This week we’re still on Mars with Andy Weir, author of “The Martian”, and Dr. Jim Green, Director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division. Join Bill Nye, Eugene Mirman and Maeve Higgins for Part 2 of our show recorded live at SF Sketchfest. ADULT LANGUAGE.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode. Commercial free, The universe is filled with secrets in industries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time, what what Are you just recently the domain the brakes dad? Did you grandma South Nasty Brenda, get lab?
and we were on Mars, wrote the Martian made Higgins Volleys woman here, that includes all the women in my earlier on the women on the panel wine, Jim Green Division of planetary signs that these science mission directorate and our border Eugene murmur everywhere. We ve been talking about more very. Why don't you? How did you pick that place on Mars innovation, the reason I wrote it, that way was I want them to be a good distance away, but an achievable distance. So there be this adventure of getting there and getting back
and tat fires of another spacecraft the narrow minded. Ninety I wanted him. That was a plot point. I wanted right from the beginning that it goes in recovers. Pathfinder was lookin for life. Is that why they were there? Well, the excuse why there were not very positive motivation. Reason I wrote it. That way was I want him to be a good distance away, but an achievable distance, so there'd be this adventure of getting there in getting back. So I wanted to be about eight hundred kilometers away from pathfinder, so I kind of drew a circle around Pathfinder said here is a cool place. From two b I chose that's Adela Polynesia, because at the time before curiosity went ruin everything. A lot of people believed that ass Adele was the movie or plain where water had flowed, and so I decided the reason they chose that I sight was that it would
many many layers of geological history all in one place and they could sample them all. Just like it turns out. It was just the bottom of the ocean. It's about only ancient ocean of Mars autumn at the age of an ancient ocean, so it would still be cool, but there's much better places to go. If you can have a man mission in us. It's three and all the good spot that already been taken the beautiful landscapes at night I saw in the movie. Is that what it looks like they really did a really great job, because we gave him an enormous amount of human gene and things that he could look at and they ran around the world. You know art max action designer who who is also Upper Academy award, went out, nay, they applications. They went to the razor in Jordan. Jordan enjoyed a desert called body rum in Jordan. That's all the exterior shuts. Ridley Scott loves practical effects like the sandstorm, you think they'd be justice. People walking around in a sandstorm ray. I knew
big sound studio way that larger than this entire auditorium and pick pilot, and and some really powerful fans factors were falling over and because they were being born over Well now worked, I thought that was decided at the plagues, Jordan, peaceful Simply cyclone downwards of Arabia or love that So there is a strong. Argument that the robots are rovers are doing a great job, but wouldn't it be cool to send people there right? That would be, just because they have made to have absolutely so here we find the weeping graders can curiosities I've over the one now
but we are looking forward rapidly into so he's. Gotta, be nice, he's gotta, be nice. Getting worse, are now saying he's gonna, be all diplomatic, but I can go ahead and say: I'm not a big fan of planetary protection. John John everybody. I've just to get a planetary defence is where we keep the earth from getting here with an asteroid who I am a fan of, that oh evidence, no evidence The angel dinosaurs had a space program, they Haven T Rex. Is there not be a little army? That's the speculation with a serious matter, but then there's this other expression. That is very important, which is planetary, protection, which is essentially the prime directive. Kid violet on record and so
That is where human show up and contaminate the surface with our microbes barf. So I'm not going to march this we're afraid of giving it germs Well, what we are afraid of is taking our germs with bringing back samples and say we found Mars germs. We don't we do that so planetary protection also. How do we do want a fine large all we do not do that, but we don't want to have on our own joint answer, because I don't use gloves so they could, even though you may have to face, drives space solvents that kill everything in space ovens that kill even things you re doing really crazy. Did we do it? We cannot send the cure, actually Rover over there, which has been on the surface of breaking Mars. Three years and we really would ultra violet of death and night and hot and cold.
