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Telescopes that Rocked Our World

2009-06-01 | 🔗

This year marks the 400th anniversary of Galileo’s use of the first telescope. On this week’s show, we reflect on how telescopes have shifted our perspective on how small we are in size, space, and time. We also discuss how they help astronomers discover new and interesting aspects of the universe, from Earth-like planets to supernova, from black holes to the Big Bang.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Why are you Bruce, is filled with secrets, mysteries, leaving us with many questions to be answered? Now more than ever, we find ourselves searching through. Those answers is the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time this week. You view the knowledge that breaks the barrier between what is somehow is, and what is merely pop culture. Is a storyteller physicist doktor kneel to grasp this ice. Let's start, I start off, I'm your host astrophysicist veal, the grass case and with my studio, is professional medium in complex. We, I mean, you know, I'm great now that I'm here with you on our yo, that's we thanks for saying you know what this shows about.
Yes, I do, it's Rob telescopes isn't about telescopes and they have changed. The standing of our place, where are you in your universe, I'm in the sense that was is that, while it turns out of course that we everyone else thought they were in the center of the known universe to before before Galileo first heard a telescope to the night sky, and that was four hundred years ago. This year, for this is that four hundredth anniversary that has the four hundredth anniversary and telescopes rocked the world? It changes our perception of of where we are in the planet, cracked, and not only on the planet, but in the cosmos itself, peoples. Fox that just looking up, would give you all the information you need to know to understand our relationship to the cosmos, and that was just not the case. Because if all you do is look up, you will think you're in the sand, no, because everything right you think revolves around you, silly
now tell me today on the show, some very excited about their show. We were going talk about Galileo, women talk about the Hubble space, scalable was just fix. We wish we were gonna call lined up with one of the shuttle astronauts who is responsible for for building the two. Does that fixed the Hubble? What we get a lot of stuff lined up for the show, But it's all a survey of what telescopes have done for us and and in how we ve how we realise that we are no longer the center of the universe is low. We're not only this not the center of the universe, we're not the biggest part of it or small. We only unitary might not even be women but even be the only universe out their telescopes help us look for life elsewhere in the cosmos and so what they would Telescopes have done is, however, big. Your ego was at the beginning of the day. It is major ego a little less by the end of the day. That's what telescopes have done this traffic, so we're gonna run. We're gonna find out how they were invented.
And indeed, and by the way did you know that the international community of astrophysicist have gotten together and declared this year, the international year of astronomy The goal is to get everybody in the world to look through a telescope, at least once I love that I'm in love, when you ask me, did I now, because you know I didn't want, maybe you may do you know, when you know stuffed. It surprises me every show so near you said and show a word the other day that I broke down, and I still can't understand what the word of Ngos a word. I dont remember why even ripped will not ideology out. I thought ology something you have no idea what that will keep me honest and make sure all the words that are used more understandable to the We have a lot of interesting people on the show dated outlawing. Yes, we do in fact, I think we're going to get a bill. My on the line, the nice old friend of mine, he wouldn't manic man. He is an exciting manic man. Why don't you just as this coffee every day? That's all it takes
he is bright science, man why that is so. I love him. Yeah yeah he's got energy to energy to just share with the rest of the world, and so he thought a little bit about telescopes and he's he gets Randy every now and then and well I want to make sure I get him to share some of his rant with, some start here as a new Yorker. What I like about Bill nice, he's nice in quick, I see you get slightly faster, just drag on now is: does it when we're gonna, recalling manic minute nice manic minute? Let's see what Burma is going to tell us in his magic it's a bill nigh the science guy here last week, NASA send some people up to the Hubble space telescope, to fix and they did grace telescope is better than ever make discoveries that we can't even imagine this is what
scopes. Do Galileo Galilei? He was the first guy to take his military telescope design for looking at bad guys on the other side of the battlefield, any turned up into the sky and he looked at the moon and instead of being this perfect carved dinner plate. It's this mess, this jumble of chopped up swiss cheesy rock and that discovery themes the world. The universe is not, perfect, in the way that people first imagined it. Instead its much more complex. Now there many more telescopes being built right now, the spit sir, the web and these things are really make discoveries that our ancestors couldn't. Even imagine I gonna fly bill. I the science guy goes, and I don't have you took a breath that entire did. You know little about the telescope, whose first used for me
Terry device. Will you know what you are telling me before they shall I found so interesting. Is that at the guy you actually invented a new correct me. If I'm wrong, it was HANS. Le Loup, her hands library was a dutch spectacle maker in a few years before Galileo used to look the night sky he was up. Fiddling with lenses that people would use to read better, but he was using them very busy, HANS created it for battle, so you could see people know no one miles a field or whatever known fact, fully about that. Yet effect. The telescope was a toy. It was kind of a curiosity that you can see far way things nearby, but what I find so exciting is then cattle lay out looked up.
