Dragons, violence, magic & more: Explore “Game of Thrones” through the lens of science, with Neil deGrasse Tyson, actor Isaac Hempstead Wright (Bran Stark), comic co-host Michael Ian Black, author Helen Keen, and psychologist Travis Langley.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. Welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture color dartle, begin right now. Neither draft I can perform after this scar talked right. We're going to explore this science behind the hit tv series game. From flying fire breathing dragons magic to what it takes to survive in the middle ages,
So let's do this. I never tackle these subjects alone. My colleague Michael Ian, black professional comedian, you and you are not a stranger to start or know. I had to start our jigsaw puzzle. Our targets, not animals on the same so tonight or topic is of course game thrones and I dont clean particular expertise in there, but other people do especially women here. How and K L and welcome to start off we're gonna heavily on your expertise in this regard, because we couldn't believe you load book science. The science of games
destiny step. I'm surprised even this thick. Those pictures luck so that we get a taste of why game of thrones. It's such a pop culture. Phenomena check out this clip, whoever you are wherever you go, someone wants to murder, you are you free, love me some fiery, the dragon its little that is based on a series of fantasy Series by George or Martin, of the same title and that programme averages twenty three million views purpose
so Helen? This is set in a medieval age and so too just put to put us on record what defeat mediaeval age. Is that even the right thing was that the dark ages? What is, I think, it's kind of a turn, who is controls IRAN? This exists autumn for the period in european history, from the end of the roman empire, say about four hundred five hundred idee until early entry. Why is this a thousand you? But there there are some things that are clearly. It seems to me posts dark ages or let very late middling. So is clearly a mixture of times enable them to tell whatever story he wants, and it doesn't it doesn't bother people, because a fantasy argues that right and I think as well any fancy or science fiction always to a certain degree reflects the world that is made in as well. So I was out of COMECON and we stumbled on one of the actors. Isaac right
I see great place the character and stuck in the series on HBO. Let's check it out shop. How old are you seventeen, seventy, and the shows been on for six years: yeah, and you begin there from the beginning. Yet so don't carry the to abide by their. You would have been eleven fingers. I should ten because we did a pilot as well. Oh, ok failure career game of Thrones guy. My concerns the lie, so they got to the gutter right, write your character to age with you yeah for my group when you're grown up you're going to stay the same. The whole time doesn't happen when he heard this age. Did you as a kid? You wanted to be an actor not especially now I kind of selling things so yet it was my turn,
we are taking care of, you still geeky definite gave us an hour garriga, yeah, ok, excellent, and what your best measure a gig to begin This example, if you're into physics when we're done area hindrance, physics, so in UK do have tutors or do actually go to school, and I guess you you go to school, ok, so so that just me The show is not taking you away all the time. What I mean when I say this, I just have a kind of take any work, I'm gonna miss and try and get it done, and the weekends or whenever I've got days. Ok, for where are you year in year, educational trajectory son, yet the twelve which to Libya, senior and high. For I think says I have one more year before Tullidge before coward. So what do you want a major and on, I thought I'd like to do a joint,
he's a combats musical man. Ok, EC law. They do music. Now, would you do at the piano manufacture thing about guitar? Ok, this is great. I just met recently brine may come here that training and felt his area. It's I drew. I really want a Phd in astrophysics. But I ve a rogue state of Iraq's not first to delay the act so bright, like, lead, guitar some cream phd in astrophysics cycle, kyrgyz cooler, Ambrosch Brian Cox as Well Ryan, car cables, yeah Brian Cocksure or the best known scientists in the UK and many of us know him here as well, but it is it's not as big, as he has been used in the UK, but he was also a rock star in. Yeah. He was added numbered atop, but I think he taught me ten song one year here yeah. So this the train. Ok, so we have to be famous actor than a musician. Then you get
That sounds like a point: regardless tell your parents, because they ve done so was the gps thing you ever did. Who were so? It's gotta be so geeky that you are simultaneously embarrassed and proud of it. I could recite piratical she decimal places, oh how many does what it used to be sixty, but I think it stand about forty announcer occur while when we get your on record for private all right and now just so, you know forty fifty sixty pie, people there are extremely even much in the bar accent, I can do to sixty seven thousand right or something but but but among actors, ok
Maybe you win? Ok! So let's go. Let's get the camera m. O k gonna run shoulders here. Ok, ok, when I get ok I'll start you're ready. Three point: one: four hundred and fifteen nine hundred and twenty six five hundred and thirty five, eight thousand nine hundred and seventy nine three hundred and twenty two eight hundred and forty six two hundred and sixty four three hundred and thirty, two seven thousand nine hundred and fifty we get there. You know who did really well Chris Heartbreak, is he majored in math and philosophy. So we had a man he went on. It was like. Can we start up? And now please now over? That's good, there's plenty of precision to make calculation, you need the universe, so that's good will take that as card carrying card carrying, so the Greeks are taking over yet becoming net. So I'm convinced that they miss translated at line in the Bible.
