Neil deGrasse Tyson and Eugene Mirman welcome planetary scientist Carolyn Porco, Sean Ono Lennon, Vanessa Bayer, and Michael Ian Black to search for life in the universe in Part One of our StarTalk Live! show recorded at the Beacon Theatre in NYC.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip. The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode: Commercial free welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now. We have an awesome show for you. It is by incredible pleasure to bring your host the amount saying sides, communicator, unnatural ones.
Eugene, yes, always going to have you here, things were making for support of your computer universe, So I guess it's right. There guess you merman start short. Life first appeared as part Eugene, Mermands, comedy festival, organizes groups who commute in the they they make. You laugh any so, let's at all science to one of the spots and ever since then start or live was born yeah. Now, where we started Put a small bar in Brooklyn and now would like, when the beacon
So tonight we're going to talk about the exploration of the universe and the search for life in that exploration and what impact they might that might have on us so softly, culturally, religiously on our artwork and all that we are and define ourselves to be as humans and, let's bring up of, if you like it. So let's bring out one of my scientific gets a colleague and friend. Fact hometown native give a very warm welcome to Doktor Carolyn Porco, Caroline Callanan Workers. Native she's, a planetary scientists. She was head of the image King science team. Of the Cassini mission to Saturn. If you any image of Saturn in the last fifteen years. She did it,
and she and her team, I call her Madame Saturn. Thank you. Thank you. I love that. It is my great pleasure to comedian, wonderful comedian from one hot american summer and many many other things that you, gentlemen, here's a new, show called debate wars out on sea. So, ladies and gentlemen, Why go black? You don't go around, around and from that they might live and train wreck. Ladies and gentlemen, Vanessa Bear running this out
can't do this is going to talk about art, we need an artist servant or about the impact of science and our lives. We need somebody who sits at that intersection, give a very warm welcome to musician and artist Sean owner, Why then, do amen arrived? So let's get some basic science on the table. Caroline, we went to salmon we didn't do? Did it in an awesome way? We wanted He entered orbit back in two thousand and four and it's been going gangbusters since then, why go to sadder later? I'm sorry I'll, be all the more specific. What were you after? What do
Well, we do. I begin also be more specific. What were you after? What did we not know about Saturn that you found out? Well, let me back up and start at the beginning with the voyage emission. Ok, the Voyager mission, spacecraft encounter Saturn and nineteen eighty and nineteen eighty one, and that was really the first time, we ever got a glimpse of what this attorney and system offered. So we got to see the surfaces of the satellites. We got to see the rings in some detail and as these things often happen, you know it was. Just a wonderful exploration and journey of discovery and all those accolades you ve heard, but they really, as with other questions that we like to Answer- and so I assume
The border mission was over. Everybody was deep into planning the next commission to return to Saturn, because that was considered the system, the planetary system. It is the planetary system that is the most phenomenal, logically rich, so it tighten believed for most beautiful. It's also those beautiful I was in the privileged position of being responsible for the images that we return, so I just very much wanted to make them beautiful yards. Give it up, so you couldn't just send Cassini there. You needed some gravitational help. Last I remembered when we and watch some earth and you don't have enough energy enough propulsion to get it there so use do orbital energy from what well this is a manoeuvre that was found before going to Voyager. But if you fly a spacecraft by a planet, let's
that is already moving, then I d- on how you fly the spacecraft by the planet. You can actually take a little bit of momentum from their body, but because the planet so big and the spacecraft is so small. You really give a big kick to the spacecraft, so in order to get Saturn. We ve actually flew around the inner solar system for two years kind of parked at their building up speed. We flew by Venus twice the earth once and it never went back in time up what you did a dreadfully sharp around Venus, not around. We just flew by buying slingshot Venus, and you also slingshot earth we did ok, neither we just get. You just got lucky that you ended up on Saturday. Always look I'll, tell you if they had left me
