to go in and they are ready to go whatever. Whatever the case may be an you talked about the wanna things we learn, John, when, in my training, as an astronaut was leave no trace and we would actually go on expeditions to different parts of the world. We did kayaking, trapper, Canyon, hearing trip and so on. I was always if anyone listening is familiar with camping and leave. No trace means you don't leave any of your stuff behind, and I mean anything yearly of did. Take yourself with you and you don't leave any trace that you were there and that I think that what we would be doing and on Mars is well. After so did we have like thirty seconds going at a quick went in there yet
and what is the latest generation and propose in that excites me the most that is then Dane rise in Facebook or anything they get you to Mars faster very properly. As the time spent travelling. The more time on Mars is better, just because you're, not exposing people to the deep space radiation and the weightlessness and factors like that, but sadly we're looking at chemical propulsion or perhaps a nuclear thermal propulsion which might cut up a mother so off the trip time but no warp drive. Yet. As far as I can tell that, that's what we need today. We're gonna have to wrap up this part, but does stick around during gets more time desire. I gave me I'm going to Fortune stay here and well be right back with more star talk. All stars and more of the questions from are from our own.
This is a I thought about this. Is MIKE Mass Amino with STAR talk, all stars, you with maybe Higgins amazing thing and around in my good friend, John Charles in Houston. I am glad to be here. You see a stuck around for a little bit more. Will you continue to talk about sending people to me rising and John is working at big time. For real getting at trying to get us there jar. What? How do you How do we in on sending people verses, robots? You know you ve got moreover up there and you robots can do a. Why are we send in people? Why are we doing in the first place? Why would we want to send people to Mars? No one of the best?
comments I heard about that was up by one of the key eyes on one of the Rovers one of the investigators who actually sponsor the rover, and he said essentially I'm sending a rover, because I can't go myself, but he says. But if you look at the work is done by a rover in a month an astronaut could do it in about a minute, so they question about efficiency and productivity and independence, and things like that. The rovers are remarkably productive over an extreme long period. How many years have the rovers but running around far beyond their ninety day, warranty period and that's great if you, if you are happy with that kind of productivity and end throughput for a bargain prize, which is what the rovers give you, then that's a good programme to send people to mark to send to Mars and notice that
in the discussion between astronauts and robots on Mars. So far, the robots are winning. There are no astronauts on Mars and look at all the stuff we ve learned, but there's gotta be some benefit. The having people boots on the ground for a long period of time, skilled, observational scientists, people that no, what to look for people that noticed answers in all the fall, the work done by the people all in and the Rover Mission Control back on the earth, except are able to do it constantly in real time. Instead of having to wait for The twenty to forty minute radio lag. Does that send instructions to the Rover? I don't think it's either or I think it's both. I think you can see tremendous Are you two rovers and robots on Mars and there has to be some tremendous valued at putting people on Mars as well. Yet the eight I saw some statistics somewhere about the man of ground they covered on the moon with with people from images. Couple days compared to the years with rovers on Mars, and how much more much more efficiently you can
around people can get around so much quicker and do so much more and not like does an ego thing where it now it's nice. It's not just fun and games is a John. Those areas are not fun and games, but what about their private? You know that there is a gap raison between meaner nansen, like Spacex programmes. What do you think about ass like it? I beg of you if you could arrange so that, like you, could just go and be a tourist on Mars is could not happen even before you in all its that's very interesting Spacex uneven mosque will be unveiling his detailed plans at a conference in Guadalajara, Mexico in September late September, early October and I'll be there. So I am anxious to hear what those plans are. He there is almost nothing that EU law must cannot do when he such as mine to it, and I would have liked to see somebody like him take on the problems of go into bars. All I can say is, as as we plan these expeditions to Mars and probably button
