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Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now in MID January, are welcome back to start your home address. I summoned astrophysicist swiftly. American Museum of Natural history right here in New York were also serve as the director of a hidden planetarium, and I got with Energy Merman commedia extraordinary. Oliver and John. You got this regular doing on the day we shall I do rightful throat normally would be cool, but I am sitting with an astronaut, so it only become towers. The failure of the six year old myself, any shake. You become a journalist in your later years, author writing about space in the jobs by background cartridges. Welcome MR talk, like you, do on the only truly inimitable buzz Aldrin we can survive in the nineteen fifties and Sixtys everybody expected we'd, be on Mars by like an eighteen eighty, given the trajectory, we were wrong. We you disappoint me yeah,
but I knew we to do that possess. What Sparrow Agnew said. Agnes said exactly what? Well after we came back from the moon, there is space task study group many headed, and he said if we really work are spent a lot of money. Maybe
we can get to Mars five, every kind of like a nasal about it and made taken until ninety. Ninety five, we were super like if you think that was a miracle ways, needs these. The threats that someone else might do something first, because it seems like part of displaced from you a will to do well done by the way was in competition with the Russians. Do you think it's gonna take someone would be China or Britain. We could still do it right to help you get you think. If we Britain said we're going to Mars America, which I know we're gonna, get that what you think compared with just law firms, sweets, Maggie Thatcher, kindness, good you guys in so many more ways than I can even getting up. What do you think that would be the best thing for Poland Earring American Space Programme, the threat that China might go to Mars first or if only been lot in rehiring on Mars? You think, then that would be the popular will to know. We need to do that. First
whatever we do. I think we should have a solid plan that leads to: U S: leadership in we're doing what you admitted that in the nineteen sixties We were followers, not leaders.
We reacted to everything Russia did so Johns coins are taken seriously. Here's the thing not putting on my historian had we went to the moon for the first time as a substitute for fighting a shooting war with the Soviet Union. Good thing glad we did it, but it was funded like a war and we one where we got there ahead of the soviets. Duality flowed like river life was a river and in fact it ended up paying for a lot of other stuff, like the moors landing with Viking and the voyage of re enter the outer solar system. But then, once TAT was gone once the political imperative was gone, that's not going to come again and I think the unfinished business is to lower the cost of getting into space, and we don't have to break the bank to do things like going back to Mars ever heard it s ass. Yet a mistake, I think,
Like my everybody wants, I say it's the Senate Large says, lets the nickname. It's the space launch system that everybody calls it the Senate launch system, because the Senate basically ran with them ass his throat and said well, how is huge booster in it? cost, a billion dollars for launching does this agrees, but how they mandated. That means they made certain pass. A law that it would be mandate has produced this rock of heritage components. Now that's a fancy word for old stuff. Like that lesson, we are aiming to read their jobs so The senators can get. The voters and our space programme is going to be run by senators who want to get.
The next election or based on a solid american leadership,
the first one. Sadly, there I'm afraid you're unless you provoked yeah, unless America is provoked into looking beyond deservings dream, but our panel here these in consensus when we say we do not have the incentive to lead unless, unless someone chasing us in some kind of way freaks out where we feel threatened economically, culturally, socially militaristic late in that doesn't happen. I'll think evidence shows that we're gonna go anywhere at this. Otherwise, definitions of leadership. Why can't we need in developing lower cost ways of getting into space, because no it'll get elected? The tea party to Morrow said we're going to space the rest of America billing we're gonna beat you there one evening when one m aware did you want to be your own pacesetter that yet even hawking, but a year and a half ago say that the earth has about two hundred years?
four. It should establish a colony of earth to guarantee the survival of the human race. Why didn't you say that he's worried about asteroids and runaway viruses stuff that will render us extinct wants to protect the human genome? But what does that? Not everything? Ok, so I just worried if, in fact, we do colonise another planet than the asteroids ready to render one of extinct d just appointed by the billions of people that are there to do rather than think that's going to solve our problems. When effort is required, to colonise another planet. It's gotta be easier to deflect the asked if you know about it in enough advance warning the big ones you know about the bonds renders extinct. We got to accelerate Ngos
I would put enough money to save the human race with both action. I would put a few people in the moon some on Mars, so big may give all the money to Bruce Willis done it once do any mother ass, exactly what we say.