charges and navigation. We would ended up Uranus, so they do have a group of people they ever they have. A group I'd like well anyway, a terrible, terrible sense of direction she does reference year. I know what you want to make that clear, ok, but, but so so this, like a three cushion pool, shot, offer three, the anymore planets any more, don't know, then we went by Jupiter and we went by Jupiter. Incidentally, on the eve of the year two thousand and one which I thought was like so incredibly bitten. Richard nets is nineteen. Sixty three wasn't a thing. You said that a bitch arises serpent turn so
slingshot Jupiter, and now you got enough energy to get the Saturn yeah just twice again as far away as Jupiter is yes and give us another three years to do it. I took a seven years in total to cross the solar system are cool and then it gets pulled into orbit and you got ring. You ve, got magnetic fields. You ve got all manner of things going on there you're my favorite of two favorites, one, you son, lightning on Saturday. We did yes, we captured lightning on Saturday, and does it is raining? What's going on? Well, stewing sex centrally lightning. Does here it's company by thunder, or rain, and so on. These are big convicted storms that produce rain. On tat we do. Border water for liquid. What these this is in the water clouds, the watercolor, but you have other clubs and then they reigned and wouldn't be in order to be like rain ammonia? Is we ran ammonia. I guess where that's too deep for us to know much about what we know about the water clubs, ochre baby, we're ammonia, rain,
but think out many account or perhaps was appointed. Everything would be clear. Every like that in this sector? Is I so we get that and then what freaking me out to this day? Was this hex a gun in Saturn's with South Pole with north pole, acts are gone no now there are no hecksher guns in the universe, how did you? What is that ok? So this is I'm glad you brought this up, because every time we released something about the hectic on our website, Cyclops, DOT, org or hits went through the roof. You know, because I think people think this has something to do with Crystal energy and what is it? What's your picture like criminals are common Crystal Cross Sectional, shake the evidence, the straight sides and in Athens,
Are they really blew people away? So we explained over and over and over again that this is just a continuous what wave with just six waves in it. It's you know, em number. You know that wave number, so we have a wave number six jet stream, that encircle Saturn, it's nothing more than that its very similar to what we have here on the earth, except on the earth. It's very discontinue is because the system, the gesture is traveling over the oceans and hill Mondeo and so on it. It friction just where's it down, but I'm Saturn. There is no friction, so it just is continuous. Why I was so it's like in my mind, it's like this like during the shape that you learn about like when you learn about octagon heads. Agonists excited so right anyway,
so and then there's and then there's there's water jets, dreams. We well it's a dragon, it's a jet stream of of air on Saturn and at that level I don't know it's probably hydrogen, mostly hydrogen, but it's it's here, just suggest stream, which does very regular because there's nothing to disturbing that sentence at the bottom. No, it's in the top or the atmosphere at the pole got it so so so so current are just one comment that your com and casual way don't cha,
you didn't freak out when you first saw the extra where we first other heads of government Voyager and I was very frequent when I was young, like you know about it, I will be very good if you get a free gone. So it is easy in retrospect to say how to explain what you're looking at, but it seems to me that's a pretty impressive thing to discover on a plan That's all you have to it's just not a lexicon, but then we don't have it Well, ok! So that's why we weren't you ask: why do we want to discover all those things that are the same and a different about our planet, because, ultimately we want to learn about process and process the more we learn about process about planets, the better custodians of our own planet? We can be so that's it.