amid twenty thirty's at the earliest. We would benefit lots of potential problems. I think people expect their national space programme. People expect NASA to be as risk tolerant and risk averse as possible. That is, we dont want to send people on risky expeditions at the government's expense. Recent people on these incredibly expensive expeditions to bring back fit to life on earth and that, but those benefits are in include knowledge of the universe. Knowledge of the solar system. Other folks may not have the same motivations. I'm not saying that that musk as any less interested in safety than we are, but he probably has different motivations, forgetting therein. They, I think, he's interested, actually colonizing bars, which is NASA charter. Nasa's intention is to bring everybody hold that we some there eventually. So there is a difference in Austria,
apples and oranges. What NASA is collapsing cooperating in collaborating with with MR must got his plans. We're gonna, get tremendous data back. If he's ever actually able to descend a red dragon to Mars and potential benefit. Nasa's Owen expeditions in the future. We are going to be there for the announcement think you're gonna be a plant. Once again its people keep em. I gave her modesty you at the conference, like with a newspaper I would hope that what I am talking about, wants to go he's these thinking, he's gonna. Go he's gonna, try to take a shot, the next time that the window is open to get their net short amount of time. Writing in twenty. I think what shall I say, listening and come up with our be greatest send a red dragon in twenty eighteen and twenty twenty one and twenty two and twenty twenty five he says he's gonna send as Mars. Colonial transporters are well we'll see how that works. Well bullet. They earn it and I'm glad you're gonna be there to keep a modest, but what it wants these, for example, summaries, and
colleagues that we have where people are pretend, unlike their on Mars and trying to learn stuff, for example. This is some call high sees they Hawaii space exploration, analogue and simulation right, but there is little story with these guys are there's a facility and. And when it's when you say why you have to understand us not of the tropical lush beautiful, why it's on the side of an extinct, volcano in Hawaii, looking very much like the moon or Mars, and and is probably not very picturesque, but NASA is interested. Nasa has funded to study at high seas, not the entire facility, but one investigators work. Primarily not just a torment these people, but primarily to test treatments and countermeasures. I like to say not just to turn it down. I am, of course the moderate. That's a feature, but that's not. The purpose of Roma citizens understand how we can keep them functioning. Healthy, happy, productive, efficient for long periods of time were also interested in and other work. The Russians have done in their chambers, in my
countermeasures. I like that you say not just to tell us about. I also, of course, as moderate, that's a feature, but that's not the purpose of farmers. Those understand how we can keep them functioning, healthy, happy, productive, efficient for long periods of time or also interested in other work. The Russians have done on their chamber in Moscow where they isolated people for five hundred days a few years ago, and I think that this, the high seas, people that programme. They have people, therefore for up to a year, and that is what the selective there's a lot of these things going on some of em about somebody's these. These plans against something Mars is one way trip. You talk about getting people back and I remember when I was when I went Joan I when I flew on the shuttle I got, causes a government programme. We got travel orders made like every coming
George, you get travel orders right, everytime, you go somewhere and it says in our from Johnson's now from Houston to San Francisco for a conference in return. Yet right, our senses, a gunman operation. When I went to space, I got travel orders yet, and it said I'm Kennedy Space Center Florida, too low earth orbit end turn I'm not joking. I still have these travel or driving an airing in return, and I was really grateful to see that it said any research but somebody's people. Oh I've got this idea, you're going to go into one way, trip and people going to hang out, and what do you think about that? John? I'm? Not a big fan of that plan is a good idea in general and I'm not really impressed with that particular effort and right, there's a lot of is a lot of Xenia stuff go and where are you now? It's not an easy thing to do, or else we will work done it and it's not These are to get there and going on this one way trip. I don't think I don't think it's a good. Its again was eyes widened.