It's a the geek shall inherit the earth. So had you imagine that this was something that would go this long Not now, I'm in these kind of you everyone has to say at this point. I really direct testbridge. Yet I think every now and then you come across this shows that they can work. And then kind of snowball onto into the huge phenomenon. But why do you think you could work? I think what's cool about game shrines is, it is medieval history, but without kind of the historical makes me get what I mean, because it has that sort of basis in reality, but there is still room to explore all these fantastical element, so the router explore on top layer on top of it, that is made equally real. I just got anchors it
is there anything that surprised you the most about it, because when I think about the medieval times making I'm glad science got invented fall. Had, I think, clearly did what what data does very evident gave its road. You got all these. We kind of religious sects strange things going magic is real gods real, and what was interesting is the wake. Amos rhymes presents it. Is it everyone in the world sceptical about it. They don't really believe that there are the dragons there and that all these white work has died. Thousands of ago what then the believers there, where stuff, actually how? Yes, they got to deal with that. Absolutely no, it obviously semi things it back in those days you wouldn't have been to explain or anticipate and so actually you
you assume, is magic, so heavily tell me about what role magic play in the middle ages, in the middle ages, magic in religion, weren't really particularly separated I think there is an element in religion that was magic element in magic that was later yeah, I mean- and I think we go if we go back even further, where you think there was even a distinction there, which is a mystery. You don't understand and there's somebody So we need to learn if, like the coming from God, it's either coming from a good source of coming from demons and Satan's guy. Could you can have a good source unless there is an evil? So love sands begin in the end the up and down european about? in the photos. I get a man just try to stay with. You know I'm what's your other things, so example. Remember Merlin from our theory and legend. There is enormous.