And there is some concern that there's something still alive on the outside of what this is really good point. Maybe we can, in the sense that we are indeed looking at whatever microbial human life. We took with curiosity whether it might still be alive or not and Do that, while we do that through computer program, We hire an arm and bring him back on the day, there's an app for that. There might be. So many, but it but We do that analysis and we ve got to be able to demonstrate what what what kind of what call bio burden. What kind of material might be on the rover that that if it's gone or its at such a low level, then we I'd be able to creek over to what would be weeping area as here agree about something would get, would go from the curiosity, correct, a bunch of birds would form or what
we're going back. The concern is that we will basically infect Mars with earth life and displaced the local population with earth like That would be the end of the world of evil Man person scenario more likely? Is you think you found you really have right. I mean we really want to find life beyond earth That is the significance of what right. That is, the significance of red wine water. At least now has to have water, and so now that we're finding how rich Mars is with actual water. That really bodes well. For us, giving it a shot of fine that fine these This is where water exists, because everywhere Arthur's water everywhere there is something like trying. There there there related, we ve been following the water concept of how we do Mars research now for well over ten years and its really serve described quite well.
So we're going to have to design some pretty special to be able to do that. We will have to bake it to do a variety of things, to protect it and it can supervise super sterile and then go there in line with indigenous life. What would be the significance of finding a life on Mars, with every Buddhism is true only only if that was you that, while validate David Bowe is eternal quest, No, I think you will change it where's. Your word absolutely. I think everybody would think differently about what it means to be a living thing in, because if I can offer my opinion on its there, if we found actual life on Mars or fossilized evidence of past life on Mars, we would then very quickly discover one of two things: either one Mars was well three things. I guess either one Mars was infected by earth and by some now
process in the past, like maybe material from earth, got kicked up by an aspirin. That's not so like more likely is more likely is earth got infected by Mars, meaning that, like life, managed all through natural means from Mars to earth. That's the kind of pants Burma very and that there was a life of all in one place once and our solar system, but managed to infect to plant where, Martians we're. Looking for, we are in that area is a good chance. You look around this room. There is a good chance that what you're looking at is a bunch of alien invaders and then Are you talking about me? Yes, yes, Elliot of extraordinary ability, visas? Guess Russia, colored cry is about, and then the other opportunity is equally exciting, possibly more exciting. Is that if a leaf independently
Mars: Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, doo, that if that were the case, then that would mean ok there we have a sample of two planets here, both of which had like have or had liquid water on them, both of them, develop like this implies does not prove but implies that life is. Almost an inevitability. Every Ok, that's why everyone everywhere all over the world, one that would be a huge huge discuss. One traditional supposed evidences of life would be natural gas messy yeah, we're flying not now on Mars, too many years ago, from ground based telescopes will we look the methane it's here on earth and our atmosphere through that to Mars. So we made it. Difficult measurement discovered that Mars has vents of methane as well.
Nothing can be generated, a biologically you can have. How would you make naturally methane without Well, you need water. You need the right, minerals and Unita heat source. What's the right Middle Oliver now in Iraq and IRAN are living it's in the rock? It's good! under a microscope. These yet has vain sure I mean yeah. What is the truth diplomat it makes me feel good, no, we'll go that what's up with carbon its carbon, you gotta have a source of the carbon, he grabbed the carbon and why did you gotta carbon? The first time? The well? That's not elemental carbon, That's why you pulled it off the fundamental right and so well, that's a bionic, but biology, of course, is is real potential one we
These methane bloom, so to speak during the summer months from our telescopes the controversy over the little Myers carry their out degrade while less. We now know, there's no Mars. Cows are the only way underwater Mars goes well. They have to be no one when the When I went to the climate, everything is severe. You go ground you get into? The rocks of the glacier part part. The glacier down doing while the boy but of yours Anders possibility. A bionic is no no by no life, no life but its general possible. For some Mars probes, whose yeah, I guess so curiosities, measure that nothing so now, there's no doubt Mars does indeed How do we measure methane from four billion german? aware whether while we do with curiosity,
sitting I reserve, as its many Cooper yeah brings in that atmosphere and just dissects. It looks at everything in it as during certain times of the year. The disease at my face knows tat it royal speck you ve, hardly four billion. Can it can get? Oh that's very good is it a spectrum it or spectroscopy here which we have so they actually measure the isotopes, so they really handle the individual molecules by shining always or through other, with rage sorting out at high speed in a vacuum regime. So they have had to kill us, but we don't have to kill you. Your baby, no murder today that day, methane, that's leaky we ve done the analysis and it looks like it's coming right through the soils were. Curiosity is sitting they may
