Bonsai’s origins go all the way back to ancient China, long before Japan became infatuated with the art form. Over time, the western world also became fascinated with bonsai, though there has been plenty of cultural confusion about it along the way. This episode is sponsored by Mazda.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff, you missed in history glass, a production of I radio
show me the podcast Polly FRY and I'm Tracy, B Wilson and will housekeeping up front. This is a sponsored episode. It's sponsored by Mazda as they are, for
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We through around a lot of ideas for this episode, but one that kept coming back to us and kept coming back up was bonds. I, and it is an art form that feels uniquely special, at least to me at this point in time, we're we're.
Feeling very disconnected because tending bombs. I is used by some folks as a way to meditate and reconnecting nature and feel a little more centred
for me. It's also really easy to think about bombs. I in history together, because there are some very, very old bonds I in the world. We will talk about a couple at the end so today that is indeed what we are
about and, to give you a run down of how this episode will play out. First, we're gonna just quickly cover what bonds I is kind of a level set, because there are two misconceptions, particularly in the western world.
It and then we're gonna talk about its origins in China and its development in Japan, which is the country it's probably most associated with in popular culture. Anyway,
and then a little bit about how it became a subject of fascination for the western world and then at the end, we're gonna talk about a few notable bonds. I in very broad terms, bonds, I, as the practice of cultivating plants in containers with a goal in the words of the Oxford companion to the garden to quote, suggest a natural scene or the abstract beauty of a tree in nature. Normally these plants are grown, and course soil and very small trades,
Pots and there's a really wide range of plants that can be grown in this way. Although woody perennials are the favoured option, they all need a fair amount of attention and care with regard to their watering in their pruning, as well as occasional feeding bonds. I practice generally creates a simplified version of a larger plants in that
simplified to accommodate the smaller scale, a mature, well maintained bonds. I typically has horizontal branch growth to create some width, and sometimes even
Does that reach downward will talk about some of the styles in more detail in a moment, and it also has a full but compact foliage on top so sometimes like the sort of classic bonds. I that people may think of when they hear the word is one that has foliage that sort of like clouds at the top,
and the small size of the plants is not the result of genetic selection or modification, its careful design and cultivation from the time their seedlings in this
eyes range for bombs. I I've been mentioning how small they are, but it is not is restricted to small
since you might think there is actually a size classification system that allows
varying sizes of bonds. I and the large bonds I'd better in that are, as Taulas eighty inches that's about to meet her. So that's a substantial tree. There are a number of different styles of bonds I and their inspired by different ways: the trees grow in nature.
The bonds. I does not need to fall into one of these categories and there are vast variations in interpretation of the categories, but they offer a good way to guide the styling pro horticulture. Ist here are a few, but this is not an exhaustive list at all. There also subdivisions within many of these styles.
So entirely different styles. That are not part of this list. You were yesterday, as you are working on this human
some of you are starting on this list, and then it was turning out to be extremely large, yet sort of this
things where you, you think you'll have a few bullet points and then you're like, oh so, the first I
all, which is a really common style, is broom style and that features a street trunk with foliage that branches out at the top. One third of the tree deciduous trees with sort of fine branch structures are ideal for this cause agreed. That makes cloudy top the formal, upright style is also characterized by a straight trunk, but this time it tapers at the top with fully- and that is the guest at the bottom and also things out as it rises in formal, upright style features a tapered trunk, but one that's grown not straight, but as an s shape with branching at each curve. There's also a slanting style that stay street, but typically grows at a sixty to eighty degree angle, cascading style, mimics, trees that grow downward because of external influences, so the trunk grows upward, but then it
and over allowing the branches and the foliage to shower toward the ground. There's also a semi cascade style, which can be grown with a less dramatic downturn. Yet one of them that I watch debris, video about some of these in one of them suggested like oh, it would be like give a tree, grew
under heavy snow fall in its branches, couldn't support it, and so it cascades over yeah we're thinking when it
three grows like at the edge of a cliff, then there's a and overtime and its trunk compensates. Yeah rock falls are also sometimes noted. Is there
The cause for those literati style is all about verticality, growing upward but crooked, with no
wrenching on most of the tree trunk, except at the very top in this style, is intended to mimic trees in nature. They would have to compete and struggle for sunlight and resources with other plant life. Wind swept style, as its name suggests, means that the three has grown too
like one that develops and very windy conditions with the foliage. Only on one side and an angle, trunk double trunk style has a by four Katy trunk with each trunk growing its own foliage and the multi drug style follows this same idea, but in that case it forks into more than two trunks. This is not true
confused with forest style, which can feature many trunks, but in the forest style
choose its own individual tree, not a splitting of one trunk into multiples.
