« Stuff You Missed in History Class

1918 Flu Pandemic, Revisited - Part 2

2021-03-10 | 🔗

The comparison of the modern pandemic to the 1918 pandemic continues in part two. This time, the show covers ventilation, supply shortages, and vaccines. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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My name is red o K. I am Ellen Bernstein Grad school. This is your grandmother. What's the matter with your well end of pipe cas about the relationship between grandmothers and grandchildren, as my father would have said, tat I would have wanted a jewish grandfather. Sometimes she accidentally by streams, were like who's. Gonna tell our abject hearing about the style. Listen to your grandmother. They, I hopped radio apple pie, TAT, although you get your fat cats.
Welcome to stuff. You missed in history class, a production of Iheart Radio, hello and welcome the pod cast, I'm Tracy Wilson and I'm Holly. Fine. Ok, if you have missed our previous episode, we are revisiting the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic, which we previously covered on the show and twenty fourteen that twenty forty episode. Looking back on it, it's mostly just an overview of the disease itself in its international spread, its most of its focus. It bats, not at all how I would have approached that topic today after having lived through the covered, team pandemic for the last year, or so one of this episode. We talked a lot about masks and how they used in the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic and the general lack of an organised national,
bonds and the United States. When I started on this. I did not think Those two things are going to fill up an entire episode, but they did so. The two part, or I made it a typewriter today we are taking a shorter work at a wider range of things that have caught my engine over the last year and raised curiosity about how they compared to what happened in nineteen, eighteen and really, nineteen nineteen and a little and night twenty. Also Susan, has become increasingly clear over the course of the covert nineteen pandemic is that the virus spreads easily in poorly ventilated areas, We have seen outdoor vaccine clinics and outdoor dining and schools having class outside or even just keeping windows open. Plus, discussions about what to do in places where the windows cannot be opened and at what point the inclosure around an outdoor, dining location. Isn't
different from being endorse. Yet that's been a whole process yeah, I feel like you. Unless you have been asleep for the last twelve months. You have heard some or all of these conversations in the pub square by which I mean everywhere everywhere. Yes, there was also a big focus on ventilation in the: U S and nineteen eighteen, really even a bigger focus Anti Tuberculosis League distributed signs. That red quote: keep your bed room windows open, prevent influenza, ammonia, tuberculosis, as we know it part one. San Francisco ordered the street cars to keep their windows open unless it was raining and the board of Hell recommended that anything that could not be moved outside in San Francisco be cancelled. One of the very most common public health recommendations. Nation wide during the nineteen eighteen pandemic, was to get plenty of fresh air and
avoid crowded stuffy indoor spaces. Some of this was a response to the pandemic, but it was also connected to an ongoing overall trend of sea fresh air as necessary to good health all the time, even when there was not a disease outbreak, the AIR Movement established in the mid nineteenth century was focused not just on the health benefits of fresh air in general, but also on taking children from urban areas, many of whom were living in poverty for outdoor experiences in the country where they could breathe fresh, wholesome air. So at first this me met was rooted in the idea that my ass does or bad air or what caused disease, but around Eighteen, eighty medical science built on the work of people like Louie Past Store and Robert Coke to conclude that microscopic pathogens rather than bad air were what caused disease, but some of these pathogens seem too,
airborne. We now do this them are airborne. Even The Mai asthma theory fell out of favor. This focus on fresh air really did not fresh air also was not just a preventative, it was also used as a treatment for respiratory diseases, in particular per Kilo, Sis You see this in all kinds of of older movies in books or its lake, they ill. So they were sent to the shore for fresh air. He had come up in many episodes of the show when we talk about people's biographies. first really effective. Treatment for tuberculosis, was the antibiotic struck device and developed in nineteen, forty, four four DEC needs before that point. Tuberculosis treatment typically involved being sent to us the tourism, where people got plenty of rest and nutritious food and got lots of fresh air, including sleeping outside
the idea that ventilation was generally necessary for healthy bedrooms and other parts of your home. That was also well established by the late eighteen. Hundreds for exam An one thousand eight hundred and eighty nine article in Ladies Home Journal, which is written by Kate UPS and Clark, read quote windows in sleeping room should be kept wide open as much of the time as possible when the apartments are unoccupied and while other chamber work should be done as soon as it can be managed after breakfast, beds should be left to air several hours if they can be leniently allowed the air. in bed rooms of often obscurely foul, because the bed does not get proper airing. People also slept on sleeping porches or intense. Wealthy people who had enough room for it had just entire open air bedrooms built onto their houses. They were living Riven del style. I also just