during the day, and we know the winds during the day in Mount sharp around we're curiosity city all moves away from the creator, so there's no way that the methane that's being generated. Other locations can come down to curiosity, so it has to be. Leaking right through the ground so, we really follow the methane. You know we might be hearing our hands with a source of methane underground. To another another example of how you use the environment: the methane. I always say that kind, and I wonder how often does come up that you say that eight times your snarking an elevator, along that line, things have come Mars to the earth now we are ready. Like a lady for eighty four thousand one, so I happened that course
began packs a marvellous gravity. What meteorites you talking about ale h? Eighty four now in hill. Ellen here is a place in the Antarctic, every summer down to the Arctic. Snowmobiles and we go across the ice. Have you done this for fun? No, not yet Eugene. But it's ok you're describing Diego oh yeah when they had to get one of the parts of that death. Three. That was so here's the thing when you find a rock on the ice is lacking. I mean it. There's no other way to get the only for the rocky There is from this guy, that's right, so well It follows that gives embedded in the ice in the ice moves and then some of that stuff just gets uncovered overtime, and so is Europe will get There are six hundred eight hundred, rocks meteorites now and bring him back and analyze and in that set over the years,
We found a hundred meteorite from How do we know there for more? So when you the gas circa takes. So when you look at the gas it's trapped inside comedy right. So so, when you look at the gas, because we have to decide on the issue of old sure too tight, that's not joking, no alternative technical name when they were first found and then when we determine that they were from Mars. We call me Where's meteorites, but first they were sugar tight. In writing. I voted for the over, not so her tits its tights, so there were analyzing back before they knew that from Arthur analyzing meteors that they found all over the world may say like most meteors have this kind of chemical composition, a smaller percentage of them? Have this other?
chemical complex, we don't know any dont know why their different and then there's this key tiny percentage that have this yet more unique one. They found out that the big ones come from the asteroid belt, the bulk of em. Then the smaller said come from the moon that got things hit the moon. It gets knocked off. Comes here and there like, but we don't know where this is and for years they speculate, on what the shoulder tight mean body. What's there like, we don't know something out. There is a single thing that, although these little thing was the original named after a place in the dark with scientists, they think you isolated, Johnny Sugar, Johnny and then I was mostly tight so anyway, so it then one Viking. We enable this. You put this meeting. Right in an open and you look at the trap gases. How did you have a vacuum chamber and you have some state- was rotten Iraq or open you guys, science they sit out. So I mean has that phrase like echoed around methods offices in thick,
like any attempt to their daily now I try not to put its why you're doing, but they don't say so that age, double already Our population is famous one there's Murchison merchants This is a different one. You know when you look at the gas on ale age and they all nails, meteorite. And now you measure the gases high percentage on Mars, their identical and that's what really was the clue? so these are from Mars now merchants was another meteorite came down in nineteen. Seventy, sometimes maybe seventy seven, seventy nine and it is a completely different type of meteorite its what we call carboniferous conned rights in another pile, it's also small small number of files and
This meteorite gotta menial acids. This meteorite is really one of the primitive once the amino acids, building blocks of light had elapsed, arbiter of honour and starving, and so the meteor menial acid is like a man. Complicated molecule survived, go into the earth. We are now rushing in its own right and so What we believe is happening here is these amino acids. These basic building blocks of life are part of our collapsing clouded created our solar system, and then they are running around seeding all our planet's overtime. So modern plan within there might be a grand planetary avenant curve, so they hit all these. They had all these dear at Yale and so these are really a particular of interest to us together to get more more information about
so we're launching a mission to one right now or really big one called Banu. The How does the name that, where we did during the liner was Bernoulli, as you did, all the very extensive got an Asia Europe get the name, the name incrimination Yard, asteroids try to learn more about the primordial solar system so that we can now into these deep question. And Thou Michel is called Cyrus Rex that we're gonna watch in September to go to bed knew how hard can it be. I buy my dismay when, for about eight eighty, four thousand one. I got to go to NASA one, the perks of writing a book. I got to go to now for a bunch of tourists and they brought me didn't you didn't know you did Zander racing ahead of security, the whole time and energy.