Growing on a rock style and growing in Iraq. Style are exactly as their names indicate, with the roots, visible and clinging to the exterior of a base rock in the former and the routes concealed within the rock and the latter. There are also styles of bonds. I based on damage that a tree my encounter in nature, so raft style, starts with the cracked tree and then has branches growing up
word out of the old damage tree to develop fully age, that forms kind of one unit at the top and Shari style mimics. The naturally occurring bark lost that trees may experience in nature by carefully carving away the bark on the part of the designer because bombs, I is an art form. There are a lot of different expressions of
an ongoing evolution within the field, so it changes over time, but this is also lead to what some would consider a dilution of the bonds. I art form, particularly as popularity of the concept, has led to commercial enterprises that don't have a lot of interest in the principles behind it. Like I know, I've seen advertisements in catalogues and stuff there like a by an instant Barnes, I sort of defeating the point part of the difficulty there is it. The principles are often listed very very differently depending on your source. When talking about the aesthetics of bonds, I texts at least an English varied,
vary greatly. In some cases, you'll find a specific list of principles of design which include things like balance, proportion, movement, simplicity, unity and an absence of the designers involvement. That means you can't see the way that the tree may have been manipulated, but other texts are
a more general suggesting that, as an art form, these rules are not really rules but they're, just sort of guides to inform decisions on how you design and maintain a tree, so particularly in western cultures, to our really translating this asian art form through all western limb things, I've got a kind of muddled, the word bonds. I has become synonymous with horticultural pay me this and very small plants captain containers more than relating directly to the aesthetic principles of bombs I or its chinese precursor. Pending some of this expansion beyond the classical sense of bonds, I is reflected in the consideration of a pre world were to bomb via the classical model and Post world war. Two as modern, although that is a really encompass. The sort of fast and loose use of the term too,
I had a pretty much any small plants. I am. I don't want to throw any retailer under the bus, but I was once in a store that sold plants and they had
A row of tiny cactus
his bonds. I in areas like quite think so well, but when I was a child, there was a catalogue that I particularly love to look through and it sold something that is described as a grow. Your own bonds, I kid and what it was- was a potato with a partially sprouted I,
and that potato I mean a route that comes out like that was supposed to be. The bonds I that is a fascinating
her yeah yeah,
thy, even in its less rigid definitions, but presuming you're, not time at a potato, is, by its nature, meticulous caring for
bonds. I tree is an ongoing process because their panzer trays are very small and because it's usually with a course soil, they often need to be watered frequently does does very, though, of course, by plant.
Both indoor and outdoor plants, need to have their environment carefully managed and for even hobbyists pruning is required to keep the shape of the foliage. That effort becomes much more intensive,
expert designers. Everyone, I think, is probably seen footage of lake that person that is carefully clipping bonds,
sometimes in ways that are not even perceptible to the human eye, but are, of course, part of shaping it into that beautiful, beautiful final product,
pruning is also part of maintaining the small size of the plants, and all of this work, which has done quite carefully adds a meditative element to the cultivation of bonds. I, and that is part of its appeal for just a moment ago, we mentioned pending. We airily talk about by five history. Without talking about that, first, so coming up, we will get ensued. Some discussion of the miniature horticultural ART of China first we'll take a quick sponsor break. This episode of stuffy missed in history classes brought
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China, due to its vast size, has an incredibly diverse range of plant life and there was already a well established gardening tradition in China that have begun hundreds of years before the creation of these many scenes developed as an art form and the name pinching translates to trace scenery or power.