The idea you like you had the idea to take the toy and look up looked up and you too, he made a better version of this toy than had ever existed anywhere in the world go. I was really smart and figure out how to do it. But my point is that take if I make a toilet plunder- and I make it just to suck it on two things and do nothing while right there and then you come along and you go hey, I can use it to unplug the toilet. All of us in that it's your invention now, because you're, the one who came up with the real good use for I ok, I guess we can think of toilet wonders and telescopes the Sunday Galileo sounds like a bright gotta make that he was brilliant. One of the most brilliant people there ever was pussy understood the value of the telescope. To you curiosity and to understanding the cosmos. So he looked up and saw the universe was not the perfect place that had previously been described, and prevailing notion that the moon was a perfectly smooth or that the sun was perfectly smooth orb that the the
The planets were just these doubts of light moving around the night sky. All in orbit around the earth this concept so Holy, was d mantled dismantled observation by observation by gambling, and he was doing this with, not, though we should tell everybody, is losing even doing this with and not very strong telescope from my cracked slowly. We had been better than anything built before, but you right, if you today, you'd say how you bought by it on a shelf, because you can buy banal simple binoculars like a Kmart that are better better optics in them. Better magnification, that Galileo had supplies but consider what he was using compared to what was around before. Nothing was around before so but whatever you have is better than what was whatever anyone. Was you now. Here's what I dont understand as well. The doctrine that prevailed at that time was the catholic church years was in charge of telling everybody what was going on in exile in ITALY in Rome. That's right! The seat of the staked basically was the catholic church Am I correct in that area, Aristotle
theories or what the catholic church was going, my right indeed it was Aristotle from ancient Greece, of course, had ideas about how the universe must be the problem he was successful in some areas and really not successful in other areas like astronomy and physics, he says. If there were just flat out long like tonight earth isn't move now. Would you care to blame, for that? Is it? It doesn't feel like the earth is way way. It was moving, then we'd be moving. Something with jiggle writer of the chandelier would shake so so you can blame for that. But what I do blame him for. He made a statement that heavy things for faster than light things great proportion to their weight. So if you have two cannonball that way ten pounds and accountable to it one pound than you drop them the temporary cannibal before ten times as fast, and he just wrote this does it made sense to him, and everyone believed it and no one thought to do the experiment until gallop so went ahead and dropped
and I have tell you in preparing for this show today. I dropped everything in my house from like a book and a pencil like everything and everyone in homes should do this because they do they do followed the same rate. Yes, yes, always take a pencil in a book and dropped them. Obviously the book was more than a pencil. They will fall to earth at exactly the same written before at the same time. Now what's interesting about this and what s interesting about what is happening at the time it stop me. If I'm wrong is there, Galileo that you know too soon. Got this Aristotle's doctrine. He does it. Does that the law of motion? and he realizes o Aristotle. So he must have not tried, is wrong or whatever and then all of a sudden he thinks well. If he was wrong there, he could be wrong for a lot of other things and the catholic church. It had based much of it. Religious philosophy on the teachings of Aristotle, there's a good residence between the two
We should remind people the inquisition is taking place this time it suited towns, the catholic churches. I mean things smaller than this challenge. The catholic church was not a good idea, would be audacious, that's right, and so Galileo head waves do this right. There so is again. Unless it is what happens, Galileo sees that Aristotle's a bit of a schmuck. He decides he's gonna. You know go ahead and testimonies other staff. He looks through the telescope. He notices Jupiter he notices play it's moving he sees created is on the moon. He starts journaling NASA my journals and what he noticed about. Jupiter was the Jupiter head what he called stars that clustered near Jupiter State with Jupiter, whoever Jupiter wasn't the night sky and at these objects moved around Jupiter and later
of course, they were Jupiters moons. The four brightest Jupiter lines today their names and Galileo is, on the whole, the Galileo moons of Jupiter. These excited these moves went around Jupiter and we're not going around earth. This was astonishing fact because it flew in the face of all prevailing philosophy, Nemo what I love about Galileo was he kept this too, tough started, journaling. It because What's his name Bruno, oh yeah, yeah! Oh you know by Bruno. Your journal Bruno was a monk who who a brilliant philosopher- in his day, but he suggested that the stars in the night sky, maybe they're like the sun and if they are, maybe they have planets in orbit around them. Does he like Copernicus, is ideal that may be the sun is in the middle of things, not the earth, so he started flap and is big fat comes, and so these suggests that maybe, if there's life on one or two planets around the sun Earth, maybe this life around the planet around these other stars. That's
case, then the glory of God is manifest everywhere in the universe and not just here on earth earth is not the object of God's creation and then the charge burn them at the stake. That was bad for the trip, yet there was considered her only heretical was considered, is it was it was? He was impertinently heretical pertinent heretic and what happens if you are in a pertinent heretic rank them? CS as they make you get naked in some way. So my right, Catholics love distribute out, so he was at the stake, naked and upside down ray. I'm had so ok. So now Galileo keeps his information to himself, knowing that you now Bruno and the whole naked upside down burning thing will initially me doesn't quietly. He writes a book. You write a book and what a morning on its gathering the information exactly that's, I think the right way to think about his first book on this which reports his telescope, the observations he's