Planetary explorations all about so I thought it aside from having aside from having a really bitch in time or so tell me about the any questions you thought you would have answered, but didn't get answer. Oh well, we still don't know exactly what the massive saddens rings are and its important if you're interested in figuring out how old they are where they came from and battle process. So in fact that's what the end of the Cassini mission is aiming to do eventually to measure to Master Sheriff is measure really skinny. There really skinny there only about thirty feet about yet they thick
four two hundred eighty thousand kilometers, which is about one light. Second, they would take light the fastest thing. We know one second to travel across the wings they would fit in nicely between the earth and the moon, and we ve discovered so many things in their just. Let me know when we start to question: now I'm going to explain this in Layman's terms for the audience Saturn's, really big, really big. Why are the rings so thin income Harrison. You really want to know the answer to that. No, I just I felt like I should say something, but just to be clear there so thin when Saturday's edge on when the edge onto us they disappear entirely. Where
I'd really. Rather they disappear. They disappear mostly motherly work offline, but they you to know ok to real simple physics, one or one explanation, I didn't get back. They consist of lots and lots and lots of icy particles, chunks of ice, that like that tiny all the way to the size of small apartment buildings and when they collide they did in the early days after they formed, and we think they formed by two satellites colliding with one another. Something like that. This creates a cloud of debris. And these particles are in very wild and crazy orbits and when they collide, they lose
whose energy, but they can serve angular momentum. This is a process that even has produced the disks of galaxies that we know they collect the spiral galaxies which are very thin also compared to their horizontal dimension. So does that mean that Earth Willoughby? Here we have a ring of space junk in debris, while ETA would have to could if we left enough junk up there, so that their collided that actually What happened here and is in Saturn? Just like many solar system? I mean in terms of the way this our solar system form them. Can't you make that analogous to the way the disarm you're, the moon count. If one analogies interplanetary the moon count for sovereign right now, I've lost track. Its is over sixty years over sixty Saddam's regime, I know how many months, I'm sorry I don't know you know, allow me to defend this bit of ignorance
We went through a little bit of a girl cat know every time you reach a point where the number of something is not as important as what the same Actually it's good for you now is brilliant and at what am I sound like a cobbler when people were taught that there were nine planets in the solar system in a brutal, got kicked out. People cried fell because they thought science was about the number and I get to do with the number waiver. Didn't they just find a ninth planet anyway, and is that why science has since stopped measuring things? listen, how we volley stop counting helping, but has included, been replaced by some detail.
A wobble that might mean there's another planet out there that we didn't know about. We may verify the carpet this fine, that's so hard to understand that we could have had a planet in our own solar system that we haven't seen how we wait to see how we see it as we do to tectonic where we come back segment bigger. Hey. I've got no secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this show there Just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch. Since last, star and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free, you can
download all current episodes into your favorite park has player and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not after hear me saying if you support us at patriarch dot com last talk. Radio I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. One. There come right up there, never significance to those in search for life or interesting things going on on moved. So what we can tell us about, so these are the two desmoulins. There are ok, the first.
It's about fifty percent larger than our own moon. It has in a thick atmosphere of molecular nitrogen. It has a thermal structure, that's like our own earth here and so it's in some sense. It's a mini earth, except that it does not have oxygen in pre oxygen and knew TAT, Miss Sphere and it has organic materials in its atmosphere in those organic materials. We suspected would be found on the surface and liquid form, and we didn't find them at first, then we didn't find them after a year or two and then finally, we found that they went to the polls. The liquids on tighten our liquid hydrocarbons that upon did at the polls and our pondered pounded that's cool. Like someone get resentful, I, like you,
made it a word here now. If it wasn't for you, ve got it. I think it was a word so so so liquid, like methane, methane and ethane yeah, so think. Like methods, the gas, it comes out, your stove. Typically, we live in a city so that flannel, that's very flammable question about moons. Just for the audience. I do not know the answer, but difference between like a moon and a planet is that the moon, orbits Yes and the generally smaller, generally ok moons that are bigger than the planets no. I don't really think so that not only what use are generally that I can. I use this covering my bike peddled. So you Jane when we're bigger than the planet the planet would be the moon and the moon would be the area, but I figured until he's a generally I need I haven't answered down their main like the same category.
Right, but not the same as that right. There are different, but demands have elements in common that you know The all share certain elements that they're all made of elements I mean like story. Let me help you help them out That is a fact about around so in this Saturn system, example. The moons are largely made of water ice because its so called out there that water becomes. You know it's like a rock and you get to Uranus, and then you get it Neptune, which are much farther out. You have moons that actually have methane on their sir solid nothing, so it just cited method yeah. The gas down you liquefied cool, it's a more than you get a solid
That's lane around the moons of units in that year, as also liquid nitrogen. I mean you know. Most of our atmosphere. I mean a solid nitrogen. Most of our atmospheres is molecular gashes nitrogen, but by the time you get to know, Tom Neptune, we ve got nitrogen on the surface it on PLUTO. You heard a lot about nitrogen flowing on the surface of PLUTO used to hear about it, but to renounce his point. Eight, let's leave time to get to my favorite moon, the best Brenner, yet just to be clear. Yet the fact that the moon is comprised of ingredients that are essentially identical to
crushed is one of the factors that led us to suggest that the moon was formed by a side swipe of a planet. Testimony early solar system scattering countless tons. That's crust into a ring of debris around earth that would later coalesce and form what today we call them. How are we gonna just study them? The moon rocks that they ve gotten in nineteen sixty nine, and they just realized that the collision that created the moon was not a great. It was actually something a lot. More impact will identify reads up on everything watch out for him? Yes, we got we gotta watch up. So the question is: how deep did it actually grazing and could not have gone to deep? Because if we get to deepen earth on earth, when earth was molten in its early days, the heavy stuff fell.