All these stories there's somebody who knows some chemistry or alchemy, and they ve got power. This would be medieval magic. It's something that you don't expect. It does something mysterious happening and been any police. Having error. If you do something that scientific and don't explain it, it's magic one of the things it fascinates me most of coarser, or I think anyone dragons there's the coolest, we all on a dragon. What is the history of dragons? they originate. Do you know what that means? things they seem to rejecting all over the world? There are lots and lots of different countries and cultures that all have attracted me all or fire breathing. Now who always by breathing known it. Without a dragon qualified and five are the asian dragons fired breathing or I don't know, I know they don't have wing
yeah they're, demonic, reasonably well yeah, and there are a number of limb. Some dragons have four legs and two wings, and some seconds have two legs and two wings, which would be more evolution. Early proves Sergio Vieira Jacqueline, skirmishers others supported Let me explain it for the audience two legs in two wings is more evolution, narrowly plausible, erect cause. Animals have four and it would evolve into two in horns and fangs Basically aren't you gonna have forelimbs to work with. Why it just is it's the The answer, the branch of the evolutionary tree that lead to me in other words and other vertebrate, therefore limbs, and so that's what you're stuck with they want to fly. You gotta give up to those limbs for wings. The backs did it. The birds did
right, the bachelor too. Therefore limbs are ranked and birds, they didn't have front arms right. Those are the front arms are their wings and so yeah the evolutionary sound. I asked one of the actors Isaac right. I asked him about dragons cassettes. That's a major part! a major force in sorry. Don't let's check it? how good a fancy possibly be unless we got dragons, no funds, it is indeed the driver yeah. You need the dragons and, in my home institution, the American Museum of NET history. We had an exhibit a few years ago. That was all about mythical monsters and whether they, Were the imaginations of people who discovered fossils of extinct, dinosaur, yeah, so imagine your triceratops. Imagine that emerging from
the eroding side of a cliff tat would be. Hey right, clearly, no other, and we ve seen its extinct yeah, but the concept of stinks is a modern idea. If you every years ago, so here's the thing a candidate It must be some some monster yeah that we fear in the night, and so so So you do know mother, no knowing full. Well, you know, I think you love dragons, because the greatest there, your friend, but if you're, not the soup, Creditor Mass, another theory actually about where we have this idea of dragons from that. Even more ancient and the idea of people discovering fossils this idea that it might date back to win very frightened of apex predators and anthropologists called David. He Jonesy puts forward this
Theory he studies verve monkeys in Africa, and he noticed that they are particularly anxious about three prejudices: lions, eagles and snakes, and so they have a particular cry that they make when they see any of these three Greek true and if you should have merged Three creatures together, exhaustive, get something that resembles a dragon. So he again is sort use this to revise this. Is this the cry? I re were injured and learn how to do the monkey translator so well, if you have something as ferocious alliance that has the the body type of serpents. Because the snake, but it can fly as a flying predator, such as an eagle guy so whatever the yes, he has decided that we would have this sort of passed down through.
Means of generations rooted revolt. This fear that so great that we ve created before I move amalgamation. Yes, where does provide airport confirm me? We're all scared of I mean we. Would you scared of fire Diana that after so what we want to make it even more for a row row row: is there anything in in nature that any process by which air can be converted to fire other than like mexican food well, if it's here as we think of it oxygen, is flame, an infernal. Let no are kidding It's a common misconception. Oxygen itself is not flammable Otherwise, when you lit a match, you would ignite the atmosphere all right. I just want to be clear about that. So what is burning so oxygen makes others.
Burn, so oxygen and oxidizing things that than themselves burnt and they can make them burn more ferociously, then they, otherwise what there are gas is that are themselves flammable when mixed. So you take the gaps that comes out of your stove and you ignite that in the presence of oxygen. That thing just goes saying with pure hydrogen just goes. So you could imagine a beast, perhaps certainly and fantasy world, where there's some process inside that produces flammable gas, and then you need some funding mechanism with his teeth, knights and outcomes flame. When I was a camp,