really love the phrase obscurely fowl. Yeah. I got a claim for my autobiography one article that has gone viral during the covert nineteen pandemic, contends that steam radiators, which are avalanche in a lot of older buildings. In the? U S, trace to the pandemic the Bay The idea was that the radiator would intentionally make apartments and other homes too hot to be comfortable. The solution, open the window, which would both cool things off and bring in fresh air from outside This argument is that the reason that radiators are often under the windows is because you were supposed to open the windows, but really all They're like that was the coldest part of most rooms. So it made sense to put the radiator there and also like the space and a window didn. have a lot of other useful, how the time like definitely more complex then you're just supposed to leave the window open, however,
In addition to all that, the steam radiator was invented in the mid nineteenth century and over the next couple of decades they were refined to design that still exists in many huh today. They are in, home and whom I lived, and before this one they were already and increasingly popular method of home heating. Well before the nineteen eighteen pandemic started, it is death we true that a lot of these earlier radiator systems really overheated and in some cases, still overheat people's living spaces, but they're. Big reason, for that is that the first thermostat used for home here was not introduced until nineteen o six before that, and then tell people retro fitted their order systems with new thermostats people had to adjust their furnaces and boilers manually and in a lot of Malta unit buildings. There was no way for people and individual units to adjust their
We learn in their radiators at all, so well, it's possible that the Teenage team pandemic accelerated some of these strands. There were already underway Radiators and fresh air as a health necessity like those were already really well established, also just in case you go looking around for it. Us noakes dot com has raided this claim about steam radiators in the nineteen eighteen pandemic as true, but. Most of the articles claiming that the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic lead to two hot radiator systems, all trade to the same person, and we haven't been able to confirm this idea through any other sources: death there's like one. Person he making that argument from what I can tell a lot other places, picking that same argument of moving on During coded nineteen, we have seen a huge. trend and people working from home if their jobs are conducive to doing that.
There really were not merely as many jobs that met that criteria and nineteen eighteen. So a bigger Brandon. Nineteen eighteen was people just not going to work, even though they were not being paid because they were afraid of getting sick and dying in a of industries. Concrete numbers on this are hard to track, but Totally absenteeism was really high and businesses that weren't shut down because of the pandemic. One industry, they did keep good records, wish shipyards. Shipyard. Workers were essential, especially in the context of the war and many if yards had medical staff on site, even as the pandemic led to such an enormous shortage of medical workers but in New England shipyards the rate of absenteeism was often around fifty percent, the seminars Shirley and those who are sick, but others were folks who are like not I'm not not doing it. And other news remember when they come
Nineteen pandemic started. Nobody could find toilet paper. Flower, yes, and there are still things I would want from the grocery store that like this, did still have that day, they're out of There were also shortages in nineteen eighteen, as I started to wonder, but it was really not necessarily because of the flu pandemic sense than I. In eighteen pandemic started near the end of world war. One a lad of basic necessities were already being ration, so in general, things like food and fuel were already in short supply because of the war. So it's like but existing shortages made the pandemic more difficult rather than the pandemic causing a lot of shortages similar It's kind of hard to pinpoint the impact of the pandemic on the: U S, economy or the global economy, because it is largely overshadowed by the economic impact of the war and de mobilization when the war ended. Yet
kind of like a thing where the union has two layers, but the layers have fused in kind of crossed over into one another. You can heal them apart. The general conclusion is like the the nineteen eighteen pandemics impact on the economy, which is a nebulous thing. more shorter term, Anne and more confined to specific industries. like the total war time and then De Mobilization impact one actual shortage that was connected to the pandemic. Was coal production in the? U S, dropped by as much as a sixth due to illnesses and absenteeism, and this in turn did problems for the steel industry, railroad shipping and heating electricity leading to a series of government inquiries into the matter in hand, cities. Health authorities took steps to make sure that quarantine families had enough coal to heat their homes. So aside from this, there was
huge demand for every over the counter, cold and flew remedy in existence along with disinfectants, none of that seems really surprising People bought up all the stock at their local pharmacies and drugstores abolish these products. There was also a massive run on atomizer switch people would use to miss, themselves and the people around them and the environment. They were. Sometimes these we're just spelled with water to keep the name. passages moist, but there were also antiseptics and supposedly Ty flew preparations that people would mist with their atomizer hers we're gonna, take a quick sponsor break and then we are going to talk about some vaccines
This episode is brought to you by Comcast because of covert nineteen internet traffic has spiked, but Comcast is prepared. They ve created a powerful network with one simple purpose: to keep customers connected since twenty seventeen Comcast has invested twelve billion dollars to grow and evolve a smart, reliable network, and now, with many of us working learning and entertaining and home, their coverage has helped to millions of people stay connected when they need it most learned more at Comcast, DOT, com, slash network.