You may be the travelers as you don't get reimbursed unless you come back to the home state the whole spots. Oh, that's right in the debate you anaemic Do you get your premium and you're gonna you'll be, would do them they're gonna take money up there. You have to come back for that puts on the spot here. All? We actually gonna go John what what are we waiting for you, as we had one of my car This is a new or astronaut, was saying that the new class of astronauts they say to going to send him to Mars. They said the same thing to my astronaut. Twenty years ago we gonna go what what's the story? I'm convinced we're gonna go and I hope it's in the twenty thirties up. It is inconceivable that humans will not go to Mars. I hope it's NASA humans, I hope NASA's, the agency, that does it but there's some point some time. Some agency in southern ministries in some nationality will decide at the right time to go. I think now is doing the right thing by analyzing the risks and making it a safe and as efficient
as productive as possible to justify what will be a very large cost, but inevitably somebody will go there. You are yet ready. They make events lead already had actually, but we will be ready in time for lightning around? Ok, rapid fire I also Johnny, ready, I'm ready! Okay, so makes good answers. Questions hit this bell I think I'm just gonna hit hit whenever I want, but apparently there's some method to it. When I'm gonna hit this thing, it's really pretty. I wrote my bike here today and drive people crazy, go on, I die in New York City is necessary. People are always in a way to get out of the way. You don't do that Haiti, where Europe, based on that when you're on your bike. No, I wear a bike helmet and me more than that is one of those dangerous things. I'm glad I got here, thickened near cities dangerous, bicycle? So here we go we're gonna do. Is there a ring, a bell? I guess for the next questioner, whenever appropriate, kit us lightning round. Ok and this question a
from Jonathan Laird and he is asking MIKE and after I'm gonna put there by since you done. If given the opportunity, would you personally like to be among the first humans to colonise move to or a visit as to breath. Yes, I want to go visit. I want to come home John MIKE. Want to go to Mars. I would like to go to the moon and I would like to the space station by the barge Mars's too far away into dirty. They have it you don't. I wouldn't want you want to send other people. There were kind of example. Is that thank you for that answer. They can't do want to say that every body else guided knows most about it wants to send. Somebody else is something wrong with that. Ok, so there's room Brandon and he he counted as unsnapped. At this question John, this is for you. Could we use artificial gravity by they spending a habitation unit around essential supports or by counter with another mass. Yes, yes, the answer is yes, it worth studying that you in research
rumours investigating whether that's a good way to provide treat China measures for people in space and whether as cost effective. So yes, yes, yes, grace their isabel, go, try sue, unsapped, TAT, Watts mankind's various, where its unmarried b a reference to Armstrong or not. What you think MIKE, what Neil Armstrong thought of that stuff after he landed on the moon. Could you didn't want to get distracted? Why you know I'm sorry, John S right I also realise that he did not get a publicist, his wife, no one thought that he took care of it after eleven so I think we can get there first and then be inspired in thinks. Ok, grace next question: this is maintained our lawns and mass and Higgs. Oh, this is zero me! Ok, my question is: would it make more logistical sends to build a possible settlement above ground or to dig out a subterranean network of tunnels and caverns that would be protected from the environment is. Let us gave explorers access to subterranean.
Can I just say: yes could answer that question. If a clue, yes- and I will say I don't care- I just want to go swimming to leave it John. What do you say? I say tunnels of all four tunnels- bottles, ok, the next one Reggie lay Alexandria from Facebook, will you have the possibility to meet the Mars Rover bride s? Whenever somebody goes to Mars, will they get to meet the rover? John, it's a big platitudes on how good you are able. Would you land there But will it still be there? If you get your hundred years, allowing to start on the moon is still there right, it'll be there for a long time. I'll be there for a long time. So we just gotta greatest gotta get their last question. Ok, thinking big! This is from day law on Instagram. If the magnetic fields is law protects us, here on earth? Is there any way in the future that we can come up with a way to mimic that on Mars? What you think, John, that's a great question on fact, just what we're looking
that is the human research programme and and trying to understand exactly what they magnetic fields particularly affects our, but I think, for a short term at least we're we're. Ok, but without a magnetic field. We have a that is one thing: that's helped us on earth, I live here. Isn't it John that they don't have on Mars is a big? Is a big deal protects us, in and never did not just that. It's not so subtle. That's really bored, I think magnetic field coffee instagram. We need all of things. Not I'm! Ok, grain! Ok, this one! Do you think this is from Joshua Mikhail forty seconds? Do you think future colonies are married to the internet, snow communities or could they be like, american colonies, chinese colony, brazilian colony, etc. I think you're gonna be international. Just because of the cost to the experts are getting. There are also getting one nation was to pay that that huge bill but Who knows what will happen after they get their modal split up international colonies afterwards? I think that I think they're gonna be international. Calls this way we can pull food from all the. The different cultures and will be better eating and share these
and so that they have a component of commercial companies to our? I that's it. The lightning round tab guys. That said, your prize of the trip to this just was great. John, go back to work now and get us a Mars. It might arise where all the counting on you like Erasmus. I like Spain and in May of course, great great there You here. Thank you very much for letting me in and role of you listening out there. Thank you for listening to us. This is a start calls guard, might man's amino acid euro. My signing off, it's been a black. Like Della lay I'll drop the organs which you could listen. The scar talk commercial free joints Our talk on Patriot, on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriotic dot com. Last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-24.