Scenery and the idea of packaging is that a person can see the large in the tiny. The miniature nature allows for the experience of seeing larger things from a different perspective, both literally and figuratively, and it's an expression of emotion as much as it is a miniature recreation of larger natural scenes, reverence for large scale, natural forms like mountains and forests in
formed the development of packaging as a way to connect to nature, but pending is not only about plants there. Actually three types of packaging tree pending landscape engine
and water and land pillaging and
All of this is meant to form a blow.
The balance of nature in art than
natural elements can almost be considered as artists media to be combined with other media, such as small sculpture.
Or arrangements of stones. One source that I read.
Can bid to a landscape painting, but one that is alive and with greater dimension and because of this pension,
works, are often revisited after their completed, not just to me
sing the the living floral elements, but also to be reworks to accommodate the growth of the living plants within them. So you might need to change around where the sculpture sits, depending on how your your tree in the scene has grown. While there were miniature gardenscapes created as far back as the Shang dynasty, which lasted from about one thousand six hundred to one thousand and forty six BCE. The first evidence of pinching is from the Han dynasty, that's around two hundred c. So what we have from that two hundred c e is is a picture, a painting of pinching at the plant itself,
and that representation is a fresco in an eastern Han tomb that features six red flowering plants they arranged in a small round container and then that in a square frame was art form would have initially been something that was reserved for the wealthy in the privilege. So it makes sense that its first evidence is on a princess,
from the third to the fifth centuries. Buddhism and Taoism became highly influential leading people to issue the two
things of money and engage instead with nature and, as a consequence,
Jeanne developed greatly during this time as people sought ways to have nature, even in its smallest?
in their everyday lives pinching
entwined with the idea of cultivating ones, character and one's appreciation for beauty. Another huge period of growth for this art form came in the seventh through the night centuries during the Tang dynasty, when arts flourished, this was a relatively stable period and chinese history, one of the most famous historical depictions from pending, is from this period its mural on a mausoleum for prints young way from other year. Seventy six and it features-
servant women carrying a tray with a miniature seen on it with rocks and fruit trees. Evidence of packaging appears from throughout the tongue dynasty in the eighth century. It's written about in poems in its document. It is something that people would cultivate for their own homes, often
cooperated into their outdoor landscape, so you would have it in your yard. For example, in the tenth century is northern song dynasty. It was similarly represented an art, and this is when the water and land pinching also developed. During this time it appeared in a lot of poetry and paintings, as well, sometimes as a decorative element in a larger scene, but often is the subject of the work itself. This appreciation and representation of pinching continued over the next two centuries. Then some time during the period when the song dynasty
and the Japanese hang on overlap pending made its way to Japan will be coming back to Japan in just a moment during the Ming dynasty, which spanned the years, one thousand three hundred and sixty eight one thousand six hundred and forty four finishing,
flourished, but more and more ideas of it beyond an object of beauty were recorded right or to Lung declared that
smaller packaging that could quote be set on a stool or table where the best ones followed by pillaging intended to sit in courtyards
and he also wrote advice on what he believed were the best aesthetic principles of the art form, preferring the look of AIDS trees such as those in images by a number of famous painters. He stresses as well that, though plants and penjing could be trained with stiff fibers or string. There should be no appearance of such manipulation in the final product. That is something that continues in these are forms today during the Shang dynasty, which followed the Ming and lasted until one thousand nine hundred and eleven the possibilities,
enjoying expanded, really significantly, the limits of this art form were tested, they were expanded. More and more. Creative concepts emerged during this time. Regional styles also developed, and there were books about the art that rapidly grew
number, including writings the talked about the virtue of creating pending for pleasure, it started to take on
identity, not just something that could bring a person closer to nature, but also with something done. Simply for the pleasure of creating it yet
switches and becomes not just this meditative thing, but also now,
leaving that idea behind, but also by a kind of being pitched almost as a hobby like you could do this too. As part of this developmental period, more decorative containers came into fashion
and plunging, which had long been the subject of visual art and poetry, then started to mimic the concepts of those arts in its executions or two to represent the same ideas and concepts of a painting in the packaging or the ideas of a poem in the execution of the scene when the Tang dynasty collapsed and nineteen eleven that marked the downfall of the popularity of pen
as well at least for a while, but in the last fifty years, there's been a renewed interest in appreciation for Thou art form in China.