It towards a meteorite lab and. The guy was, is and add more at Johnson States. Now the curate dollar meteorites, India, taxes and the guy with, join me various meteorites and Andy's ice? And now this one- and I could tell I knew from the sheep- I was like Oh, that's. Eighty four thousand one he's like yes and I was like I felt a little hole Well, I guess it. It's a well dressed up as a clean room, so you're all dressed up in the bunny suits and then he's and then additionally, that that here we go again materials, but on the other, the others- I think I'll say that. Might you know what they submitted pretty good money off the my my stupid point was impulse purchase. Was I bought a martian meteorite? I only about thirty three grams,
if a little sample having invited from NASA, you got, that is as little things that just fall to the ground from space are belong to, whoever pick them up and now the right. It is Israel, though there's a guy called a meteorite man to be meteorite hunter, actually using contact him, so so great places define them because they do look like normal rocks in many ways you know like the Sahara Desert. So there's a lot better when tribes that will go out and find meteorites and bringing the men and and and saw how do they know that their if it is true that their meteorite,
well. You have anywhere else and and then there's a rock sitting on time, there's no way that rock would be firmer. That would be idiotic yourself. Well, they look different. You know. Well, you're. I dont know how the Bedouin, I don't know the bedouin style apart, but then the scientists analyze it and make up and they can tell whether or not it's from the asteroid field the moon, the Mars. What else and so my little rock comes with all the people were to prove and how much was this? what was it like? Fire
dollars or alive? Oh was allowed them. Thirty, three grams is more than five k was about ten thousand bucks and he's doing all right waiting. So I acknowledge that you know it's a silly purchased the man who wrote the bark everybody comes out of my house and, like the Rockets from Mars, have secret for you. I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there, go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free,
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By holding those who work in the more we have even Higgins, Workin on words, Jim Green Iraqi, green, our move and may take. It is no. If I might change my name to me, the totally bookkeepers posted So do you guys have ears? Are we D say representing people in over a hundred and thirty countries around the world. We want to know what the specific we have some while,
so now, workers we do. There exists. We're doing a number of things in the Euro area using space station. This impasse now growing so food on figure out how to get hydroponics, we use. We use water solution, little soil around what about oxygen, We have a variety of processes already in place on space station, just scrub out the carbon dioxide, but As I mentioned March, twenty twenty will have its own experiment. To bring in carbon dioxide from Mars is atmosphere and let out the oxygen and then store and from that we can use it for a whole variety of purposes it. Basically, it's it's the relay version of the Was it the time fictional, the oxygenated martian here and it's? It's called moxie rates, Karl Marx and interact kids, it's an acronym
Mars oxygen Extra, I assure you- and I ask you- isn't it makes sense and act in a way that acronym I want anyone. Arrayed are gonna, go to Mars and make oxygen without would take a lotta moxie. Now you got it. That's all you're helping, ok, so that's very important. Also on twenty one. Is we have a ground penetrating later so for foreign penetrate it'll go down. Thirty forty metres don't be looking for the strata, but also potentially looking for offers for Waterford. Waterford refers in Israel CALM here now I like go with nets and assets wise. Work with that said, Arthur
We're going to send a mission after that to really go for signs of life like serious, is well we're talking about that right now, but that would look like you know what life is kind of hard to do if you're making measurements to go there and the reason why is our Astro have defined like this way? It's three basic attributes, in its metabolize brings and material, and that's where you need to solve the need, the water. Extract and food and dump the waste and then change matures change material, Astro biologist as a biologist and the stars out there.
Your item authorizing now talk about bilateral biology around like this acts of violence- mediaeval biologists, another one, but is so so you you wanna metabolize, you wanna reproduce, but she also life evolves, and so it's hard to build an experiment to go. Do that but life as a whole variety of other attributes legged, like dancing The event like a cat dancing you'd be like that. The house, why reproduced Jim end of executive Danzig, one say hold us. Let's say you found a way greater yeah and it's got water, and you gotta. Moreover, that's got enough: or to drive over to the weeping greater walls. Can we just just for nothing else? Can we have a microsoft
bigger, not power, I will not tolerate the material and bring it in and look at it and turn a poor look for cells. Look for now this composition, we can't we just plan to do that. You don't know what you know. Some of my best friends are geologists. I like rocks, but I want to go out there, like you're, really going to look for life like when we discuss the next generation experiments that would go to that of the murderous scenario. Would it be cool if there one of those ourselves, which is what our reels a recurring slip, LINEAR, which is what he's been calling weeping creator receiver wheels, it wouldn't be there was one of those within a reasonable range of curiosity. Right now and curious sitting on this little drill, but has been hit by ultra violet. Light for three years would be cool if we had this entire Mars science laboratory. If you will