One other thing injures going to Mars time your way from earth. Who knows what that means in terms of physiology, suppose you catch some disease and you didn't have to bring that medicine cabinet with you for the floor. That problem pulses radiation from the sun. What is your plan to go to Mars with your colony, who never wants to combat and have them stay alive? Who is legally bound to state with its efforts to sign the document? Thickly may want to go back to cause, there's no potato glance. How they can survive would have a tariff for Mars browser you can put in an order and it'll get the liver two years later, seamless lab aims. You owe me one million dollars, seamless where the beta Barbara so pure, literally talking about like resurface or delivery. Chinese take up rate vaguely defined without even about building a base there before you ever go down and land awaited knew that there was nothing. We just landed and we
so what we brought whether bill the base romantically. May I promise less than a second away. Oh ok! So this is setting up an advanced team on the moon of moral photos where you're not dealing with all the problems of landing. But you can radio control. You can drive the Rhine overs around on Mars. The first round of about one can't we Dragon Dragon Rovers from here
we can make us it takes four minutes or longer, if its closest to a safe site, to get a message. Xanax offer the cliff doesnt work, not travel time of the radio signal. You lose your hardware and there's another problem psychologically with that, because you know, and Mars is on the opposite side of the sun from us and even when its close, its anywhere from ten to twenty minutes, one way to send a radio signals, so you will not have a real time. Conversation the whole time, your away from earth it on Moorish when you're on Mars and the earth everybody you know every place either been it's just that star in the sky. What second adieu psychologically he say, you're funny differ from the pilgrims you peach tent with the people you want. Do the pilgrims didn't know, the numerical was not like marks likely rigorously about Mars. Doesn't look like you know, freeze in rivers and microbes, you're, saying you be cargo right supplies, they'd be sent from
the care package lamp. In reality, we are growing things start growing. Doesn't get very hot over the sunbeam and for fourteen days, where does on the moon right it's about twenty four hour alone, but more than that So there is twenty nine days by day and night and day and Mars is like earth twenty four hour. So would we have Mars? Cows Mars farm animals, they would need spaces. That's funny. Try melting a cow space, we haven't they haven't of water. That's I mean you in just three days, so I could mention that. But how would you have enough? Water did not come back to earth,
more on Mars, and you can see it more. Poland us out o you could go get it. I have no doubt under the rule of the surface it lower latitude, gingerly children have anything in it. Water like our water is or its water like it's a radiated and you'll get a Martian, flew that you didn't bring the medicine cabinet, or are you just drop a little? I don't like it's. The appellation trail on earth is each to wear wherever in the union which, in your pretty sure, it's h dual on Mars and not like aids to to to do what we can drink baron someone called seal to day. I don't drink that guy. I see cholera than water. How would we maintain the attention of people on because we proven our selves over the last fifty years to have a great capacity for being jaded with stuff almost instantly? So we think about the APOLLO programmes. We went to the moon. A few times and that since we all intolerable to go away- and that thing we do, how would we get a colony on Mars to entertain us enough? So we wouldn't justice humiliating that colleagues to wonder what I've been oxen. Probably that can we count milking thing. I was gone, the third timeless or and then just go board. You think we're the kind of nation is gonna, send people someplace of Mars and then forget him not to forget it. Worried part of a space programme now is the key is how to entertain people its depressing to see these decide how to entertain. People hear enough to sustain their interest because we become such appalling human beings. Have you got some types of your committee? I would like to know what it means to completely die on another. What are your views on tariffs?