What kind of Ottawa Account is travellers barricades baby drawn is, as we debate everyday Blackmoor Cultural Toby, talking, enemy, comics gaming and more is our minds. River gauges, elastic a public spotted Tonia Ex Mass Tax, Adrian, listen to the travelers carcass anyway, towards our radio apple pie ever get your body. We mention them power, while at this absurd, but there was no vaccine for influenza and nineteen eighteen and that before the night made him pandemic. Researchers thought the culprit for the flu was a bacterium called pfeiffers bacillus that was also known as bacillus influenza.
however, the lack of knowledge did not stop health authorities from trying to create vaccines and vaccinate people against the disease and nineteen eighteen and in some cases these Axioms were meant to try to prevent bacterial pneumonia. This was a secondary, section. That did cause a lot of pandemic deaths in others. nations, though doctors really believed that they were targeting the actual flew with their vaccines, or they were just desperate enough to save people's lives, that they were owing to pretty much try anything hundreds of thousands of doses of these vaccines, possibly more than a million doses, were administered during the pandemic. The federal government and the? U S. Public health service were really involved with this and didn't create any kind of national development, testing or distribution plan for these vaccines.
Instead, multiple different researchers and institutes were working on this as quickly as they could, including the Rockefeller Institute, the Pastor Institute and the Army medical school state. Local health departments were on the case as well. William each park at the New York City, health department, device the vaccine that use heat, killed, Pfeiffers back zealous in early October, nineteen eighteen, the army Medical School created one as well in Philadelphia. Doktor see why White created a vaccine that combined killed bacillus influenza and two different strains of New Mexico. The list goes on and on over all the methods for creating and testing these vaccines. We're not scientifically very rigorous, even an established reach, centres timelines were rushed and abbreviated? The very a basic steps of killing a bacterium and making it into an injectable form were not all that difficult. So all kinds of
people with varying levels of skill and experience were all working on this and in some cases were making vaccines that were then actually administered to people. these vaccines could not prevent the flu, though, since they had nothing to do with the influenza virus, but they could be. sleep prevent bacterial pneumonia studies into whether they actually did were also all over the place, You, ten article in the journal of infectious diseases, looked at thirteen different vaccine studies that took place during Nineteen eighteen pandemic none of them were double blind or randomized, and their methods were inconsistent, but over. all this report estimated that the vaccines used among civilian populations were third, four percent effective at preventing secondary pneumonia and showed a forty two percent reduction in case fatality rate, in military populations. Those numbers were fifty seven percent and seventy percent those thirteen studies do
not represent all the different vaccines that were in use, though, and some other paper that were published at the time paint a far less rosy picture than that one that suggest that some of the vaccines did have some efficacy, at least in treating secondary infections. For example, in nineteen nineteen, the Journal of the American Medical Association published the results of a vaccination upper using as vaccine that was supplied by Doktor F, O Tawny. Who was that of the laboratory of the Chicago Health Department, the recipients were all all impatient residence at a mental hospital so that had some medical ethics questions as well. This vaccine contained bacillus influenza for different types of Numa cock. I and two types of struck Dukakis with a lot in this case more
ass. The needed people developed influenza and secondary pneumonia and more vaccinated people died than on vaccinated people. The Eric and Medical Association was generally pretty pessimistic about the efficacy and the promise of these vaccines during the pandemic, to be one hundred percent clear, the preponderance of different vaccines in nineteen eighteen, which were into use. Just a few months after the disease started to spread was largely because the process of developing and testing of vaccine wasn't yet standardized, and the development and testing procedures that did exist were ovens, leaped over, because the situation was so dire, That is not why vaccines for cuban nineteen have been developed surprisingly quickly. The code
nineteen vaccines have built on years or in some cases, decades of existing research into viruses, vaccines and manufacturing methods. This includes research into two other corona viruses which cause Sars and Merce RNA Maxine technology has also been in the news a lot, but it's been going on way before this for more than a decade, big reason. Things have gone so quickly with covert vaccines. Is money? Government and philanthropists have funded vaccine research. Governments also pre ordered vaccines in bulk. So that pharmaceutical companies are not running the financial risk of making a vaccine that it turns out, nobody actually wants to buy. The influx of funding has that pharmaceutical companies are willing and financially able to work a lot faster and to run multiple trials in parallel. That is something would go a lot more slowly, about all that money
so moving on something that didn't come up at all zero times. In our original episode on the nineteen eighteen, flu was the first that there was a mid term election in nineteen eighteen, it seems like a little bit of a weird emission having lived through November of twenty twenty, though, if you Looking at it not having had the hindsight of an election year during a pandemic, it just may not be the thing, a bubbles up now and night. In eighteen, voting in general was most accessible to white men in theory, under the fifteenth and meant to the constitution quote. The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude, but in practice the sky the Tory voting was made it much harder or even impossible for most people of color to vote and did it.