are we getting over there? We could just drive over there and look at all. Men are beyond that we're only true. We don't, because what we we don't want. And what do you mean? What is more, it is a little act. So whether what we found By are orbiting satellites is there may be some reaping going on in Mount Sharp, and we haven't studied that enough to really determined if that's water or that much they all sliding down the hill. But if it's, why can't you can't tell them? friends from overmore, but yeah. We have other work, others it other reactors, rider waters and they're, not very long and not as long as some of the others that we ve seen, but that indeed, if not very long, this far, Oh no. What well well, beyond the with the length of this auditorium,
observed on craters that we see there are several football fields long I mean there are enormous, come right down beside it. What are you don't have a rover near them? No, we don't we do on Mount Sharp and if their, if there's ourselves there, being weeping material. We want over there. You bet we just don't know enough about him yet We will only have a year awhile, They are several amateurs away and- and we'll have to plan a rude. If we really decide to go over there and it would it would take- probably leads to half a year a year to get to improbable efforts. We got time, we got it, we gotta gizmo. There are you in favour of it, going there or yet that's water and its flow, on the surface, and it's close absolutely
yeah there's something that you'll be that you won't even need a microchip that their belief that you could see it will. Even I am relying on no, no, not even like a bug. Lego ladybug! That's like the leg they look in it for complex carbon compounds are down in the water that that our team tales and that there would be nothing living in the water that would be obvious to unwell, like I've got a fish a lady, but that lives in the water and swims, like others, people who want to go to Mars and one was right. Our planet. This was for this is that when I watch the movie, I could- and I was like he had such great solitude up there.
I live in New York in areas like this base, your dough planet, I could understand, and it didn't they may you're talking about, but I can in some way you wanna go to my reasons. I there thou of incredible lawyer, distro music and we have to move, but I think you notice it right away or you can very easily yet what are invariably higher life. It's not like Costa Rica, but it is really all about spending. It is much easier time surviving. I mean you planning to grow your food. You have to make sure the the so we're panels that are receiving life that the energy for all dusted off, all the stuff it you know. And the book in the movie. That's at some time. How many scenario Mars one way. One way, While we know
our people raising and we can go to my got back. No, I don't want you back, what's it like one wife, but a brand and a husband sitting right beside me. You want to go to my wife and I come back. I don't I don't buy it to be so there was a thing where they they had a web site sir? You know like the one we mission to Mars I don't like a hundred thousand people sign out, but I'm right here right away or easy to fill out a webs form but when you are actually on the rocket you'd be like wait, a minute
why were you just gotta, MRS Niels, watching you Niels, lodging ensure you get the science right he's watching? Ok, I'm sure you knew where he could. He took me to task last time. I worthies, because I knew he would eventually see those in my last pair, a panther at the planetary society event where right some loose, it's on the bottom and he would hear sovereigns yet right. I knew that any all your money he turn Rock Jordan Rocks caravan. Ok, so that's one, not one of you to tat. He took me to task because my my free path and he's a face like your mother when you go out and SALT Neil, I got good pants.
With that. You guys we're we're coming to a close, and I say it's important just want to mention. I cannot help but mention the recent death of David boy. I mean the guy was a visionary. He talked about I've on Mars, Dogrose lies in space Chris had the canadian Ashraf multi million dollar view of his recreational commander Tom there was major major Gee whiz bill John Major D, probably a commander by now she's left their eurostar one of the: U S: Army and a lot of cool stuff, so just just a rapid and how to feed people feel sending people to Mars Andy. You see I've just real quick. I definitely think that in the long term
we do need to send people to Mars, because I wanted to be a two planet species which means a catastrophe. On earth, whether be war disease asteroid strike, doesn't element? our species but in terms of scientific discovery, I mean I hate to go against. What most people here would want. If all you're doing is trying to discover thing scientifically, I dont see reason to send humans. Yet the reason I want to send humans to Mars is to colonise it. While you are Peter programmer back up your software. Yes, yes, this is no that's the thing I say twenty five years of being computer programmers Tommy devalue backing up things in a veneer of reading. Why, by the way where I am I'm getting better, though, why do you want to send people are more likely to get through
explores Americans. This is what we do and when you think about in America and how it was created over time with with people come. And that one of their explore this nation that wanted to do the pioneering it's in our genes. There's a lot of people out there that we can't leave the earth well, not be in their genes. They stayed home. Where are the ones that have colonized America were the ones who keep exploring? We are. Nation that has been first to every one of our planet, a couple more dwarf, planets and worse. Exploring this is what we do in vertical. I soviets got to Venus first now,