yes, some of them are heretical, but it depends on what you do with it. Philosophically are you going to say Aristotle's wrong? The church is wrong. You got to rethink the Bible. Is this? Is this? What's behind this book or not? so the book comes out and its security osity, it would be later the gavel who publishes a book The dialogue of the two chief world systems- and there is the battle anyway till he gathered all that information. He got until he knew that his arguments were irrefutable, and in the day you right there is the risk of persecution, because if you are a heretic, the inquisition would require, and you could end up towards or dead. Geodata Bruno was burned at the stake in the year. Sixteen hundred and Galileo was making his observations of the night sky in the year. Sixteen o, and so this is fresh in everybody's memory. Especially someone that you spoke with, who has a
mission yacht. In fact, yes, we have interviews for the show the best selling author Deva so bad. Issued she's written several best selling books. One of them is Guys Donner, Galileo's daughter, a whole story about Galileo's toy, illegitimate daughter he's got she got all this, but what was going on a gallery of private life as well as the culture of the day? She is also the best selling author of Longitude, which is the story of John Harrison and how he invented the first clock. Did you take on a ship. So, let's find out what they were has to say about gambling. Great now you're some of an expert now and on Galileo? And we only know him as a guy who got into a fight with the catholic church. But your research has made him a much more to a fleshed out character in the history of science, and I was wondering what could you tell us about the time in which he lived and what his telescope meant to
people are today into the church. In history he was tuscan, became fantastic, any animals living in Venice retorted. Three Tuscan is a loaf of bread. I get a grocer well that that's a venerable association is certainly loved. The food and always wanted to go back there, but he he taught in Venice for almost twenty years he always needed funding. This is like all sides have exactly. There is always the funding problems, so that is always the deep pockets of the military. Who can help that? Definitely so there was a military instrument. Right. So Galileo is now selling his telescope to the military. Yes, yes
and he got a. He got tenure at the university and a big raise. So it was great, but then he had the idea of protecting the instrument and looking at the moon and that's when everything changed, because the astronomy of his day was not what you would call astronomy. It was all mathematical. It was figuring out, orbits and predicting planetary positions for the astrologers that's what it was. Nobody was talking about what are the planet's made of, because the idea was that everything beyond the sphere of the moon from the state or the moon on out was all made of the same stuff. This ether, this perfect substance and everything beyond the earth was different from the earth because on the earth it was change and decay and death, but the Heavens were eternal,
perfect. So no one even imagined that what you discovered here on earth, either materially or physically, could have any relationship to the rest of the universe. That's right, and so so
active, worthy astrologers than trying to predict the future of things. I guess they needed. Orbits entry get a handy mathematician at arms reach. You got him right and there had been people like Copernicus who, in trying to improve on the orbits, had come up with a really different idea of how things worked, but he was even his idea. Wasn't excepted is reality for, like a pernicious, put the sun back in the center of the known universe, exactly but the sun at the centre with the earth in motion around it, which seemed like a really crazy idea, because of course the earth doesn't move, doesn't move otherwise you'd feel it under your feet. That's right, and that was one of the things Galileo had to fight it was that idea they got him into all that trouble. He took all the heat for Copernicus and, if I remember correctly, Copernicus was on his death bed when he published his great work so that no one could kill him for it. Well, nobody made a sound evident was very quietly accepted in his book,
dedicated to the Pope. So nobody consider these things. A religious new Copernicus was dedicated to is dedicated to the pope of his time, so he didn't have a sense that he was doing something really irreligious or he did, and he knew it would be very cagey two dedicated to the Pope, so he should die as quickly as it can Well, he was old by the time we published it because he hesitated for so long, so we ve got so now, but I read stories that Galileo was a pompous obnoxious, irreverent
ass, basically and that that's really we got him into trouble. Had he been a little more politic. Who is the powers of the day? Not the military heads where he sold a solid scope of the religious powers who had tremendous influence over life and culture. So are you saying that its purely his discoveries are got him into trouble and not that he was just a pain in everyone's rear? It was a mix because he loved to debate publicly and he was quite full of himself and could really embarrass people. So in a debate, if you were arguing with him, he would also your opinion for a long time to make. You feel that he really
was not against you and then he would come in and cut you off at the knees and make you feel ridiculous. So he's the kind of guy we're after such an event, they dragged into reality and beat him up. I dont know that that happened budget. Probably people were tempted, he he was definitely in dispute with other scholars, but he didn't have patience for people who thought that Aristotle had figured everything out. She believed in experiment and observation and he trusted his senses and the other thing he brought to this was skill is an artist. So when he looked at the moon from what he knew about perspective. He realized he was looking at mountains, so he surely was believing Catholic, but he didn t care whether his views conflicted with a priest right. He felt that the priests, although the theology was the highest science of the day they hadn't steadied Physic,
and they shouldn't try to tell people, how to interpret the Bible. He really believed that the Bible was the true word of God, but that it was up and it was men to teach the people astronomy. It doesn't even mention the names of the planets. So why would you go to the Bible to study nature? That's what his argument was. You want to study nature. You read the book of nature, so in the end, why did they put him under house arrest? Well, it's one of the big mistakes he made was to tell the holy fathers of the church that they could not interpret the Bible. Pussies. Writing an italian, so regular folk who are illiterate can read it not just the academic folk. Yes, he had a philosophy that there were very intelligent people who, for one reason or another, had not gone to university and therefore could not re Latin
