Alan L. Hart was a doctor, writer, and prominent figure in the fields of radiology and tuberculosis control. He was also one of the first people in the U.S. to have surgery in an effort to transition to a different gender than the one he had been assigned at birth.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff you must, in history class from house up, works, outcome and welcomed the treaty only for they are going to talk about Alan L, who is both a doctor in a writer,
He became a really prominent figure in the worlds of radiology and tuberculosis control,
he did a whole lot of work in
giving x rays. To people as a screening measure you, both before and after there was a treatment available for tuberculosis, and this turn out to be extremely important in getting here
the treatment early so that they could be cured before
not really bad,
if noddles were also that in the world of medicine and a lot of them. In addition to be interesting stories to read, offered up some criticism of the
discrimination and greed that he felt had become really rampant in the medical world
His books also drew from personal experience. He was born and raised as a girl.
the transition to a male identity in his twenties, and he became one of the four.
people in the United States to have surgery and an effort, a transition to a different agenda from the one he had been born to. So, let's start with his early life,
He was born Alberto Lucille heart on October, fourth, eighteen, ninety and wholesome Kansas, his parents, or
and Edna Heart and Alan was an only child Ellen
their died of typhoid when he was very, very young in eighteen. Ninety two, so avenues have only been too at that time and he
his mother move to Limp County Oregon where Edna family lived
and young Ellen often reassured his widowed mother that he would grow up to be a man and take care of her. He was
so interested in medicine from a very early age. Until he was
for he likes to play with dolls, but he didn't really play with them,
like a mom capacity, it was more than an imaginative play
You can imagine hoss.
Scenarios or that all that he was playing with this was described
a little bit later
Daddy by his doctor, Doktor J, Alan Gilbert, who use h as a suitor
Four Alan and one of the things the Doktor Gilbert said in his case study was this was a very
the boys work about the farm milk. The cows learns to ride and drive horses.
to listen to the men who came to the place, discussing politics, agriculture etc always
barn or in tool house unless confined to the house by stormy weather when store or hospital was the favourite game
never played house or being the mother of dolls.
At age. Seven h refuse to play with dolls with small girl visitor as unless,
as head and father of the family. He also regard,
himself as a boy and thought tat. He would become of away if only his family would cut his hair and let him where boy clothes and he felt most
global when wearing overalls and other boys clothing
eventually went out and was about four and a half,
Edna re married to a man named Bill Barton
when Ellen was seven, the family moved to a farm in Albania or again, which is about seventy miles south of Portland
and when he got a little older, he found himself starting to identify with the male characters rather than the female ones, in the room
novels. He would read and ass he reached puberty. He began to discuss
that he was attracted to women
went to Albany College, which later became Lewis and Clark College, and that started in nineteen o eight. He developed-
somewhat tumultuous relationship with a classmate named Emma Cushman, which went on for a number of years and nine
ten, he transferred to Stanford and he paid Emma's way to go with him because she couldn't afford it herself and they didn't want to be separated Sanford, if not far from San Francisco and wild.
What Cisco didn't have the prominent gay culture then that it does today remit
this is well before the stone all riots launch, the Gay rights movement and the Castro was really just a quiet, working class neighbourhood. At the time San Francisco, still
a much larger city and had a very different culture from Albany.
Environment. Alan began to dress and act in, but what was considered more
The glee masculine way I'll entrance
back to Albany and graduated in nineteen, twelve and unfair.
At this point he was really deeply and that for a combination of reasons, one one, but he had developed a gambling habit, while at Stanford
there was, but he was paying for olive Emma's expenses.
Is a relationship was also starting to really show some strain. Some of this was
Does he really wanted to wear men's clothing on formal occasions and Emma wanted him to wear dresses when they were going out somewhere? Nice
It also wanted him to behave in a more feminine unrestrained way, so their relationship was really starting to have some some strain going on beer.
he took a year off and tried to make money as a commercial photographer in an effort to recover from his dead, but the company
a financial, impersonal stress really took its toll and it won't work,
a year on attempted suicide? The next year
So he went on medical school at the University of Oregon Leslie
came Oregon Health and Science University School of medicine. He started here
medical school and nineteen thirteen and he graduated at the top of the class and nineteen seventeen and he received
while the sailor metal, which is an award for the person with the most outstanding academic standing in the graduating class nineteen eighteen
was a pivotal year and Alan's life that February he alone
the teacher name, Bananas Clark using the name, Robert Alan Bam for Junior. He also got his license depressed
medicine that year
he underwent surgery as part of a transition to a male identity. It started when he saw
treatment from Doktor J, Alan Gilbert for a phobia
out. Noise is right,
a lot of times. When you see this referred to you, it says that he was seeking treatment because of his attraction to women.
Actually this phobia that drove him to seek some psychiatric help in therapy.