And he may be one. The chinese Association of Flour and pending was formed that group later folded into the chinese society of landscape architecture, wonder the header of flour pending and stone branch, and that's been tasked with mounting an exhibition every four years, starting in nineteen. Eighty five, the chinese pending artists association, was formed and nineteen. Eighty eight with
listen to continue to share the art form throughout the country. Pinching has spread around the world and has gained popularity in many cases alongside japanese bonds. I, the two art forms, are often shown at the same expositions with pen jeering, often offering gardeners and viewers are less.
Steer alternative to the usually more formal forms of bonds. I thought
mentioned a few moments ago, the art of pending made its way into Japan during the period a period we ve talked about on the show a couple of times before in the fiction book that
of the hollow tree, which was written in Japan and nine. Seventy the merits of cultivating trees, as mentioned in a passage that's often quoted in bonds. I histories quote a treaty that has left growing in its natural state, as a crude thing was only when it is kept close to human beings who fashion it with loving care that its shape and style acquire the ability to move one wins and Buddhism became popular in Japan, starting in the twelfth century. The japanese adaptation of pending became intertwined with it as
Then monk sought to represent the universe in the cultivation of single plants, and this is actually the source of many of the aesthetic ideals that shaped bonds I and continue to day, and it's why japanese bonds? I tend to be a little bit more stark, in contrast to his chinese origins,
But while this is an important aspect of the development of bonds, I it's worth noting that the exact start of the bonds, I tradition, is not something that universally agreed upon which we have.
Talking about all of these. These pieces of the puzzle in its history and some people will point to like China is the origin, verses others who want to put it more in Japan as when it really becomes bonds. I and it's a matter of
bait the word bonds I, which was a linguistic adaptation of the chinese pens. I was not in use yet at this point, so
fisheries. Later, though, the association was and Buddhism of bonds, I in its origins in the twelfth century, remains the idea of growing trees in dishes in Japan reached beyond monks as well. But often the dishes were a lot deeper. They were bulls instead of hands. This style called Hachinoki was immortalized than a folk tail in the late thirteen hundreds, and it also became a no play. That story is about an impoverished samurai, who gives up his last treasured potted trees to uses firewood for a traveling monk in the winter, and the second act serve yield that the monk was actually the show gun Turkey or a photo who helps the samurai regained his fortune. In the end, this is a really popular story and whip black prince depicting it were popular for hundreds of years overtime, small culture,
did container trees became so culturally significant in Japan that most people would have had one in some form, but these were still not bonds. I in this sense we would think about them today. That name again did not even exist until the beginning of the nineteenth century, and that was when that chinese name was adapted and adopted during a summit of scholars. In doing so
Oh, they wanted to set apart the common hachinoki from the more artistic efforts at growing trees in shallower vessels, with greater design and intent and
had already been shows for dwarf potted trees in Kyoto, so this separation and definition helped codified standards for shows and competitions to include bonds. I, as a distinct, separate thing going forward, leading eventually to formal showings of bonds. I that started in the nineteen thirties as the nineteenth century played out bonds. I was recognised as its own art form in Japan to the degree that formal writing horticultural theory and shows started to become really common.
The different styles of bonds, I started to develop and methods of training trees, change to include the use of wire instead of stiff natural fibres. We'll talk next about a natural disaster and its impact on bonds. I in Japan, in the twentieth century, but before we do we're gonna, have a quick sponsor break.
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on the show before about the great country earthquake which obliterated Yokohama and much of Tokyo and killed more than a hundred and forty thousand people, and that also impacted bonds. I am a robust nursery industry of growers who specialised in training bonds. I had developed in Tokyo in the decades prior to the earthquake, with all their hard work destroyed, thirty
families who owned such nursery started over as a collective in nearby omega, which has since then become omega bonds. I village and has become a hub for bonds. I culture in two thousand ten. It became home to the omega bonds. I art museum. Japan went through massive changes after it surrender at the end of world war till the empire was gone. The country was reformed as a democracy, and its economy was just completely overhaul
while the damage from the war was rebuilt bonds. I persisted despite all of these changes and it became more revered as art. In the second half of the twentieth century, there was a dip in bonds, eyes, popularity in Japan, but in recent years there has been a resurgence and one has been accompanied by experimental designs that really straight
from the more formal predecessors that we ve been talking about yeah. I am not an expert.