but the day would be interested and so wasn't friends with the Pope and ultimately arrested, and then they became enemies. Yes, you know how those things go so today. I believe so that's interesting that back then you would put a scientist under house arrest for who, with an idea different from prevailing dogma, Whewell TV was tied because of his book, but still when it came out, got? Everybody very upset and he was called to trial and round. So it's one of the famous band books of art of data was banned for two hundred years. Two hundred years. So you talk, and even after people accepted the fact that the earth really was in motion around the sun, that works data to excess, so what books would you ban today? Who scientists would you arrest me now? Do you think we're at risk of returning to a time where that freedom of speech
should we would be squashed. Well, I think the science and religion issue is always an issue mean we're four hundred years past gallows trial and was still talking about it. I know back then there a lot of body parts that people kept after people die just as keepsakes perhaps Is that why they cut off Galileo's finger, apparently sound Letty by that point there was some kind of euro veneration going on and they took the singer. They took several vertebrae. I think you can still see one of those at the medical school and paragraph is creeping its creepy, but it was the taste of the time place. Today, people get autographs a famous people and back then they would just take your body parts. I guess I'd. Kind of like the autograph he ass. They were how many telescope to dollar bills many kept improving it. I dont know how many he built, but probably
to that survivor? Actually, the ones he built and they are. They live at the museum of the history of science in Florence, but one of them is here in the United States now, the first time its ever left ITALY. So it's really exciting. It's at the Franklin Institute over your right and it will be there until September. I say Galileo was right all along that in distant future. When you really understand the deep meaning, of the bible and you really understand your physics in astronomy, It will also make sense, will hang together, but until the day they have to be separate and religion cannot have. Any control over scientific study- and I think It was dead on general
live on, live, aren't so Davis. Also, thank you for this interview and well. What is it? What's your next project? I am trying to play that Copernicus. You don't start now really really like those guys. Is a love affair with Copernicus, as you have to go now
Maybe that's why I'm having so much trouble with it? I like him a lot that it's not the same, we'll get you back on when the placed on ok. This is starter. Love that interview. I love Deva I'll, tell you why she's having our time writing the play about Copernicus David was still lessening I'll. Tell you why, because he's kind of a kiss, but he's not I'm I mean I'm sorry. Galileo is sexy. I'm now listening to talk about him and I'm thinking, oh my guys, I'm picturing, looking Pat Patrick Swayze by and let him because I love the way he like talented people here. I think he's the kind of guy that'd make Sarah Palin Cry remained. Is it like I loved when she said that he will lorry you into a debate and have you think that he was like a green review in any way is dropped the bomb, but he knew more than you did and plus Copernicus didn't publish until he was ready to die. So whatever any was accused by the EU at the last minute he wrote it things a dedicated to the powers granted to the Pope, who struggle you know not get in trouble, no use trying to get burned, but I'd. I don't. I don't like that. He was just kind of a he kissed, but not only that, there's a preface it in front of the book of his famous book that
political verdict kisses book and now here right, the preface, but it's there in front of his book, which it says that this idea, where the sun is in the center of the known universe and not the earth, praise, probably not right its useful for calculating orbits scene, where she, why say, come on Copernicus comparator can get off the pot Gimme a break in some. Meanwhile, my man Galloway out, ok now this is the only thing I found some interesting. Our data was saying, Galileo, you Know- Copernicus dies whom he writes. As Galileo has all his compilations everything he's written, he knows he's going to challenge the church, what he does G is Mamma is genius. He all in a tired tired, because that is what the people could riyos we're literate would only no toilets, certainly would not no less than that Other scholars would be ready in Latin to speak to each other, not to speak to the common man.
So now am I right by saying that, basically, what happened as it? How I'm hearing and Galileo shook things out, because now he can't be burned. I can't really kill him because he is The masses have been reading his book uranium ban the book, but they kill him yet at what they can kill and popular piteous so popular that it would be a political. It would be a bad political decision further church to do anything. Really me too. They put him under house arrest. They didn't torture, him that's the kind of tough the famous important guy and peace to be jailed in your own home, but that that's what they did and but he was not martyred the way right. Giordano Bruno now, I've been to Rome, I'm gonna tell you any new, the Romans and I'm a tie and my people are italian and they like to collect saints ears and all that stuff. I love they have his finger and we're not. When I visited ITALY, I learned that at the time that it was supposed to be his index finger, but I'm but govern later told me after the interview that it's not as index finger
middle factor is propped up sticking straight up and I language he basically tell the matter. Can you feel the same way that they felt about? These have the last word even in death, by the way we have a limited number of autographed copies of one of them. Davis, ovals latest books, the planets and you can convince us why you might deserve one of these autograph copies Tell us on our websites are talk, radio that sign up. Tell us why you think you deserve one of these books and we will send you a free, autograph copy start talk radio I want you, will you bought a right? It has ever been. There primes tell me why you want one unequal, they tell me are there? You know like the cause. I still can't get this whole church thing out of my head. Tell me: are there other
their priests are nothing that that had that it turns out that being religious didn't mean you couldn't be scientific. In fact, there are other folks. There are many famous scientists who had been priest or even monks and in fact the there's there's a priest who hoo hoo is responsible for the idea of the Big Bang NEWS anime. His name is George Lothar. He's a is a belgian priest, and, but he was, temporary of Einstein, S Einstein. The reasons set out eight I can have a solution to your equations that says that the universe is expanding, and was smaller in the past and maybe had a beginning, and so it doesn't work But you have to know how to keep Europe is David said she said it that Galileo himself was a good care for just didn't believe that that religion was where you went to for science, a truck. That's right, that's right, and so in fact I wonder what our audience thinks about science and religion, and how does all this?