The middle. The lightest have floated to the top, so nearly all of earth, iron and platinum, iridium in gold, is in our core and if you site, if you sites like enough to reach the core, you would scatter the heavy elements into what would become the moon and the moon would have an appreciable amount of heavy on it and it doesn't it just doesn't for such nets eyes. It should have a whole iron core and it's got no got enough now. So I shouldn't go to Moon to get any platinum right. Well now I need a new thing to do in February. So George want to be clear. What yet completely sensible question and that question when applied to the Earthmen system led to an entire new understanding of the formation of the moon just just so which planet as it can accept two sides fighters with which planet as a candidate, to think that maybe completely destroyed our just it's gone, you have what the asteroid bodies now or something
Troy, Bilt yeah, it's got a lot of debris, but if you add it all up, it doesn't come too much. Okay about like five percent of the mass of the moon. Very it's very low when they had to be a planet size thing, and it's likely that this the projectile broke up and is now part of them? Who can I offer an old alternate hypothesis, space rate space, razor gun, gamma, Ray Gamma Ray Laser gun? It could have been levelled beaten. Are you? I can't remember where people can't divulges archery tighten what really what's your wife, which inspires so much of our invested, emotion and energy in space exploration tightened, doesn't sound like the place. We would find life as we know it,
be very difficult to find my right, but you wouldn't look like a goat or it would be like super not ago not ago, like reality whom about it, you don't move them of what you are asking, what we don't. So what else is tantalizing? Ok, just like so to me, the most provocative and most thrilling result. We found is tat. This little known, called and sell it is which is no bigger. Across than England, I mean it's very small has geyser she would shooting out that extend hundreds of miles above the surface. In fact they, if you follow some of them, they go tens of thousands of kilometres away from Enceladus and they form the earring. But these geysers we now know after being there, which is a set of rings, have been lettered, one of which is called the hearing, one of which is called eager, judge you, ok
The Pentagon hasn't even think that our doesn't gonna do I'm gonna found that has a ring. How many rings Saturn s question? Let me finish one caught at a time all right thought to tell me about it. So we don't know we don't count things anymore, radio, We had one less counting hearing, I mean and sell authorities, are these geysers? We know come through four major fractures at the South Pole, which is a really unique, interesting terrain records of the ice in the ice in the I shall sorry there's an I show that exists relies on top of a global ocean of salty liquid water that is suffused with organic materials, and we oh that, because after being there, while we, we figured all this out and then later on. In the mission, we actually send the spacecraft through the plume too.
Cut material and analyze its composition so, like we got this down tat event which remote control over what next orbit your spacecraft, you're, not you know you Ray drones, you never know when you say we're get up material. What do you mean like what constitutes Caille Aerial can't tell say: ok, Hale did we find space scale clause to close enough, but a simple stuff, like you know, things compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and things like that. Those are the
by what I'm kidding. So the basic vital elements that you and I are made out of a plus a lot more, but especially you but he's working. But ok, it's ok I've less impressed that there are organic materials, their cause. These view just listed some of the most common kinds of atoms in the universe. The question is is, and so it is a kind of state where we can think of it containing life as we know it. Yes, because it has an ocean and what what wiser outside the Goldilocks. So am I added a sub surface ocean. Ok, I see where you're going it has a subsurface ocean and we found through whatever it's been now nearly sixty years of exploring planets both from ground based observations using telescopes and our spacecraft that
Several moons and our solar system that have subsurface oceans and so their married ocean liquid warmth and had to be moping it. If not, the sum is no economic ocean s service, not not the Pacific, but it isn't it not. Some means it's under the ground, think of it that we accept the ground on Enceladus ice. We're gonna work, that's where the top, I started out there on the reserve of getting a body like when I want. You really did John. It's like it's like when you have a chocolate cake. Defrosting is, on top the cake, sub cake and then and then sometimes there's a layer of frost thing, some cake, do we have that we just to be clear, Renate Weber, whenever, until recently, the north, the North pole,
ocean there's an ocean under a layer of ice. So your question was not out of nowhere. I mean you cannot motions on earth under layers of ice, able to use to reopen kit. Can I ask a dumb question: you inferred to the South Pole hat: how do we gauge North and South honour on a moon in space, the waste feeling now we know how I got to get right will hold out your right here, like this curl, your fingers. If your fingers curlew direction of the rotating object, some points to the North Pole and Venus reverted. The other way toward the North Sea reversed on being right. So anything that seeks to rotate this, where you take a hand, do that and then the north pole would be done is a venuses. North pole is sound,