By any means, but one of the things I was reading meant
and how did
some of the newer forms of bonds. I are a little more wild and I I wonder if they're getting a little bit more back to their roots and
bonds, I related items were in the: U S. As far back as the colonies trading agreements with China led to the import of goods that were new and novelty North America and the same seeds of the cultural fetishism and ass no centric views of Ec Torreon England with regards to Asia were definitely in place in the United States colonial days. So items like miniature plants from Asia became prized elements of personal collections, several world exposition starting
eighteen, seventies featured displays of dwarf trees from Japan, european and North American attend these wanted to see these plants not desire had been stoked by centuries of written descriptions by travellers to Asia who had described the practice of horticulture in miniature. This eventually led to the first book in the western world about bonsai, which was published in France in nineteen o to a tourist industry, grew in Japan, which sold inferior quality Barnes I to european and american tourists,
Sudan brought them home. This lead to some of the misinformation about this art form yeah. Unfortunately, trading on the fact that that western tourists didn't really know what they were buying, also caused a lot of confusion in the west about bonds. I
immigrants from Japan to the. U S brought the bonds, I tradition with them. Although horticulture,
It was by no means ubiquitous among the people who travelled across the Pacific to work as laborers as bonds. I continued to fascinate: U S gardeners and hobbyists. This lead to some opportunities for japanese experts in bonds. I too share their knowledge through demonstrations and teaching sessions, which are often organised by garden clubs, eventually, clubs that focused specifically on bonds, I begin,
form in the U S, starting on the West Coast, plunging it had more difficulty in gaining appreciation in the United States, thanks in part to the chinese Exclusion ACT and nineteen fifteen. The japanese government shipped bonfire to the San Francisco, Panama, Pacific International Expo, for exhibit several of these bombs. I were hundreds of years old,
if it was seen by nineteen million visitors and that sparked in all new level of interest in bonds. I, in the? U S, that interest was impeded by a plant quarantine law in the nineteen teens, because that prevented new bonds. I from entering the country that was part of an effort to protect north american agriculture from
face of species of pests and other previous show topic, had a significant impact on bonds. I in the United States
executive order. Ninety sixty six, which we have talked about and which displaced many japanese immigrants and their citizens, children forced the growers that had established nurseries on the West Coast to abandon their work, leaving countless plants and their livelihoods to die in some cases bonds. I masters that were in camps tended to trees during in
man is kind of part of their coping mechanisms, and we will talk about an example of one of those in just a moment. Bonds. I had a surgeon
hilarity in the: U S, starting in the mid twentieth century, one of the drivers with service men who were returning from duty in Asia and brought bonds. I plants home with them as mementoes or as gifts. These plants got the nickname, rucksack Barnes I, but once these plants have been brought back to the- U S, the soldier suited to realise that didn't actually know what to do with
or how to take care of them and while the West Coast had a degree of established bonds, I culture by this time on the EAST Coast bonds. I were less familiar at least to the middle class. The wealthy
been purchasing imported bonds. I, since the turn of the century, but for the average person they still didn't, really know it. Well, the whole thing was about and so to fill the gap in knowledge. The Brooklyn, botanic garden, published a booklet on bonds. I care that was one of the first guides to the art published in the United States for novice practitioners
and it also help spread interest in this art form. Soon there was enough interest for the botanic garden to have expert Conyers Schroeder teach classes on bonds. I
Can you show me to also wrote several books on this art in his lifetime and his book of bonsai, japanese miniature trees, their style, cultivation and training is still very popular on the secondary market. If you find a good quality first edition, you're going to pay hundreds of dollars for it throughout the second half of the twentieth century. Bonsai is both an art form as a hobby has continued to be popular outside of its countries of origin, while some people appreciate bonds and penjing solely as examples of art. Caring for these plants continues to be a source of calm and contemplation for both.