as we have our our phones or now open, Yes, yes, give us a call at one, eight, seven, seven, five star talk. Let me hear what you have to say about the relationship between church science It goes by the way the church doubt the catholic Church, in fact does have. Scientists is a friend of mine. Who is a new strategy for the Vatican realise? Yes, yes, and I got em right now. Let's talk here, his name is Chris with checking out autocrat Chris Neil Thyssen here, how you doing good behaviour, the Dutch on the radio- and I had to call you because the subject today is- is the invention of the telescope in International year of Astronomy and Galileo, and last I check your. Vatican, astronomer solar cells of the sound like you, you should be in the middle of some of this. So let me just ask what
Why does the Vatican's have astronomers in the first place? Well, that is traceable to Galileo, or even before, before, before that upstart came along thought. He knew all about the strong scenarios well at least a little before matter about twenty thirty years before, because it was realised that the calendar we should be going since Julius Caesar time so amazing that long time was now being little bit out of step with the season disoriented, alien calendar right, the Julian so put Gregory the thirteenth. It was protein, a team to advise him and that's why we now have the floor encountered so coarse astronomers at the keepers of time, so he doesn't marine biologist for this. He brings and strong elements. Galileo comes along and so he's doing, astronomy he's a mathematician these a physicist and he gets into trouble
so? What is your reflection on that period is? He was out of line with the obnoxious, was right and will have an endless didn't something happened in eighteen. Ninety, two between the Vatican and the Pope, who seemed a little late for my measures of talk. What is that story about a love story? Galileo's had a wonderful instincts in physics. How things look that he can prove it nothing that was part of the problem as well. It wasn't proved to a couple of hundred years later we condemn that's a very fine observations needed to show that the sums ready in the centre and the others moving rounded. So we ve Galileo's discoveries for use. You suggesting it petty. Had better data, then what is telescope showed using
the church would have been just fine and what a celebrated him at the time, rather than put him under house arrest, those bits in a philosophy changed tat to happen. Everything was wedded to the philosophy of Aristotle, which is so great, but those of physics there without restart less well about how things moved and where the US was and is a problem. Also interpretation of the Bible in the Bible had the sons of the standing still and how could that known How can that happens so how much of this was inertia of an old idea and how much of it was sort of strict religious dogma? both you know because what we all have for all day, I, as we will have inertia. This always knows mixed up with emotions and reasons church under attack from Protestants in the north.
Retrench pull up the berries serve the defences in ITALY that kind of thing as well, so that this new start this new stock cool science is collapsing. The ancient philosophy were on which the theology was a sir. I resent gangs are also insufficient. What happens today? If you discover something disagrees with the Pope, I mean you're in there before you address with Greece right now, discovering incense escape disappeared, greet with a purpose. The pope isn't scientists, wonderful person. Why present by four wonderful theologians, but he's not a scientist, so he will listen to well. That's it! That's it. That's a stand to start an improvement over all that we read about from centuries ago, pretty safe scientists working in the employ of the programmes which are telling, Yes, what increases bring greater heavy on the lights? Are I now know this
just back to the Vatican, but you know I'm not in love with Galileo, Simon a channel my inner Galileo and I'm gonna tell you right out of right out of the gate not gonna, believe anyone who sounds like he's from the cast a spam a lot don't like how jittery every every answered. Every question that will you Lou answer the question. I must actually how you heard when he was saying it. What would the when you asked me about Galileo? The first thing he said was, he said. Oh well, could improve everything. He was, of course, cables under house arrest meaning that as much as they can possibly deal with what he had. So it's a little misrepresented there I mean Galileo did really well to make a case that Europe was not and of all motion and and and and with good one Was trying to say is that the real, irrefutable evidence would take much longer that's what he was
and I would also like to know why the Vatican needs astronomers. Doesn't ITALY have astronomer? Just the country of ITALY has astronomers University message to Dad Atkins still has to have their staff. Do the books take me off. These are my people, but they take this could take astronomers any way we can get there. Aren't that many of us in the world We lay also love when you asked him, like all the while the Pope town journeys are well known, the by some of our purposelike power. Like a hundred and twenty or whatever they want to tell him you're listening to start talk, I'm your hosting the photographs Thyssen with my co host comedian, Lynn operates our phone numbers one. Eighty, seven one item: seven, five star talk looks like we a collar on the line color. They said yes, it
Sarah from Santa Monica Sarah? Would you got worse I yet I was just wondering: what do you think if we found extraterrestrials think that church would try to Bab? Yes, land. You have replied. Thank you for that could further calls era, sir. I think the catholic Church will has anything if it I'll stand still long and either Cracker Lou, It's true? My group of these are you kidding maybe maybe ok, I've I've been any fanatical any that this same lay using everyone we'd lined up to convert the alien into whatever? Is there a which absolutely alone even get off the craft every Baptists, every Catholic will be there with the holy Water and snakes and everything else they got so this is this a frontier of of and what about you and I we will show up and we will say extra,