People and many asian people were not considered. Citizens and the Nineteenth amendment had not been passed yet so women had the right to vote in some places, but not in others. in November of nineteen eighteen, the pandemic had largely peaked in the eastern part of the. U S and many eastern cities and states had returned or were returning to business as usual, so x on the election layer were pretty minimal, but in the MID West, in the West Coast, the pandemic flu was still spreading rapidly especially in these areas. Candidates did a lot more of their campaigning by mail and gave interviews in newspapers. This was especially true in places where large gatherings and darted or canvassing were banned for the sake of public Health, These bans led to accusations of partisan interference, for example, Democratic party leaders in New York were out raves Twin, an all Republican Board of Health or
The democratic candidate Alford EAST Smith could only give a plan speech if it were moved to an open air location asked election day itself. People in high risk areas tried to time their trip to the poles to avoid crowds, some of them It's in SALT Lake City were cast in tents and somebody faced a shortage of poor workers because they were sick and sympathy. happening in western states where mass requirements were already a lot. More common alot of jurisdictions specifically required vote. Here's to wear masks to the polls For example, the Rocky Mountain NEWS of Denver Colorado published an article titled quote precautions at the polls order to prevent the spread of plague, which advised people where the standard Red cross mask, not crowd, pulling places and refrain for assembling in groups for political discussions. I kind of love,
and the Lido Ohio police reinforced the need to close the saloons restaurants and other public places on election day and night and probably some people just didn't vote or in some other way didn't participate in the election in when California a quarter of the election board resigned because of fear of the pandemic. Nationwide. Voter turnout was about ten percent lower than the previous two mid term elections, although so Both the drop is probably because so many men were away at war and in places flew cases increase sharply after election day, something that again in the wake of celebrations following the November eleventh nineteen eighteen armistice You are going to take a quick sponsor break before talking about some of the disparities and how the nineteen eighteen flew affected. Different communities.
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across the board around the world, the nineteen eighteen, flu pandemic was hardest on the poorest people. Although the virus ed and dead strike people of all social and economic classes. Poor people were the most likely to get sick and the most likely. Die. Data on how different racial and ethnic groups were affected is spot here. Even Places where overall record keeping was generally good, the sheer magnitude of illnesses and deaths often overwhelmed the system entirely. In most of the U S, demographic data was less granular that it often is today with populations grouped as white and non white, but with those caveats, its clear that some of the same disparities we ve seen during the covert nineteen pandemic, were all though they are in nineteen. Eighteen.