ok, Lou biologists, saying let me say that space exploration brings out the best and I am not aware were from some serious exploring the cosmos tells us more about answering these too deep questions. Where did we come from an hour? We the universe, and if you want to know the answers that you have to explore space- and Furthermore, whenever we go out there, we saw problems. I've never been solved before and this is worthy of our intellect and treasure. This is what makes humankind worthy species on this remarkable planet, because, most so say June will be right back with dark. This is a start,
everybody it's time for the questions and answers from you. So, are there microphones up here? We do not. We do not have to turn tables, We want a guy you. So if you are going to ask you, I should just make it Chris Chris and please make it a question, and our hope is. Our hope is that it would be about Mars. It would be about the Martian able to be about so so the first question right here go for yes, ok, so we ve talked throughout the programme about Eve, discovered water on Mars. If you are to somehow be able to transport the water there We found on Mars to earth answer to make a glass of it. I don't know I say you were what differences from that and earth water would be apparent
say you just had it in your house and dwell if it's really water, there would be no difference whether there had never number number of neutrons it really he's in it, it's all here and are keeping an eye on what these guys job, just sorry worship, words for these guys are gauss, is sample return so they everybody whose into it you meet certain geologists. They believe that if you had a sample of Mars, you could tell who was president of Mars three Billy years ago. Is there so much information in Iraq so. That line, but maybe not bring about water but bring back rocks. I hope you, as a taxpayer and voter, will support this. It's a cool when he's from we neither of those things exiles day. No, it's commonly can count on the tax thing, especially who's next is it all down here reopened, Are you going away way wisely? Nasa pen, you cool
it's a the real bill, so to knock NASA, but government is blue recently and inefficient, and nowadays we ve got the price space raise heating up, and you on musk, with space Ex, has said that he wants to send you beings to Mars by what is it twenty search? We do you think that going to beat you guys there, and if so, why are we not? So I believe it's a race and we want help you on any way we can so. He's got some ideas he's got different approaches and that's wonderful. We want to see if they work we want be able to help him in terms of where he wants to go. We want to give him the information he needs to determine how to do it
want to jump in his well no space access, not gonna, put humans on Mars and twenty toys just accept that. Also? I do believe that the first man mission to Mars is my my belief, it's gonna, be a large international effort, more organizational similar to I S, s then do the APOLLO program and those commercial space companies like space acts and and their competitors are going to be what NASA and the other government agencies higher to put things into orbit. So what I think the ideal situation is NASA makes the ship. So go to Mars and makes the stuff that lands on Mars and train the astronauts and go and probably they're going to want to make the launch vehicle that puts the astronauts themselves up, but the just raw freight transport of mass up into orbital be done by these companies. I think it'll be just everybody working on it.
That's a team effort and he's right, valuable, lower the costs to everybody. Now, let's get the great question Mary, so we could take people gotten in line and so go ahead. Can I call you bill Yeah. I guess you don't eat article quickly, I want to say for anyone here. Thank you for helping us like inspire us and articulate wonder. I love you. So I'm pretty young, and you help me like feel wonder as they get older. We also realise that, like life is full of infinite possibility, but is also full of risk planetary exploration, writing comedy it's awful, having incredible possibility, but incredible risk. What would you say, tat the young people here who are realising that you have to mitigate risk, but also possibility like that,
like for young people. What words of encouragement was you give in terms of you discover something there might be risk while just open mind in general. Not entirely but in general you don't regret what you do. You regret what you don't do and to accomplish anything you have to assess the risk, the chances of success. So this gets into something my parents talking about quite about common sense and they always said common sense is not a common. What you want. Is this mix of fear and a belief that you can accomplish something so in general I would say: go for it you'll! Surprise yourself, you'll get more done than you think. That's what I would say. Thank you Jim Failure- not yes. Yes, man, as hello, so
during besides things that are already plentiful on earth like water? Is there anything that would be super valuable to us on Mars, good coercion, I think you're old I like to live and work. You know the method in addition to the water, the methane, because we can heater halves poor, but are you talk about stuff back mineral mineral, I'm I'm seeing yeah like awake You see a potential for commercial mining like in a hundred years or something like this. Is there something on Mars that we would want here that we don't already have tons of eurobonds now the box- and I never really thought about it- I'm not trying to get up there I guess would be no, because just simply transporting things from Mars earth would make it better just to get it from Iraq. But it's over some kind of one. What Mars exactly see? What Mars has right now that we lack is an enormous amount of knowledge about the formation of our solar system and the possible formation of life. So, that's that's. The real asset Mars has for its right now.