we do not, and we would like to mention that the same exact way referred, there'll be a different kind of dragon. Let me list, but you didn't know, pretty ferocious and hold up material. By the way methane. That's one of the interesting theories about where we get this idea, vibrating from that people have gone underground and they ve gone to. Maybe the mine for minerals like gold, or they ve gone to look in burial, mounds and and Dave actually encountered. They ve been carrying. Candles have encountered methane society from kind and theirs. Explosion and they ve thought. Well, maybe there's some terrible, huge creature that lives underground unless just thrown all this. Why in all directions? That's right,
the ground. You have anaerobic life acting when that happens, but one of its byproducts is nothing so you know methane trapped in poppies, and specially mines as weapons you'd like that flame, comes out of the hole, oh my gosh in other than that there, the dragon sleeps Yeah don't come here that, if Erin Superstitious times, but nowadays, why just pull out the measuring tools and applaud the hall. So there are other things are something on the so called the dire wolf. What we're of what is it I was. I was that absolute enormous wolves. They are the companions at the start, children's sort of, like God, dogs, come spirits. Animals almost so so they realer the fantasy, while the twice a day on the show is fantastical, but they were real dialogue where one of their actual dimensions, roughly the same
the vote of the modern Grey Wolf, so maybe slightly stuck here and they have a sophomore ferocious bite, but these are just they just pumped up a little yeah vacant, Michael towards bigger. So so, but there are still many. We lost him in the area of the under the acid. So why not bring back? Why not? Ok So are we almost at a point where we can do that where we can bring them back? I'm not her eyes. Do I don't see? Why not I mean? Is it in the very reachable near right you're. So if we can do that, then We combine the snake, the eagle and the lion and make our a dragon I'd like that too. Make the thing weekly or most possibly go wrong. Look coming up on the science of game of thrones in particular,
We'll talk about the power of mine to start on have guns before you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad free. You, can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria Dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just said:
Failure to America, where extracting science permitted tv series game of Thrones my interview with one of their lead actors. Isaac right in the show his character is paralyzed can't walk, but he's got some serious powers of the mind, check it out? He pretty much the entire history of the universe within his brain or that's what eventually going. Gonna manifests itself in the end. It makes him an incredibly powerful and wise characterizing and- and it is interesting to have that parallel with effect. He's also such a weak physical carries it and of course, what comes to my Stephen Hawking Yahoo has brilliant results,
Yet there is the shell of a physical body here that that remains. Another sort of authentic element in the fantasy is that you had this power, but you needed it had to be honed cousin, Oliver superheroes net. We talk about Or people with power when they come into their power, they really know how to use it s very much the case, his brain and its he economy, it's been spread over many seasons of him. A starting lock it more and more and is it just starts this kind of small spark of something and he eventually find in this case of the three I'd Raven, where we can fully explored and learn under the cheek legible. A very wise a thousand year old tree man, how in a thousand
you're old tree man, could explain this please, while I'm just giving their background on bran, he and she walked in on the queen having sex with her brother and as a result, is pushed out of a very high window. He appears to hovering between life and death? And he has these visions The episode one yet said the queen is having sex with her brother and he's a child walks in yes, then they put him out the window, yes and it because paralyzed, yes, but then, yeah. So he starts to develop. These Aesop's have these visions and he starts sensitive, be able to sort of travel, beyond his physical body and into the body of his Wolf die Wolf and that's how begins really it's cool? so be it, but it also meant he had a mentor yet the thousand year old dreaming. Yes, that's new treatment. Inventors are a fundamental part of anybody's powers. Michael, do you have meant to me
mentors sure sure, but people that I mean I'm in the answers. I was your image or you must have been a height. My united assembled, my mentors, our court, so there be a little piece of this person whose expertise so greatly valued but it wasn't the totality of what I saw for myself. Then I find a little bit of fourteen in another, and then you get enough of that. You staple it together Then you have sort of an amalgamated. Did you met her meat Carl Sagan? Yes, so he's a little piece of that right and with here a thousand year old tree man, important history of the universe and a little bit dismay. I was in high school and he was he was already accomplished and hadn't done is Cosmos yet, but nonetheless he was fully accomplished