of everyone else's pall. Mall in this. Isn't it it's more than right here and we need to establish what is north sure yeah. I got that go on so ok. Let me finish my greatness. Great question. Let me finish this story, so that's where we can all agree. What is north, no matter, what we're looking for, that guy doesn't agree arising to where were you So liquid water organic compounds are, we know, come from the ocean and its being heeded by Title Fletcher. So it's in a residence which makes its orbit eccentric, sometimes as far away from Saturn. Sometimes it's close, and that means that the title forcing varies and that's how you get tidal energy injected into one of these bodies, there's enough of it to keep the ocean stable, and so this is what NASA has been saying for decades.
It's now would be the formal requirements that we would want to know existed on a body so that we'd mount the next kind of wave of eggs. Racial and go their petty in particularly to look for life, and so that's where we are. We then sell it so that the Goldilocks zone that is so celebrated can exist in other ways outside the traditional to Bobby lords? There really is no Goldilocks zone as it pertains to distance from the sun, but there is a Goldilocks zone in the sense that, while there is not know it just because all you need is something that should be as well. In order to do so, yeah, but you ultimately need something like tidal energy How long are the oceans? What how warm are there? Well, we don't really know, but they have to be. At least you know that the temperature of liquid water, like zero degrees celsius at thirty, two things and they got up they gotta pack, some punch if you're blowin geysers a hundred hundred km
whereas in the sky, that's not hard to understand because the weight of the overlying I shell for Does the water up the cracks and then there's also volatile materials like we ve seen him now here they have special toilets that do that, We want to go to their dangerous question about a thing, so, if you're looking for life and that moon has any, every thought. Maybe this is very responsible, but has anyone ever thought like what? If we just through a bunch of bugs in there? Why would you want to do that was just to see if they could like where then, what They think, whether you like it not an aquarium, I mean we're not, but he so cool and then coming five years later and they ve all grown up yeah we put. This is just an idea. We put enough
when we get there again. We is that really so bad cook it so so NASA has an entire office called planetary protection. Yet their goal is to preserve planets. This would include moons that may have life from contamination of life from earth and to preserve life on earth. For many bugs that might accidently be brought back from our planetary mission. It's called forward in back. This can go backwards, contamination that those planets have that with us. So why are we like the inhabitants? dream. It really set the right one so until we know that a plan is completely step that we want to do that
heroin. You are also part of the wider team. Has messages aliens that my fine, this spacecraft, how chances are you? It's has escaped our solar system and so this movement to try to contact extra terrestrial light, be it microbial were what we might call intelligent. This been going on for a while, but some people might ask, since that Voyager Remedy Voyager Record contain data that would allow aliens triangular back to find out. What planet in the galaxy this was launched from this is basically I return address right. Do you give strangers your email address, other humans have dna in common with you actually, apparently, actually I do you do. I do it's on my website- Cyclops DOT, Org, yeah, yeah, ok, you're Vanessa! Do you
No, I'm just saying I published I'm curious about the the, not the ethics of it, but the sensibility of alerting- and we all know what airlines will do when they find humans. We ve seen this many times played out in the movie, so so this is the only tells us to Carl Sagan at the time that he put the end. He an injury and put the record on the spaceship No, I did not know I did not. Everyone is very hopeful everywhere. Repeat everyone thought it was a well. You know it's on a spacecraft that can. I was fast to us, but it's gone pretty slow. It's not gonna get too far. You know I mean it. You know. But we have there are there- are people myself included, wanted to send me, sages into the galaxy incur, put it on transmissions coming from the most powerful ray
dishes. We have here on the earth. The receiver telescope is one Frank, Drake Famous astronomers red radio, astronomers started, nineteen. Seventy four. He relayed a message to. I'm thirty one is a globular cluster in our galaxy actually was a demonstration of the our the transmitter on their telescope, which they had just brought online and he and his creativity and is just exam Parents and wondering about life elsewhere constructed this message that was encoded on the signals and they sent it into space very celebrated thing, and I wanted to do it again, except do it better and it is even a website where I described this, but suddenly there is a foot, this movement of Oh, who think that this is a terribly dangerous thing. Did it do Stephen hawking it does includes was below us? Yes