Commissioners of than Buddhism, and for secular enthusiasts, you can even find courses in bonds I as meditation, and while there are innumerable bonds I around the world, there are famous bonds. I- and so I wanted to make sure that we touched on a few of those. The bonds I believed to be the oldest in the world is more than a thousand years old. It's part of the collection
of the crispy bonds. I museum in MILAN, ITALY. The museum calls the large size Vikas, the prince of the museum collection. It's been with the museum since it was acquired from a private collector in nineteen. Eighty six, it's been tended by generations of both chinese than japanese masters, and it requires a daily care and attention, perhaps the most notable long lived bonds. I is a japanese white pine, that's part of the national burrito
in the collection of the national Bonsai and Penjing Museum in Washington DC. This tree is three hundred and ninety years old, interesting enough on its own, but it survived the bombing of Hiroshima when the atomic bomb little boy was dropped in world
you and it was given to the U S as a bicentennial gift, along with fifty two other examples of bonds. I buy massage
okey, a japanese master of bonds I, but
the museum did not know this trees history. Until the masters grandsons visited to check on the tree that they had heard about in their family stories that happening
two thousand one, and suddenly everyone knew about this Hiroshima surviving bonds. I, in February twenty nineteen seven bonds, I were stolen from the public collection of saving Moura, the bonfire seller in Tokyo. One of them was a valuable four hundred year old, shampoo, juniper
with an estimated value of more than fifty thousand dollars, Sagey Amira and his wife were. You me appeared on television and played with the thieves to please water, the tree, which would not survive a week without proper care earlier this year, and we are recording and twenty twenty two bonds. I trees were stolen from the Pacific bonds. I mean
in federal way. Washington and one of them was a japanese black pine and it was of particular historical significance. It had begun its life in eighteen can in a japanese interment camp. It was cultivated by one
detainees there. The other tree was also important. It was a silver bury created by artist. Kyoto have donata in nineteen forty six, the museum
I call on social media for their returning promising that they would just not ask any questions. They were just afraid that these irreplaceable trees would die without proper care. Three days after the theft, the trees reappeared in the museums driveway there are some
photographs because it was a rainy day when they came back of just these trees
to take a picture of worth untold moving.
Money moraine em. They had. The fourth ought to take a picture of them before moving them back the museum
an article about the Hiroshima survivor Barnes, I featured a quote from the curator of the national bonds. I impinging museum Jack Cystic and I felt like it captured part of why this art form is so captivating, as he contemplated the constant daily care that older examples of bonds. I reckon
he said quote. I always liked to say bonds. I is like a verb, it's not a noun! It's doing. I love that quote
It is amazing to me when you think about I had this moment,
they were. I was trying to explain this to one of my friends and I was like if these trees could talk, because it
I was in. Your old tree has seen some stuff and I just em like bolder.
Or by the by their long histories and the things we will never ever knew about them, which is very, very cool. I do have listener mail id as former listener, namely the right time any Miss Hale. I am a big fan of your podcast, I'm a few suggestions and ideas for future pike. S ideas. I really love learning about historical hoaxes meet you and I recently wrote an essay for school about the mechanical Turk. I have listened to all your pike ass. If you ve made a podcast on this topic
other my favorite historical hoaxes is a donation of Constantine? They did their duration of Constantine. We also have done as the episodes on
but I had in twenty thirteen. We did when I'm five historical robots shells
hence our deems Baldwin broadcast that she. That was amazing, and then she gives us some other suggestions of of potential. Interesting black figures in history is very cool. Some of those we have covered the Hayley. I just want to say thank you for listening. We
we share some of the same interests and if you would like to raise who, as you could do so in history, by cast an eye heart, radio dot com, you can also find is pretty much everywhere and social media. As MR history, it is also easy as pie to subscribe to the pike ass. You could do that on the Iheart radio, app apple pie, gas
ever. It is useless stuff. You missed in history class in the production of a heart radio for more planned cats. For my heart, radio visit by her radio apt added my cans or wherever you listen to your favorite shares this episode of stuffy, Miss than has your class was brought to you by monster. They have the best driving best performing c b line up.
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