a little bit of wisdom came my way that is affected me, my my entire life, the fact that he gave me any attention at all as a high school kid eight seventeen. This is Carl Sagan already famous. I said if I am ever remotely a famous as he is. I will give time to the next generation of students the way he gave time to me, and that was justice. Certain do and the passing of a torch, then I felt was fundamental. If only I felt that with my children, but I dont want so Isaacs character. He can see through time he's got bad attitude. Mr Part, so here's more for my interview with game. A throne star Isaac right check it out. Friend gets to look at certain events from the past specifically, and there were hints the fact that he might have had
some connection with one the courage and the policies that have shouts and the cash says round, sees nothing interesting because it is I'm travel in a sense, Stephen Hawking famously said that the greatest evidence there some time travels this is impossible, that we haven't had any one visit us from the future and what just think about brand going back in time? Is that no one can see him when he's back in time, so maybe that smell that's our route into travelling. Tat can t. So what's your point, memorable time, sequence, force, wasn't moment. Did they they key one from this process in which fits in with the whole kind of? within the term is the argument with the with the whole time element is: is the tragic death of Kyoto. Britain has Trying to learn about the past of hotel has directly resulted in hotel becoming hotel, so
so I think it definitely lens to that concept that this was a predestine thing that happened explain to me working voting. I got one so there's no one on their mystical logical ability to be able to Hank over the mind of another creature or a human being smuggled from you, you become back creature yeah. You do I mean so you their bodies, like the exact. Whilst I went to the mind of another creature and it makes me think of this, The singularity that we'll say where you upload Urania Computer, and now the interest, if you can not only upload your brain into a computer, if you could downloaded, to another brain that asked the question: what is your actual identity right. So when you occupying the other entity or you still you, what are you that entity
here comes the what what is consciousness when Margaret what it comes down to it, and that, for me, I think, is rather less interesting things, because we Your eyesight says it is a field that fascinates me and I think my fascinating for you two major. It encourages me to say, but yet we still have so little right. That's why threatened and and as you said in the in the coming years, I think that's gonna be exactly where the route so it's gonna go down. That's gonna be the next door unprecedented. The two twins, who are genetically identical, have separate, conscious, yeah, yeah, exactly and every morning, I'm not every morning but more often than I'm ready to admit I wake up, and I say why am I still me and not someone else, four vice, or are you constantly just changing into definite? That's what I wonder. Is it my entity today just what I think I always was, but yesterday I was actually something different, do you consciousness
so you go there in your book here, a little Betty. I talk about how their this quite new experiments have been done with virtual reality, which considers convince the wearer he's got headset only you can basically chain. Someone's identity with virtual reality. They will experience that new body as their own body and when its they will feel that its being tough Stan and moved around? And it's kind of quite a sort of this question but the frontier suit. A modern version of what he justice yeah, except here, is to pick hoo hoo, whose mind he asked eyes here. It would be some avatar that you created yet a fantasy version of yourself. Yes, exactly its impact is the potential for that decision. Give you the x means of living. As you say, a completely different life is quite something I think, but it's not just occupying the state. But it's by the way, the avatar that I occupy. That's me before after I occupy it, right
I'm not competing with itself to run its own life. So that's a little different live right, so What do you know of mind, control in nature? Is there any exam yeah I mean there's some quite disturbing, so that we see a nature means is interesting. Where you saying about a month ago, I was going to disturbing retract. Told me this creature, the tiny tiny tiny was called the jewel, was very beautiful, very very small, and it basically completely it's over the body of a cockroach to get a cockroach to rate it lays egg on the bottom of the cockroach is body, and basically the cockroach loses its will to resist the power of the wasp and base erases, the wasps young, and as a general or does it yeah so basically protects the wasps young and also feeds the wasps young as it grows gradually the body of the cockroach coercion doesnt complain. It doesn't do anything. It basically has its mind in it.