But really is something that we talked about much when we discussed the pandemic back and twenty fourteen one except and was a brief mention of the fact that the pandemic was incredibly devastating to the Inuits. Yet population of Alaska killing as many as ninety percent of the residents and some of those communities. The pandemic was particularly deadly among other Alaska native peoples as well This was not confined to Alaska, globally. Indigenous people were some of the most profoundly affected by the nineteen eighteen pandemic. Death Its were also particularly high among Intuit peoples in northern Canada and Greenland. the same was true for aboriginal peoples in Northern Australia, Maori in New Zealand and indigenous peoples, from several Pacific islands, including western Samoa, now Tahiti and Tonga looking at Deathrays,
By caught, myth is tricky because within one continent there could be a huge variation from country to country or region to region and taking it. Hotmail wide view of the pandemic also excludes the Pacific islands that we just mention where the death toll was truly catastrophic. However, some sources do look at this data by continent and when you look at death tolls that way the place with the highest average mortality rate in the world with Sub Saharan Africa In addition to factor stemming from things like economics, resources, racism and colonialism possible reason for this was that the pandemics first wave in the first half of nineteen eighteen mostly seems to have stopped in northern Africa and a small area in South Eastern Africa without nearly as much spread elsewhere on the continent. There,
the virus mutated before its particularly lethal second wave around October of that year. So when the more lethal stream of the virus made its way to sub Saharan Africa, more Lee introduced through european ships involved in World war, one most people had no immunity to it in its spread, particularly easily and the United States specifically the mortality rate for indigenous people was four times higher than that of general population other numbers did very widely among different indigenous tribes and nations black people in the United States. Had a lower mortality rate overall than white people during the pandemic. According to a twenty nine an article in the international Journal of Environmental Research and public health. Nineteen eighteen was the only year in the twentieth century when that was the case. whoever blackmail
had a higher case. Brutality rate than White Americans did in the nineteen eighteen pandemic, and this suggests the blackmail kids were somewhat less likely to contract the disease, but more likely to become seriously ill and die when they did the exact cost of this combination is not entirely clear, but it was surely affected by racism within the health care system, including die there is in hospitals that did not treat black patients even in the middle of a pandemic. There were a few places in the: U S and around the world that manage to protect themselves from the nineteen eighteen pandemic or ITALY severely limit its impact, a two thousand six report by the University of Michigan Medical School. Looked at seven communities in the: U S didn't have many flew cases during the pandemics deadly second wave and also had no more than one death.
They were the San Francisco naval training station at your Bwana Island by that's in California, of course, Gunnison, Colorado, Princeton University in New Jersey, the western Pennsylvania institution for the blind in Pittsburgh Tree Tuberculosis sanatorium in Ceramic, like New York Bridge our college in Pennsylvania, Fletcher Vermont. It is not entirely clear why these communities were relatively spared, though more two of them implemented the same types of non pharmaceutical interventions that we talked about in part. One things like masks and social, distancing in hand, hygiene enclosing, schools and banning large gatherings words. They were doing a lot of the same basic things that a lot of other places were also doing, but with apparently better results. But These communities also showed some relatively risky behaviors
Fletcher Vermont, for example, held a Red cross dance in September, and some of its residents travelled to Essex Vermont for a fair. older from Camp David Massachusetts also travelled to Fletcher for his wedding, while camped Evans was in the middle of an outbreak that in did almost one third of the camp somehow the flu nearly skipped past Fletcher entirely give out wedding party Sleepy Alzheimer's, like you know that twenty twenty superseded headline in the making. So among the report's conclusions, quote the cape of a community from the brunt of the pandemic, was likely the result of multiple factors in the cases we studied, not least of which included good fortune viral normalization patterns and geographical operation. We should be seduced into thinking. We can easily translate these historical examples into contemporary situations beyond
the scope of this study. There were some island communities that were able to delay the pandemic at least somewhat american similar required all ships to quarantine for five days, and I, kept that requirement in place until nineteen twenty by the time? The flu was introduced there, it had mutated into a milder form and american similar reported no deaths. Eric and Samoa and Western Samoa. Now the independent state of Samoa are part of the same island chain and, as we noted earlier, western Samoa was particularly hard hit more than a fifth of population died of the disease after it was introduced by people about, the steam ship saloon harbour mastering happier. Western Samoa had not realised that there was an outbreak at the ship's departure point of chocolate, New Zealand and had allowed people to disembark Austria. Also quarantined strictly refit that arrive through most of the pandemic.