they think that we are endangering the planet to let aliens know where we are. We in danger ourselves when one civilization encounters another history of life on our rights. Are the extrapolation? Is you know so much more powerful advice? civilization encounters us. It's gonna be like humans encountering flies and they'll, just one exquisite us and that in the we are already doing it? That's my argument. That's the counter argument, and it is the kind of work here come to an end. The counter argument is not due to me. There are people of in saying this for a long time now, but the idea is that me civilization- that is advanced enough to come, knocking on our doorstep has already filtered out Emily got that far and has to be benign, because if it wasn't benign, it would have destroyed itself, so I just feel like, even if the
advanced civilization is so much more advanced that we're like ants relative to these aliens, then whatever they want even if it is enslaving me, I kind of feel like that would be the right thing to do anyway, you, if they're so smart, if they you know I should these basically in the coffee voice or something This is a guy you're out of trouble with authority figures. They know everything, so they must know. What's right for us, then- and it might be squad
as long as I just perfect you're, making a pro slavery arguments of endlessly good. I believe you think needs copy. I mean I get them coffee, they would come here. How do you think they stay awake on those long, interstellar flights? That's definitely Starbucks where work, so you were saying sufficiently intelligent civil alien species that made here must number one be benign. Otherwise, with that technology our if they were evil they be able to each other and they destroy one another, as we want the brink of a few decades ago, possibly even now decades to come, and so fine and now you gotta, say there's so smart. They have our best interests in mind, I don't know what's right, better than will know what's right away. I think that's why I think that they be so we valve literally evolved and they will have their will appreciate life because angle of study.
They probably know already what's going on and incentives, but I would ask, is why what we said to them and just It also matter like what we say like if we're like. Oh everyone's nice irrigation by or for like relying only worsened. We are coordinates like where we are. You know we're built on DNA kisses what political life that ever like a pay, a recipe or anything like they could try to slay me like this is fine. I wonder if they have more of that. They cover they all want player plus if they should and there's appendage sticking out. Maybe that's not what you,
shake you dont know Alien, an area, for example, I'd love to pull on an alien Venus as a sign of french coordinates and sectors. Do we just think that they know how? Well you know you have to make certain assumptions so you're very on all seriousness. This is a very interests. A fascinating intellectual exercise to go through to figure out how you would communicate with. An alien alien organism you have to in order to speak English are not going to speak it. There was no some frank. I would recall if an alien lay in my back yard and its policy is not just
Ok, I the corner, it won't happen. Fella that would also big gerardi. Pardieu is angel from another world, so you'd have to assume that You know the geography of the galaxy and that they know about electromagnetic radiation and all its properties, and they know physics in and maybe they have math to something like it. Because they got here. I mean they had to get here from. You know that in tens of thousands of hundreds of thousands of late years, yeah right, they didn't just pulled space on a lucky guess I took so careless. You are hopeful, and I am delighted to hear that you more hopeful than I am because there's look at how how tribal we are human to human and somehow you're thinking we
be human tribal against aliens or vice versa, I'll bet there's no guarantee that we're gonna make it. We may be one of these failed civilizations. If we don't get our act together. We we haven't we haven't pass. We haven't pass the test yet so we We may just go by way of all those civilizations that just destroyed themselves and we're not gonna get to participate in the Evanna that awaits the peaceful locally future generation, what gets We are all these outer space treaties that the? U N, comes up with, and peaceful use of outer space and friendship in outer space, and I'm thinking I have very little confidence in that, because why would you think they're on earth we'd like killing each other, but in space all that's a place. To be frank, you don't think ISIS
Buford ICE on the moon. I am not at all convinced that we will treat each other better in space than we do on earth until we know how based on start off. Let's go right on: did you come from simply other than the York? I would welcome to know your point of origin sort go ahead, which requested I come from templates waste, ten blocks away. What country is that start. Let's right on, did you come from simply the New York. I would welcome to know your point of origin sort go ahead, which requested I come from. Ten blocks waste ten blocks away. What country is that so my questions, Elon Musk, has been doing a lot of snuff in space acts on launching stuff into space, but it seems like his underlining motive, is really to colonise Mars to some extent and wanted to go.