Austria friend B Freethinker thanks recalls here So let me, let me ask you win. What do you mean you're born catholic right? told you I will Answer- was not baptize cavack zero areas. Thy mother refused baptize about my grandmother, who would take me them ass all the time, but we ve got catholic priest out there. Scientist and doing good work far, the quarterly is a study stars and how work and what their chemical compositions aren't, where their booming, so it does real Ashraf. And that's how that is. You knows where it I'm just teasing. I note he knows where to put the line in the sand, as did Galileo Galilei or said, the Bible tells you how to go to Heaven, not how the Heavens go exactly. Speaking of Homer Heavens Gabby the talk more about telescopes alter. Can we sure the current high above the big the world. What's the big
telescope wrangling on well this telescopes. Let me tell you what happened so Galileo reveals the earth is not the centre of almost five and then other telescopes come along I want to, and we learned that the stars in the night sky, or not the entire universe Stars in the night sky are part of our milky way Galaxy and that Galaxy is just one of countless other gal sees in the universe. So every time you turn a bigger telescope to the night sky we end up smaller. Previously. Imagine every time that has happened every single time. It is an ego, dismantling device every time, and so people try to try to get some people. Dont survive these transitions, they be, they get depressed. They they try to resist it. They say it can't be so and sober. A different view on this. I see telescopes revealing how majestic the universe is to us and our three
hounds of grey matter actually can figure out how the universe works based on the information telescope spring to us. I think celebration, Nay said something to me before the show which I sit on understand completely Simon. Ask you again with Armenia, you know what it means. You say that that day, how the telescopes and end the Hubble space telescope in general mean specifically in general, specifically Hobbs, despite my by looking what you say is hit by looking forward, we look No, no, they look ass. You look familiar, I mean edge it as you look out and space you look back in time. Oh, because a light years, hard light time of twelve. May I see your seated seated about a yard. For me, three feet light travels about one foot, every billions of a second. So I see you not as you are, but, as you were three billionth of a second ago and you
change. Much in that turn, you not looking closely and if you go farther enough away, the moon takes about a second and half roots. Lighter reaches the sun about eight and a half minutes and twenty seconds farther way you go older is the light from that object that you see, and so you get more and more powerful telescopes take the Hubble telescope. For example, you can look way out into the universe so far back that you're looking near the beginning of time itself, now one of my fate with things ever is the Hubble space telescope? One of them has produced telescopes ever built cracked. It is the most productive scientific instrument of any kind. There was a measure that a lot of ways how many scientists participate, how many research papers are published every metric as it were, I can't I don't wanna be met when winded, when David, the hovel Let's go. Moments
There is much in early ninety nine and ninety nine is. It was an clearly we ve come far in space programme. We have more women now involved because when we launched it in problem just do very little to do with women. What do you say? I'm just saying only men would send something up in spanish and almost automatic. Oh, my gosh, the pictures of fuzzy had you remember, doing attacks were fuzzy at the beginning of the time at the outset that, when we launched at all the mirrors had a perfect shape but one of the mirrors had the wrong perfect shape and the shapes didn't work together to make the sharp images that we had all
but we ve spent a lot of money and time and that we had with mechanical adieu overcome it was gonna, do what we needed to do so then we we fix. We went back up and services with the shuttle shuttle astronaut went up and service that they had to invent special tools. They had to figure out what needed to be changed, but putting corrective corrective glasses corrective. They was merely a corrective system of mirrors to fix the bad mirror and turn it off into. Good mirrors and then it became the telescope will hold direct dreamt that needed to be so its strong inside a strong and its above the atmosphere, because the atmosphere wreaked havoc on your bill. Need to see sharp images? Here's like coming from across the union,
and it's a nice sharp point of light, and it hits the atmosphere and it gets jingled and smudged and in an interfered with Indian it with a fuzzy image on earth. Turf. Tell me quickly what did what? What are some of the things that we found from the Hubble thousand? Only we found that black black hole, Ackles lurk in the centre of galaxies, Hubble confirmed the age. The universe itself, we learn lessons have been learnt any out in time and you look at these think these exploding stars. You call them standard candles, because there is a certain kind. Smoking star that all have the same brightness, each time they explode and their rights, Billy bright. So you can see them half way across the universe. So humble got good data on these standards, and once you know how far away and object is, You see how fast is receding from us. You get. The expansion raided, the universe you nail it down and you turn the clock back if its expanding today the universe was smaller yesterday and if you how fast expanding you turn the clock back
Can you can say that all the universe was in the same place at the same time, fourteen billion here is a good. You know what is the joy of giving show with life and ask if this best, what I'd like to do is call one of my friends you can ask for, and I got an astronaut Freddy's he's an engineer who is one of the people who designed the tools that they used to fix the Hubble telescope and he was a space walker. He went on one of the shuttle missions to the space station, I call the medium pick up the phone, let's call Paul my astronaut friend and see if these activities should be home. He's expecting hello. Yes, this ball, I support. This is new grass Thyssen whistle in complex microbes, calling some start talk. How the hell are you today hype? Ninety I lend our yeah yeah, yeah, yeah sure today's on telescopes, and we knew that you had something to do with the Hubble as astronaut, an activist. And an engineer I was wondering just tell us quickly what what did you do for hovel