takes a long time to do it. So you don't forget are realistic between step well explained. I think you can gradually modified thing. You can get the soil and you can put some water are probably growth things. I'm convinced you again. Ok, yeah sure you'd have to do in over the whole planet and have the optional like a greenhouse or a bubble module
of some time? Can you remind you, did you telling us? Can you reminded us, water, reformist, Para terror? That's area star, Trek three where they will further the Genesis programme Sacra itself, so that is what are? They just remind you that it was ok and not just to the memory of the internet and then the commission, so that the Genesis plan where the Genesis plan, whereas they could take a planet and turn it into an oasis. Indeed, if you will come and after enlargement, so Carl Sagan idea was that you would sprinkle very, very fine black dust on the South polar cap which is made out of frozen carbon dioxide. It would absorbed more heat from the sun. Would that the vat rate into the atmosphere is being white, reflects most of its energy from this right, make a little dark it absorbs, and so you liberate all that frozen co2 to go into the atmosphere, you sick and up the atmosphere, and then you can start making Mars more like, but I figured it with Co2, which is a greenhouse gas, trapping more solar energy warming, the martian temperature put so here's to problems with that Mars is only half the size of the earth and it has three thirty eight percent of the gravity. So how does it hold onto that atmosphere? And it has no magnetic field to speak of so the solar wind, these subatomic particles from the sun, our sand, blasting that atmosphere away so have, even if you can have that right, all that co2 into the air? How do you keep it tat forming? Has issues but devices point if you like, I do it if you make a bottle insulated in this way,
right, the theory from other, then you put your cows and they are often don't cities you living on, spells dome cities, but also up air pressure. Do you think that people would come you we ve seen the pictures of what Mars looks like and I love mars- is a plan as much as anybody, but to look at it every day with the brown dust and the brown sky, which is the dust floating in the air. You think, people would learn to love that people who came from the earth their children their grandchildren. Would they start to feel like that's home, they will be the most we the most talked about pioneers ears at ever, set foot Honour because they pioneered something nobody ever did and they carried it out. The leader, who makes a commitment for human beings
the planet alone. We men near. We came down from the trees whenever and we ve done kind of piddling things, but all of a sudden couple, a cool things I think, there's by those in years old, but now, thousands of years in the future, the person on earth. Kind of pushed human beings to go and establish a settlement that began to grow and grow, you don't think that's a small thing in the history of mankind. I do, but I think I'm asking for the people who are actually living on Mars will they feel that they are hell. We happy rarely more movies, written about them more books and everything, I think it's like they were like a doll: like it died,
but it was a strange dawn running through the streets in Moscow and now it's more famous like lassie. So if our dog now want to die in space, is people would like don't even velvet underground of space exploration only if only that dog could understand the concept of five another, because it makes a secret for you I'm gonna considers singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one, and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free?
you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying We wanted a remark: you writing talks about sending people to Mars, one, why? What did you get him off the serve one way as permanent saddled? It's a moment, our word, so why don't you want to be on efforts colony like a way around that law, if you would you go probably not, How many people are there here on earth?
beauty are abundant crazies and we want to go and raising people. You wanted Donald Trump, wealthy crazy. You see on our trump shadow, Joe think. Oh, it's quite a team that you could put on how I see what the hell does in zero read. So suppose this point: what was it a survey or some kind of Paul taken people were asked if we could send you wanna one way trip to Mars. Would you go in? There is no shortage of people who wanted to and perhaps not all of them were crazy they just like the eventual like the people, dangle off a cliff faces and climb Mt Everest like they want to do some. Whether life is at risk. Would you know
didn't I may I would say yes, I mean you gotta do something in this life in years of age or saudi or your parents were binds gave something expensive education? We play play with planetarium the whole. Why do some wine, like a doll Maria? I could bring my family and get a good net which account and some books and minutes to get there. My wife is very well educated. We can both totally space school spanish homespun survey. Ships more kids, then, is a family trip. I could only do that. Your kids would be furious yeah. We know always to raise this vote as each is again how great was three years ago I was asked by the loser,
they're on line addition to tell them what I think are the biggest news stories of the year in science. Are they still waiting? So they did. I think, a traditional response, o the discovery of is a month before they asked me that questions of December Russia came out with an announcement that they will not to fund a mission to deflect asteroid upon us. Three hundred metre class, asteroids sizes, rosebud, Pretty much has earthly excise and I thought that was the biggest new story of the year, because, they weren't arousing whose due to join us. In Amerika will join. You wait a minute something's wrong or something doesn't feel right about that because it means somebody else is leading US face mission and we're following I share your sentiments where I think it's better to read to you: have a talented and resources in the fighting bleed.
Especially if the consequences you save earth you I'd have to obey say so. But how do you use your celebrity? get America to lead again do something but nobody else is gonna. Do do. What Dennis Tito is saying? He's gonna fly around earlier: yeah, that's that's you know now, as I said in my neighborhood, you know the cable.