Kind of August everybody's opinion about what we want is unlikely to be your home. Whether I was when I assume you are mine, I am all for it specifically. You want to comment on annealed lusts plan to colonise Mars with Spacex Sean. What do you feel about colonizing? More? my understanding was that Ilan wanted to get to Mars himself? I don't think he cares that much about the rest of us coming along, but why, because I think he said he'd rather on Mars and live on earth. That's what he said. I M writing. I repeat I. Gets its obviously something that we should do is to send people tomorrow, because we want to study it, but I don't think we should. To that any Savior for the human race, because, again, look at Arizona. I mean look at this a it's like if we can't road in the Sahara than we're not going to be able to do much on Mars. You go back you expressly. We from I'm anymore, Carla
from an and fascinating place, also called New York My question is more on the social side. You guys might end up about Carl Sagan and making a marketing move as far as taking images in outer space and all that, what do you think is going to take them 21st century clinical millennial generation to get interested in space and actually propelled the next generation towards exploration. Alien urban development was on that generation. Now, if you think, I'm sorry, I call you so there's an extra coming up yet millennials and those who follow them, we had our sort, a pale blue, our large and our forces of science and technology to inspire us. You see anything on the horizon. That ok paraphrase of your question. Yes, good! Thank you. On the horizon, that you see millions well, I'm I didn't know that cat this, what you
created, Caroline any reflection, I think the biggest thing, that's going on in the planetary science community now and also at NASA. Is this idea that we're going to go and find life in the solar system? And so it's going to take work to do that, because it's actually pretty hard question and we got to figure out what the best ways to do it, but it's not going to happen. I'm going to be gone, but probably before that great big, happens in there that we can indeed young people. People who are young now to kind of you know, carry the torch soluble and worry is young, as you were when you joint word right. So it's it's gonna happen at some point I mean there's really good reason We actually might find life and our solar system, we just gotta, you just gotta. You know MT the you know you're going on it all right. Thank you maybe Zack from the smell your side of the River New Jersey.
About your kind about After what you said about life within our solar system, I think everyone here an agreement that there's life in the universe and that's kind of I'm going at in the universe, is a whole coming from You know nonreligious man, I am jewish, but you know tied up what I like about. You know how I can hear him to go on the universe in general. I was wondering what you guys think you know, because I know when you put your hand on the pillow, and I do think of what is the universe and what is the functionality of it is urgent. Your cause, is it meant for purposes of bills, for something I just in three minutes and have to know what you guys think simply as fast as you could you know what you think the universe is ok Vanessa. My god. So what is the universe to you? I guess I do think that there has to be life and so many different
so the universe and but that everyone's coexisting but antsy one kitchen or another plan, a big fat that, but I do think it's like I have ever all these different species coexist. Do you think that We know that we might be more likely in a matrix than in a real university ascribed to that philosophy. I remain convinced that if we figure out a way to make perfect computer simulation of a world or of a universe, and in that simulation there is what we would call life and that life has free will has programmed in that. They could then decide that they want to make it simulation of a universe themselves.
And if each one of these simulations reaches a point where makes a simulation of the universe than most universes that will exist will be simulations, and if that is the case, then the likelihood that we now our inner simulation compared with being the first actual universe that created the life they made the simulations very high, so I I lay there audio dragons, then I would be deeply intrigue free by that possibility that we are the playthings of a higher intelligence and now and then they get bored so they throw in a stir the pot a little anything Donald Trump say. Everything is a friendly everybody there watching this
entertained by it all. Thank you. Thank you for my liking. Which you can listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star talk. I'm patriarch for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot coms last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-24.