But in January of nineteen nineteen disease spread from ship to shore, possibly through medical workers, who were treating six sailors, the strain, the virus that spread around Australia in January and February of nineteen nineteen was less lethal than the one that had peaked around the world the prior October. Consequently, Australia had one of the lowest death rates in the world two point: seven per one thousand people, but that still meant that at least fifteen thousand people died the island of Tasmania was even more isolated and did not start seeing cases at all. Until August of nineteen nineteen, places that are relatively low mortality rates included, Denmark and China, although It's not entirely clear. Why there's a lot of not quite sure, like some first cases that are usually noted as like these are the first nineteen team pandemic flu cases were in
in the United States at Fort rarely Kansas, but there is some some suggestion that possibly this basic same virus circulating in a lot of places earlier and that it just mutated into a form that became more noteworthy at that point, and so an idea is that maybe some of these other places that had relatively low numbers of cases had been some of the places that this We are much more mile version of the of the flu with circulating, so people already had some immunity. One last thing before we close out these efforts: I know during the covert nineteen pandemic, a lot of us have been trying to find ways to state active, while also really being able to get out much This is also true, obviously, a nineteen nineteen, and not just because people were trying to reduce their exposure to other people. It was also because this was during world where wine and a lot of people were being held as prisoners of war or other as being in turned around the world
Joseph Hubert Us Pilates was a german national who was living in Britain during World WAR, one after the we started. He was interned as an enemy, alien and knock a hello camp on the Isle of Man. Pilates was an athlete, a gymnast and a boxer, and he worked out ways to try to keep himself in his fellow internees fit. Well, they were incarcerated. For the rest of his life. Pilates would claim that when the pandemic struck, no one at knock low camp who was doing his exercises, got sick, of course, there's What, in the story that's a little hard to pin down today there were deaf we flew outbreaks at knock, allow and the so called enemy aliens at the camp were blamed for introducing the virus to the rest of the, Isle of Man. That's problem. as much about xenophobia as it was about people actually being brought to this camp butts. What was also divided up into multiple compounds that work isolated from each other and its mouth
entirely clear if there was an outbreak in the compound, we're pilates was actually housed still become If the origins story of the portuguese exercise method, though I am sure many people are doing it at home because it is easy to do on your own in your house, you don't need a reformer. I'm writing an exercise bike and playing ring, fit adventure. Nice herbs, lifting my cats fifty times, No I'm kidding, while I was doing nothing except walking outside when the weather permitted and then, as as it got lots nowhere and colder here in Massachusetts, the weather was not permitting merely as often and I was like, I feel bad, were moving. I need to address the yes, I I am very thankful that we have heard treadmill in our house for a long time, because it's been really Andy. You know what else is handy there
nor mail. You got some I do. I do. I have listened rail okay. This is this is the reference to an episode from quite some time. But it's honestly one of my favorite episodes- and I love it every time we get an email like this. This is from Jennifer. she's refer. then the subject line of this email. Thanks to I found out my mom was a smuggler nice and further email begins no seriously dear Holly and Tracy longtime listener, never a writer of fan mail, but this has been long overdue. I wanted to thank you for your episode back and twenty sixteen butter verses Margaret. I grew up in Wisconsin, but had never learned about the banning of margarine. Perhaps some folks were still nursing grudges with Miley imagery about what was truly, the delight of episode was the conversation it lets you with my mom. Now eighty four, I asked her if she would Edward the Margarine Ban, oh yes, and what she thought of it. She was
why it for a moment and then mentioned that she used to drive Ladys from church down to Illinois and her car and they used to fill up the trunk with their oleo purchased and then drive back north, my mother was a smuggler. I'd never have known, and if it weren't for use that thank you have attached a picture of her you'd. Never guess this high school princess was going to turn rebel. Would you also, and working on, my family genealogy and my great grandfather, moms grandpa was a dairy farmer, which I knew. What I didn't know is that he helped me what I am personally calling the great. cheese, rebellion of nineteen, thirty six, it turns out the feds were demanding swiss cheese. Be me, with a certain percentage of butter fat and the farmers were saying that percentage was terrible and they demanded it be changed. The percent thought, made a more delicious swiss cheese. They withheld their milk until answer met. I am pleased to report they won and the bear specific swiss cheese. Butterfat percentage is now codified in: U S law
title twenty one section, one three three point: one: nine: five of the FDA: the regulations on food for human consumption; apparently from a line of daring, very near dwells, and I'm so happy to know this. Thank you again and again, for these shows they are fun to listen to you and they have sparked some great family conversations. Cheers Ladys keep up the great work. Thank you so much for this for this email. I love both of these stories so much I love the whole weirdness about the fight between butter and margarine, and I love the oleo smuggling and I love the rebellion. over. How much butterfat is in the swiss cheese and always more always more last night. My spouses clicking our dinner- and I saw him put in- Entire third of a stick of butter and
that sounds about re. It was amazing. The carrots were fantastic not like everyone needed to know about our butter anyway. If you like to write to us about this or any other pod castrate history podcast, I hurt radio dot com and were also all over social media Agnes than history, which is way or find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram, and you can subscribe to our show on the, radio, app and apple podcast and anywhere else. You getting your favorite gas study. the district class, the production of Iheart radio for more plug gaps for my heart, radio visit by her radio have added my cans or wherever you listen to your favorite, shows.
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-11.