Are you the word you use was commercial, but if he had said scientifically that samples- that's that's. Those are a variety of rock sample, soil samples, everything that we can bring back and study here on earth, far better We can, with our robotic missions, bring back Iraq this big itself for tonight and bugs you go higher willing to buy. So I the next russian thank you look. I've got Jim you fabulous now at the pimps, yet it is not really closer microphone. It is not really well known that permafrost in the Arctic is. Elton very quickly and is not or is it is not very well
Oh? No! No! I see. No other people realise that we must all realise that we should town there right will help high. So it is not really well known that that's really problem right now in the art in the polls, and so I'm asking, if you can. Please prove me wrong that we- that that's a runaway greenhouse gas effect does not only mean the class rate gun. We love the methane gun. The method yet everybody that there's messy, restored in the ice in the permafrost and maybe in the continental shelves, and was the world it's a little bit warmer this? These will be released to huge amount of methane put in the atmosphere and the world the earth get warmer catastrophically quickly like to worry about things, that's a good one. I worry about
every day. So here's the thing you guys you can say what you will, but we have people running for president of the world's most influential government who right now, at this point in the election cycle, claim they dont believe in climate change. You guys yeah, ok Just keep in mind that you have a chance to vote whatever you want to do, I'm not supporting a candidate, I'm not supporting a candidate, I'm just saying, encourage everybody to take the environment into account, and here's why we can compare Venus to Mars. To the earth that we're doing that and we're doing very valuable, and what we have learned on these other two worlds is that this one is special. So when it comes time to vote, I strongly in You take the environment into account, thanks for bringing that out
you did a toy is like the servitude city. You are playing. We. We are so lucky enough to have an our solar system, those other two terrestrial planet because work. What happened on Venus can happen here What's happened on Mars could happen here on earth and it's a matter of how these planets evolve over time. They were also very different and richest becoming where that, and that is so important for us to study and understand, because it's gonna affect our life in the long run, the Venus that me up here is almost entirely carbon dioxide and its hotter than mercury draw our own conclusions. Closer so which is here comparative fatalities, something you Carl Sagan talked about. Overtime know your place in space. Yes, certain export guys. Thank you very much. I know it's kind of early, but I was wondering what you guys
about the planet. Nine in love you for an nine. What first off? I think if you went back in time to like nineteen sixty and said into thousand fifteen, though only be planet, they would think something very exciting was gonna This is everybody! You don't know it's reasonable, that there is enormous body planetary beyond the orbit of PLUTO ten times twenty times farther from the sun, and then we are now two hundred to hundred and too you're, absolutely right, two hundred times farther from the sun than we are, and this has gravitational influence out there, and it just shows you there's so much there dont, know right in your own solar system in that discoveries, made in your lifetime and that's a pretty cool. Well, you know. If it's out there will find it. We have found it yet. There's always that's that
conference. Well deserved there we're going to find would have finally know how could it be? It's a whole frickin planet. We will only be remiss it. So we have a huge telescope called James Web Space telescope Lastly, and what we like to do right now, is nearer this search area, because he knows that that whole region is huge out there and James Web is got such a beautiful, mere and and right in the infrared right at a dive. Lange said Elsie. We just want to point there and find it and see the disk and understand, look at it and really try to figure out how it got there, because it didn't form there. It had to form inside this group of planets. We doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, Doo, doo doo. I have been informed of this next Wednesday last question hour ago. Stripes Waterman bring it on this. Is it ok, so
also the microphone, let em area outside whether the roof off the dumb. So I was thinking after humanity economy. Colonizers mars the way we will hear. Where are we going to go? as a species? Where would you like to go Europa, maybe you're old. All our system is ours, may get your twice as much see waters there, Are there euro painting fish people swimming around out there, and if we discover
damn. It would change the course of human history, and I want to do it in my lifetime. Now support the work of space exploration, let's change the world! Thank you all and bill, I'm fine! Thank you. Lockdown lay I'll drop. The organs wish you could listen the star talk, commercial, free, joint startled, compatriot on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch doc. Coms last star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.