my career, their divining tooled on hold a figure for the first and second certainly mission and its eyes had like four five sourcing missions: right, yeah, I've servicing missions, although the numbering gotta, what all up on the latter was for a For our part, I just heard you say you design tools on Hamas, you mean, or for it you weren't sitting word out. We are working on another, so the tools to be different. Why I mean we can use? Would you allow me when the sunshine down in Chinatown Hubble child? It is up to us, return. I won a farm in the shade, its minus two unfit degrees, Fahrenheit, and it's got radiation bombarding it all the time so you're not know out Johan, called on and off. Then there's no airline radiation, so you just can't bring up your average powerful sinner
an hour their rooms created. I thought at NASA, that's where you go into these things in a new test, this stuff out before you take it with you We are about thermal backing chambers, where we saw the air out, make it hot and cold and we're library shuttle launches radiation. We don't have here, but we just the diet for that. I have another question: do you now. Did you have to talk to the engineers? I am really I'm not the rocket scientist. Clearly them and ass merely dumb questions, but like did you even people who designed the have all of us, telescope itself scenario, had a nice agonizing. You guys work together, all the replacement instruments we have to make a special tools to, interface with all those instruments, we have work directly with down cruate untold. It calls. Others are certain to
what are your regular extensions drill, screwdriver than others through wage which a special handles or fixtures, and moving instruments. Iraq, asylum are pretty back. So what you say, some tools are sort of. Space, age versions of ordinary tools and other parts of the portfolio, r, r, special Ellen. That enables alive trucks, yeah, like a special handling that folds up and you know, moves out of the way when you have to close the doors or special place where you put your spare and hang it over the side of the orbiter, so it has to be able to hold it when you gave a new instrument and put in a hollow and so I and how hard as this amazing, like lounger, on whether The actual instruments are about the size of a refrigerator freezer and the other instruments that are on the side and the find guy there about the size of a baby grand piano. So you got
Then you need to work out here. Well, you're, later zero g resulted now I have another question that brings me to a guess became being weightless is or some sort of contraption it that locks you in to the hovel. Why you're working on it, yeah, usually our space spacewalk. He got to folk. One is only under the robotic arm and there in a full, restrained and ski boots a year you're kind of law at your feet, and then we have other foot restraints to remove all around there's, the other person is the free floater and they move around used in their hands. You no scholar, spacewalk and yet again a forestry or you hold out with one hand and in our use the tool with the other hand, so none of you guys are just really slowly
no, whenever you are going to actually do something, you really get a brace yourself. Otherwise, in a new and love spin, you in the opposite direction, there's this is excellent. I keep telling your saying that this is an interesting place it, how many Please tell me, I'm just curious how many times you go over your checklists before you leave em and would be. Are you get out onto the craft Oh, you are usually out. Hours within the simulator spacewalk. So you you're and then turn out the memory of anything. Somebody inside call the ivy aid, inner vehicular, you remember: and then the EPA, the personal spacewalk. But you have the person inside talking to the ground into you, reviewing your check list than and making sure you don't forget something now do you guys ever see space junk ways by because we always read about space and just
yeah? Now it's the the distances are so great that know you really don't see it. Usually the ground notifies you of something bigger than a softball is getting close and close his likes within a mile or two they track a saw boy and you bring your catchment basin anyway. You see here, they're like doc. Live many, do not want to be governed by an hour freely answers. So far we got around, but thanks for having onawandah I'd like to build call back one day, because we will be in space a lot and be nice to have an astronaut, an arms reach here sure any gone awry thanks a lot
Why can't I get so exciting and get to speak to an astronaut? Would so Galileo and astronauts, like you, know the old I'm in love? I really am. I think he looks like Patrick's amazing tat. We ve just to remind you were given. We got some some freebies for you. If you log onto STAR talk radio dot net and tell us why you deserve one day, the syllables books, the planet's autograph signed copy of for books, tell us why you deserve a copy and we you convince us, will send you one and not only that we have signed posters as a space telescope poster sign, one of the astronauts so log onto its call to its all cool and it's all free. If we decide that you convinced us badly enough tat, she will want one of these, so I want to start a radio dot net so Lynn, so you like astronauts now as well as Galileo
and I say this to parliament. I forgot to tell you, I think, the most important thing I would be doing and before I went to fix the nothin. I would ever you for sea level, but I would be checking my boots there's boots I can tell when we reject- and unlike the last thing we need, is someone angry with you cut near all crow on your strap is checking your parachute. All are you you don't float away. I don't want a float away at a one like tat was astronaut lady, the war, the deeper I dont want. Someone got angry with me. Maybe they'll crowd, in effect, so important, tat, none of enemies. When you're an astronaut absolutely depend on so many thousands of other people, you get communicator because the ivy eight people on the Ebay People- and this is something that is interesting when they its valuable is nigh. They went and did this ended in an hour?