Here, but what sense like, just as it was suggested that logistics is something walks in something else: tat money talks in Bologna challenges, so I'm asking these he's going to succeed. It's one thing to leave to say you can lead and they just die right. How about Arnold Schmidt, who was the first person to go to the new world and then a hurricane took it. We ve ever heard of him wait, wait areas in the bottom of the ocean, we're not even talking about another possibility Why can't you see an international effort? Why do we have to do it alone, to get it done.
When all is something when you talk about how interesting, asteroids and so on should all sounds fiscally very small, and maybe we could go a little bit cheaper, but there s something about doing something borderline insane. The does actually inspire people, don't the moon was crazy. That was what was so incredible about it. Going around most barely makes any sense, so it's called the inspirational so having the white was all she's always going to inspire in a way that we can do it cheaper or we can harness energy does not have the same impact giant we'll do it cause will do it and it will be great and we're going to do it and it's gonna be fine. I will follow him. You think right. John you're thesis is the crazier the idea, the more gracious the idea, the more power has it that WAR America is built on doing something that makes almost no sense to anyone else have certainly done no sense. We just wanted a little bit of time. Anyway, I don't wanna go what you did was unforgivable, but that's all.
Like an audacious idea, Nothin venture, nothing, gay, five, audacious ideas, but you want to visit Europa. That's too far away you away in eighteen, sixty two sending one way, almost an audacious enough for you now. What do you want me colony on more audacious,
What are the reaffirmation of the original plans and roses so just shows how Jerry did we get is proposing a colony on Mars and you want, for the rainbow sure, that's one by one is fine when its backs. Here's the thing about more. Is that so neat, and this is something they re bribery pointed out when you go to Mars. If you can make it on Mars baby, you can make it anywhere, because you ve got a chord with you
become a multi plant species and from there you're on your way to the stars. Once you get the hang of living on Mars, if you can solve all those problems than the rest of the solar system opens up enlarges, the easiest market is the closest it's. The most earth like well Voyager missions, those old enough in the audience, might remember due to Voyager missions and bad enough energy of motion to actually to escape the solar system entirely. There still going
to their side was attached messages for what we might define as intelligent aliens would find the craft, and it also give our return address here, which is a bit controversial. You don't give your email address to people you want to hear we give in the address of the solar system. Think Facebook is so the point is there was more fortuitous time in the solar system, with a spaceship, could do sort of triple bank turns around multiple planets and get closer views before exhibited the solar system. From my memory of that, that was the first time we gave meaning to the moons of the giant when we realise that when one moon as a volcano is just a volcano, it's the most volcanic world in the solar system would be. I guessed right around around different. So have you thought about moose Habitable moves me? My not now not thought about. Star far saw so, how do you get to another star in your lifetime,
the speed of Voyager at its feet. They will get to the nearest or semi five thousand years, that's somewhat longer than last seconds ass. How do you pull this off gravity ways when I wrote my science fiction story? Was zero point energy, but that is as Jazzy is gravity way. Maybe the emphasis that years on the word fiction. Science, The problem is in the study of gravity waves, China is a hand of us. That's the best thing that could happen so there's a gravity, wave tat in the international Baltic Sea. So just different, clarified, zero point energy in You have space where there is nothing quantum Physics requires that there actual emissions. In the end, The level of nothing and theirs
our particularly people who would like to write a science fiction story on. Did you can tap that energy rising into your grass in the vacuum space? And I haven't carry fuel tanks with you? You have surfer gravity way. You get the gravity wave in front of you to be a little lower one behind you, the fabric of space and time can be distorted in the presence of mass. For any kind of energy at all? And so, if you rapidly disrupts the region of space time, you can send a ripple through the fabric of space terms. A three dimensional ripple goes out in all directions, so you get two of them one, a little more energetic than the one in front of you. Just like by says in principle, if you know how to write that ripple, you will go at the speed of light wherever you want to go, but soon issue here. Space is really really really big, bass
expanse, possibly infant, gravity. Wave only goes at the speed of light. So if I want to visit the other side of the galaxy, a hundred thousand light years away- and I send you and I'm waiting for you to call back you leaving Four hundred thousand years gravity waves, the thing that can be made or real in any way that just signs refugees exist. We really know what makes them we don't have the power to make them the way nature makes them, but it certainly legitimate material recycling. Is it something that we could eventually make? If we may mean that we would need much more energy than anything we could possibly dig out under the sands of the Middle EAST?