But he completely taken over by this tiny creature. That's much smaller and much less money. A lot like that people will become. You have next will get into the psychology of game Wednesday stock return? we're right here under the Threerd monetary and wit tonight we're extracting science that can be found. And in the hit HBO Series Game of thrones- and here is more of my interview with game of Thrones actor right, immersed in this really creepy backwards and world Oh my gosh, and had you learned about the dark ages of the middle ages and school, but stepped into this acting gig only
a superficially, nothing the ten year old me wasn't annex code of building on Audrey or the headings and all sorts of games violence. For me, it was just quite fund set. Where you had a lease dead bodies, I didn't really registered the vile right, actually cause it's a tanagers is as it is. This is there. This is too there's a head on the floor. I think a picture good job. I think we'll against us has touched upon his decoy sort of brutal side, as it were, that the whole aspect of those those times has come under fire, for I think on on certain occasions, with the number scenes. But I think is important is that the kind of horror did you know occur in those times what we do
No, I don't maybe psychologist know this year, maybe bring one into the show if your exposed to violence does that mean you then become prone to violence? is that a world you get to say: Wanna make sure my world is not that yeah I want to know, and- and none of us here a psychologist so Travis are you there? I am here. I've been summoned professional psychologist, but also, A fan of game throws? Oh yes, my psychology, professor, a big nerd, and I love using fiction to talk about real psychology, and I think I have here your book game. Thrones psychology, that's the name of the book. The mind is dark and full of terrors. So what take away from all this violence in the minds of whose whose portrayed
in their time and in their day and what effect it might have on the audience that complicated. There are lots of different reasons in real life, it can be hard to study. We know the in experiments that you're watching violence produces short term effects on someone's behaviour. It's hard to study in the long run. If you ever idea that this could someone into a violent psychopath, if not exactly ethical or practical, to do that, so because I wonder, if the same for the same force of influence turned some people into psychopath and others they have no effect shouldn't. We be studying the people on whom it has no effect and isn't there, where we would learn more than only study. The people that it affects in the end, we wanted to not affect you, of prominent people in psychology is starting to take exactly that point of view that we need to learn more about what brings out the best throughout the history of sex,
You look at what brings out the worst in people. Freud looking at everyone is neurotic programming embargo? Looking? What brings out the worst in? this behaviour and Solomon known for studying what makes people feel helpless. Said we need to start looking at the good side of human needs. The motto who became famous because of a prison simulation study that went very wrong and win you some of the guards the people cast. His guards became very cruel to those, as this prisoners and the models that we need to study, why some people didn't become those why some people become euros and the maid He's finding is that there is now a lot of known about this. We know a few things not that we know a few things about resilience. What makes someone you do? in trauma and under pressure than other people, but we don't know a lot, and so it is a growing area right now, I am, I think, is long overdue
You look in the military. Of course, some people would suffer from PTSD and others don't. Others, can you not always predict? Who is going to be interesting? Because if you could predict that would be an amazing advance in our understanding of the psychological state of warriors. There are people who, as a form of coping with horrible situations, do shut down. We also know that for brain injury, injury to areas and in the final cortex can shut off their empathy for other people? Ok tell me about the psychology of revenge. This is a recurring theme in game thrones and I have to confess revenge, you know that feels good. So it's gotta be something deep inside of us. We want to feel power power over our own lives of others and when we feel mistreated with something more This happened that made us feel helpless.
Our domain came. A sense of feeling strong revenge one way of feeling restored a sense of balance of justice in the world and a sense of power for ourselves. The name game of thrones itself can be about power where the throne is, if you lives. You every Monday's carriages is motivated to have power. Moreover, others power themselves area seeking revenge, my favorite character. Is she's driven to restore her sense of balance in the world, but she already had sprung before that. Your back, when her father told her what life is like the lady of a castle, she said no does learning to swing a sword was her away and, having said the power even back then later and other characters horribly statistically about by someone you have found a way to ever offence