oh yeah those days and eight days and hardware, is a lot of kids. Now he said positive, there's people inside directing them and their people outside that are like they're telling them turned to the right turn to the right turn to the right and yeah great. I can't get the space wrench to go that way. I right yeah, it's it's hard, it's hard stuff, it's hard stuff, They ve got all fixed. Our phone number here. Star talk is one each seven, seven, five star talk. And it looks like we ve got to go online. Steve on Align Steve Sleeve, where you're from high Neil, ok, Washington DC or the state. They d c well welcome to start talk, you gotta question I view island. I haven't
camera and I was wondering I've had a digital telescopes upper well yeah I mean effect. Astronomers and the whole astrophysics community has been digital. Since the early nineteen eightys, we were one of the first to create digital images. We create. We had that demand for so now, contrary to what many people think they think we go to telescopes and look behind, looked through the lens and see the universe. Now it's all recorded digitally many many times we don't even leave our office because if its digital, Then who cares? How far away your computer is? That's analyzing the data it could be crossed the room it could be across the ocean. It could be halfway around the so all of our data or Digital and the Hubble data. It's all coming in digitally couple which came of age in the nineteen nineties. That's about the world with while the least the developed world was coming onto the internet, so image! from the Hubble telescope were perfectly times in their digital form, spread far and wide as detachments. In people's emails, as
screen savers on people's computers, and so the Hubble telescope was not only great scientifically. It was one of the it's one of the most important ambassadors of scientific discovery. There ever was this has been an exciting show now, We ve learned that we can look back in time in time. Will we ever be able to look forward? Not in any way that we know. Is, it hasn't happened yet now, there's an amateur meant more time last year, so this new, this new servicing mission, oh by the way, I think I forgive me I didn't get the last name of our astronaut friend pause, Paul, richer, and here is an act of astronaut with NASA and He and, and- down in Maryland, where he works at the at the Goddard Spaceflight Centre there, and so, when I think of bring to beyond thank partner.
Telling your weight, we have five. We have five more years. You said yourself. If servicing for Hubble gives it a newly some life. There are some parts that had broken it had come in disrepair. So those who were replaced other instruments were swapped out and so now Hubble is more capable than it has ever been in any of the previous servicing missions and we'll go for at least another five years of everything works as planned, but it could go longer than but then the boy not going to stop there and who are still we're here- is that creates more here to have some more stuff copies. Exactly so, there's the next generation space telescope named for James Web, who was the head of NASA during the famous APOLLO era back in the sixties, James Web space. Telescope is specifically tuned, observe the universe so early in time that we will see galaxies themselves being born, that's it you're. So when you see things being born, you feel it's it's scary.
I'll break there. Someone just peeled Spock here often did a dumb for joy, so and not only that, so we ve got that telescope. Looking to the edge of the EU, and there are others for example, that that's that's a telescope. Looking far, we actually have telescopes looking near by one of them, was launched in its the Kepler telescope name, Fer, a famous astronomer, german astronomer, a content, we have now allows, and so this telescope is going to observe the nearest hundred thousand star guess why because we're looking for a habitable sound when looking for life and all the right places where we think are the right places we're looking for earth, but us I in tears, when there you're looking for life you're, just looking for proof that something can live here. While you are of any kind Ruby grid, we found little green men and little green women that be really hold, but if we but she for life searching for life of any kind. We be, we be tickled to death if some of their life
we found was microbial fighting, and so once we get that, then now here's the thing suppose the life is not what we call intelligent. I mean not that it's dumb, but that it just microbial there what we call biomarkers their features in the atmosphere of a plant That would reveal the existence of life that could be thriving on the planet surface and so the next step once we logged these planets is to look for biomarkers. They make a new catalogue of one of the most likely planets that could possibly have life. So that's what that'll be name once we find that will leave facts, and so, in fact, next week show is we're going to feature an interview with senior said he a senior astronomer, the city Institute, sets Rostock City is the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, so the entire subjects that show is going to be just I just a goose bumps. Well, there you have it and so were coming to the end of our time. Here, Spin great habits has been fun when homer
the fund. We learned that we learn that we are not the center of the universe and you could grim comfort and try to give some free stuff on startup radio dot net and That's why you deserve one of their social souls books, the planet's when get assign poster the Hubble telescope by asked from now on, I'd like to be referred to as Galileo girlfriend you go, I gotta tell you: we are co sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This is start talk, yielding As Thyssen and win couplets we are signing, give this historic ties.
Transcript generated on 2020-02-25.