Frank. Can you frank, Frank Gravity way. The news dentistry, wants to sell to dodge the latest on the suggesting now had a new conference. Today he announced that he and his group want to send a man and a woman from the earth to loop around Mars and come back in twenty eighteen. He is going to put a hundred million dollars of his own money into the project, was to get the rest by public.
Donations threats would be most of the money. Hundred million is nothing million salaried epics. When you going to do you realise, when the space shuttle, if it can't land in Florida, cause it's like thunder storm, you gotta go to Edwards Airforce Raisins gonna stay Norman another day, it's a hundred million on just the Today we are faced with a dilemma insane Kickstarter Philippe we're about how you get some on. One possible way is there's a fella named Elon Musk, who maybe you guys know about Tesla Motorcars is also as Iraq. A company called stray sets so stay sex is the company that is trying to lower the costs, are getting space there back to do their second cargo flights to the space station he's going to develop human carrying version of that capsule and I
What Tito wants to do is something like, maybe with must company may, with a different company, a castle on a big rocket and maybe stick and inflatable habitat at the other end of the castle and send the capital the habitat off Timor's once you leave the earth committed, you ain't coming back for five hundred days and you and it's gonna happen at twenty eighteen because of the way, the planet's of lined up to make it the minimum energy requirements
aim just rights and that you loop around Mars and the gravity Mars dense your flight path to come back to me just remind people you're, not. Eighty four remarks is your dream, for we will be when you arrive, but they'll have to be ass, doubles eyes. What's it you don't wanna hit MAR Wanna go ass. You want to hurt, but slightly near where Mars. Once I really, I think that's a need idea, but I mean they want to do this in twenty a tendency going now. He is not going to speak. Why a man and a woman, the funds- that's hetero normal. What do you think is the word Werner issued take just any people who want to do it? Do nothing? No one here knows it's either, but I think that the idea is that the two people romantically compatible. I gave us and these ideals might what he would like them to have had children until being older, because of course it is likely to make you infertile. So he wants an older couple. The radiation, irradiation, zappia gonads, this relation you get but not fun, suggest to clarify that's an important clarification does not talking about it. They slips of physics it so just to clarify the sun gives us not only my white brings. Warmth sends charge particles very high energy
racing offered surface and sometimes those common huge pulses. Andrew call, solar players- that's actually not the problem with a mission in twenty team, because the sun will be at a minimum of activity. Why are you trying to say what happened? But why is that bad? That's bad, because the sun's solar wind acts to screen at galactic cosmic rays when the sun is active, so the sun is at a minimum of activity. It means you get bigger threat from galactic cosmic rays, which you have solar flare particles of kill you if you're expose them in a matter of days. Galactic cosmic rays increase your lifetime risk of cancer over many many and which one of those raise makes you the hawk. That's so it's it's risking tough Columbus! You go back.
Don't worry, I'm saying how do you do it? How do you make a machine will be reliable enough to function for five hundred days without spare parts from earth? Like most of you make me sick eaglewood? We do. We know how to go to the moon in making sixty two now not visionary and humble declaration at a very fast answer vassal. But if we tried to send somebody the moon, we decide go in sixty one if we try to send a saloon and sixty four sixty five and they died. How well, with that of going over, we took all that time to figure out how to go in a way that wouldn't kill people joy. So it's not that you couldn't figure out a way to get their human six. While it has to be reason, you know one of the comparisons that people use is. It should be about, like climbing man, Everest risk factor, you climb Everest, you know what is it one in twenty people, one fifty people don't come back, we should have guys, would already layer, sherpas, enlarged locked door, your parachute report until the top amendment. I think it's how they get to spectacular idea for the long term future of humanity, but I think we ve got to do the groundwork and we don't. We don't become sterile, who hide of interference with having a colony. I can agree with what MR notably land, why my surprise be tree? He didn't do anything. I just knew it was near. This start wish you could listen. Mr talk version, three joint start
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.