of power and are only by taking power over the person who a torment at her. So if, if that is so, fundamental within us, and you have a clever screenwriter, storyteller cinematography. They would trey this, and that would resonate deeply within us we want to see more, presumably- and I always I really think game thrones is so popular because at the psychology the characters is not about the dragons, the white walkers in the magic, its the human beings they hadn't had dragons in a long time for most of them concern about drags. The idea of dragons he is Their whole lives? Ok, Travis! Thank you for sharing. You're psychological insights. Thank you. This is so thanks. Again, travel coming up we're gonna breakdown that infliction of some
Firstly, when start back into all the elements that were throwing the science and the history within the fantasy series game of Throat and Helen. Can tell me about some of the story. Lines in gamer thought they might have asked roots and historical events, lots of them. In its suitable was like a sort of whole of historical mirrors way. You can pick out lots of things that actually
not by accident you're, saying that purpose report I think so I think they sort of an inspiration. But you see there are jumping off point. So things like the war, which is obviously is huge, complete impossible war may device that divides. This happened. Kingdoms from the sort of lands of the barbarians belong beyond this sort of based on Hadrian's war is the extreme edge of the roman empire beyond that was Northern England and Scotland, which has never really conquered by the Romans. As an interesting Donald Trump, It was this deliberative debate about whether where there is a good idea to build a wall, whether you know the amount of people you have time, garrison doormat Wall was actually an effective way of combating the threat of people from beyond the wool and how about the the Red One again. That was as it possibly inspired import by scottish history and some guests of the king of Scotland were invited to this wonderful dinner,
and its ongoing brilliantly and then suddenly. At the end of the dinner, a single drum began to beat and everybody went quiet A bald head on a platter was brought in, and the Douglas is here at the dinner were all killed. Your MR people over, so what it means is. I think that if you gonna tell this kind of story, George, our Martin has to be fluent in the history of cruelty, and story, the storytelling that surrounded and legends in the the culture of this kind of barbaric Absolute authority has its roots in this in this, which of real events that from a very unpleasant european past, coming up. Next won't answer your questions, cold from the internet and the fan base of startalk your questions on game of thrones, It's not talk, return
all of the universe, bricks, flooring, the underlying science from the storytelling in the ever popular series, game of rooms and right now, it's time for the popular Cosmic queried the plant where we call for a moratorium base, so you can read them to me. I've never seen them rather than before, day and hope for Melbourne Australia. What kind of solar system would Western rose have to be into experience such long summers, obvious Lee it's a normal day night cycle, he says yeah exerts a great question. So, in fact, we have a twenty four hour day, day and night, we rotated more slowly. Our day would be longer. And relative to the year and in the case of Venus its day
is on the same timescale as its year, so that one day last about as long as it's here now cells or everyday, your birthday? yeah. I guess so. I guess that's good I thought about it, so I suppose you could configure that differences to have these long periods of winter summer. What you would need is a planet that would have. Strongly elliptical orbit and if it's a strongly elliptical org You would spend time near the sun time far away from the sun when you have strong or its hostess When you have strong elliptical orbit, it turns out it's not symmetric, he's my way more time. Far way, then you do close up comets experience that was overcome.
Surrounding showing every couple of weeks there has been a hundred million years. Application of this link shot effective gravity is throwing you only the closer we get to the sun, the faster you will move and Kepler discover this in the early. Sixteen hundred, so if you had with long winters long summers the winters would be vastly longer than you. Summers in this configuration gotta get ok, Alina clause from Burbank California, game of thrones. There was a bright red comic featured. Is this possible? Can there be other colours as well due to this programme? and galleries. Comics appears, as it should have seen as this old herald of dragons returning to the world Are there no red comets? But if you see a comment very low on the horizon, it would take on sunset collars. Just the way the sun would cause. The light is coming through the atmosphere, so you can make something look ran, but it wouldn't be read natively. So so the answer. The second question: could there be other colours as well that right,
I only know anything on it- blew there's an iron tale that it has two kinds of tales: there's a good with something called a dovetail and an iron tail. So there's a to cause. You get you'd generally, don't get, back, Terry Rogers, Vancouver British Columbia brand can see both the past and the future envisions. My understanding is that time travel to the future would taken you're, infinite amount of energy and time travel to the past is impossible, but is during the past or future theoretically possible without actually travelling there you're gonna. Take this one, the everybody so backwards! Time travel yet
would take an extraordinary amount of energy. You have to curb that so that the writer said it backwards. You'd have to curve the fabric of space and time create a trajectory where you could then join yours, you're space time life at an earlier time so that is theoretically possible travelling to the future? You don't even think specially to travel fast, Michabo travel fast, you times takes much more solely, for Why don't you just live? I mean we're time travelling to the future, which are virtually at a rate of one. Second, precisely what trouble fast, then you will So the future at a slower rate than the rest of us right as prescribed by Einstein's. General theory of relativity, so The second part is: can we view the past or future theoretically without actually travelling? There? Is there some way? I know of no way you know. No, that was my guess: we're prisoners of the present forever stuck in transition between the past and the future. Did you just
Yeah. Ok, let's get outta here for those for those working. So we ve been comparing the reality and fantasy of living in mediaeval times through my interview with game, a throne, star, icicle, let's check it out. When I think of the middle ages, I think people in desperate need of science, and when you are seeing what people do as written and scripted, what are you thinking well. I think it boy, I'm glad I don't live in I don't think it's look, these barbarism of barbarism, absolutely if that is the world and you're born to that world? Do you even know its barbaric? It just is as if I can point I think she relatively speaking you're born is that you just survive at each hundred years. From now, will people besides those Bob,
marriage years twenty. Sixteen, I'm glad I don't live given the way everything is given. How do you think is everything today that you would just. To be medieval- and you could just as soon not have I think religion is really? from right, so why it's it's religion has strong roots in time with science, yet, basically I think it would be for them. It was that kind of it was that science So that's interesting observation, Religion was their science, so in game thrones. The gods are a real right There is a certain amount of scepticism about them and one of the academics I spoke to you said the reason that she left the show. So much was because of you asked a mediaeval person. What that one of the things they most like
see, they would say a resurrection and drachen and obviously gamer thrones has both of those em. Is he is well, so I'm so female nudity, especially yes, they need to work on. Need to up the sacrifice that something that's been with the human. There, we call it civilization like from the beginning, but in the case of game of thrones, we have people being burned just to please the gods, so that you could, when about? so there is an idea that, for instance, the the flesh and blood of a king is very valuable susan. I do we see in medieval. Europe is well, but not quite the same way, and so the child of one of the wood beatings is is burned alive to ensure victory. In battle. What you know intrigues me- and I wonder if you have insight into this as a professional scientist if there's something I don't understand, I just say I don't understand it investigated further in meat, times if they didn't understand it, they'll just in
some supernatural explanation for it and then that with that, yes, so be it steeped, knowingly steeped, in ignorance, there was room for that everything had to have a cause and effect we're having a bathing in gaining things. You have one of the things the things that we developed. Funding and curiosity in Europe is positive. Relations with these are the telescope and the microscope in Serbia. You already both invented with in ten years of one another, but kind. If it tells you open a microscope, your grace, and so Yes, I think an way even when people were developing, those technologies are still oversee. Quite a lot of debate about whether that was going against region, whether that was prying into things that God didn't want human beings to know about. So I suppose there's always go to be way ram. In order for people to happen, curiosity, they ve got try and find a way of squaring that with the predominant religious thought, your hand to actually thought there through completely, but are you needed there? for there to be the full up renaissance in the enlightenment, I think there is
there is insufficient amount of curiosity, their suspicions sitting organizations are starting to be founded, I suppose not certainly post the medieval period, but people are starting to get to therein and forms of science, associations and and meat and exchange ideas, and once that starts, I think it's very difficult, even for not really try to persuade ahead awfully Brigitte, if you don't have an exchange of ideas, you can you can walk. Oh in your own superstitions, without the I'd thoughts ever getting out. I want to pick up on a point that I I began in the last there at any given moment. Is anyone actually saying to themselves boy? We live in backwards times. No, I beg back. Then they were not even saying that back in medieval. I'm just saying what we ve come a long way
Look, how I now can cure this disease compared with my ancestors or compared with even decades before, and I ask myself what the year two thousand and six would look like in the year twenty one. Sixteen, how primitive will we be to them? How barbaric would we look, to them to try to make sure that we can look forward to tomorrow and not fear at this point of view of the cosmic perspective You ve been watching start off your hopefully autograph, taking your personal. Have always did you wish you'd, listen, star, talk, commercial, free, joint start talking!
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-21.