Gilbert traced the root of this phobia to an experience that Alan haven't. He was young and which
frightened by the sound of a stepmother shop. Then the psycho announced
that followed included things like Hypnotherapy and Word Association and eventually based on Alan's responses and reactions. Doktor Gilbert
colluded that the problem was related in some way to sex
He later wrote in his case study, which was called quote. Homosexuality and its treatment that he didn't really
expect Alan to come and see him again. Once you'd spell this whole hypothesis out there, he really thought the down within it that it was going to be
and they would not right, have a relation
going you. You ashamed by this whole revelation to come back to the office, but he did
turn to treatment about two weeks later than at the request of doktor
but he wrote an autobiographical account detailing his identification with the male gender
as well as his attraction to women and a number of romantic relationships. That he'd had doctor
later used. A lot of this account in his case study
the time american society viewed same sex attraction as deeply abnormal
thing. Allen had discovered while he was in college, which caused him to keep,
attractions their relationships, the secret
and there was not yet in english word- for what is referred to as trains Jim
today right in the world
Doktor Gilbert, and this was written in his words, which is why it uses female pernounce after
consideration. She came to the office with her mind, made up to adopt male attire in conformity with her true nature and try to
life under conditions that might make life bearable
side had been repeatedly considered as an avenue of escape from her dilemma:
Preliminary conformity with her true nature and try to face life under conditions that might make life bearable suicide had been repeatedly considered as an ally
the dismantling and the inconvenience of dealing with the flow and male attire and two to sterilize her. I want
and on this for many a one is that this description is really
common and what you read in the stories of transgender
Today, as far as
is the gender that they identify with is what makes life bearable to them
on the other is this kind of shocking,
through today's point of view that the part of the purpose was to be sterilised
and this really drew from their eugenics movement, which was still
on the Rhine and the idea that
but if you had some kind of mental defect or inversion should be sterilised so,
it's kind of a double edged sword. This hysterectomy that he went through
yeah, because in some ways, while it was achieving what he he
indeed himself, as theirs
the recognition that somehow that was still flawed right, which is it. Is it
the troubling conundrum- and I can't imagine how tricky that must be the lake mentally work through right. This episode of stuff you missed in history classes, Morocco you buy Katy, keen, I love Riverdale. So I M excited that the creator of Riverdale has a new show, a sparkling adventure in the big apple, full of fashion, drama and dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six at eight seven central. It is the new Sea, W Series Katy Keen. We have singer songwriter, Josie, Jorge with his eye on Broadway. It girl, pepper and fashioned Easter legend to be Katy. They are in New York City of eight million and they are for a kind, their friends who would give everything for their dreams and do anything for each other. So the big apple better watch out, because no matter who or what gets in the way they are about to take a big ol bite. These four determine dreamers take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the New York City Social scene, where they find it more than just careers and the big city they find forever. Friendships. High style has a new name Kay,
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so, although her there had been some surgeries to reshape ambiguous genitalia for people who,
intersects conditions or physical parts of both male and female anatomy
The idea of a sex reassignment surgery also did not really exist in the. U S. At this point, it was
maybe it better known of in Europe following experimental. Sixteen surgeries on animals whole other slightly troubling subject.
there's a lot of slightly troubling, subject and much of science and
this, and in particular in the house, if you're in animal person, it's there's a lot of stuff that has happened.
animals along the way that makes it tricky right, and this being you no kind of a heavy weight topic thirst added layers, but even so, with these experiments happening, secretary assignment was still in its infancy, even uncertain the most cutting edge areas in Europe.
Doktor name MAX more cues head published one of the first articles about human sex reassignment surgery as a concept in nineteen. Sixteen
after a man who had read about these experiments and wish to change his
two female had contacted in the earth
to these third areas are mostly about the removal of sex organs. They're just wasn't a lot of plastic or reconstructive work as a follow up to create a new set of organs for the opposite gender.
The first surgeries. They did include the construction of new sex organs was still years away and that
of the multiple procedures that were conducted for nineteen twenty two to nineteen thirty one on a jerk
patient named Georgian Richter, and this happened at the institute
for sexual science in Germany, which is a research institute operated by sex researcher Magnus, her field, which was
Peter destroyed by the Nazi right
Christine. Jorgensen was the first person in the United States to become famous we're having sex reassignment surgery, but that wasn't until the fifties.
So all of these developments in surgery were way far down the line from where things where, when, when Alan wanted to transition yeah decades later-
when Allen had his uterus and ovaries removed, he became one of the first people in the United States to undergo surgery for the purpose of gender reassignment,
When Alan transition to living as a man, he took the name how an l heart and he opened a medical practice in Gardener Oregon, which is in the southwest part of the state, but before long
my colleagues saw him and recognized him and in the words of Doktor Gilbert quote then
Hounding process began
which our modern social organisation can carry out to such perfection and refinement against her own members as a council,
Alan and his wife began to move around a lot from this point on
to escape the harassment and persecution and also the job loss that with
must inevitably happen. When is gender change was discovered firstly,
sometime time in Rural Montana, and that lasted until the brief depression that followed the end of world war wine and that David,
the local farm economy- and we really take with it Alan's livelihoods. They are already struggling men at that point, no one could afford to come, see him as a doctor and
marriage tuna, did not survive the financial and personal stream.
He twenty three she left and they legally divorce. Two years later, around
time. Alan started to really be interested in radiology it
Still a relatively new field at this point x rays were discovered in eighteen. Ninety five, but it
some years of improvements and methods and safety before they were actually really usable for medical purposes and even when he,
into working and radiology. There are mostly being used to kind of examined, broken bones. They had not been as much used on looking
doktor she. Yet right
Alan gradually made a name for himself through his work in radiology and in tuberculosis detection, as you mentioned at the top of the park cast an
is one of the as much used on looking at soft issue. Yet
new ground and that allowed for early detection and treatment of what had been called consumption up to that point, but re would now call tuberculosis
and this does, we said earlier- worked out to be really important and controlling tuberculosis, especially a little farther down the line once there actually we're antibiotics to treat it. Alan
the social worker named Edna rhetoric and nineteen twenty five and they got married the same year,
Olenin Edna continued to move around the country in part to escape persecution and
for Helen to continuous education.
eventually got a masters degree in radiology from the University of Pennsylvania, Anna Masters,
like Health at Yale, and he also did
Graduate work at the New York Postgraduate Hospital
among his many jobs, where working with tuberculosis patients in a sanatorium and Albuquerque New Mexico and another one in Rockford Illinois serving Esther,
Dr Radiology at Tacoma General Hospital delivering lectures on public health and conducting chest exe
Linux for Tuberculosis Control programmes. He also
Read the chest x rays for military recruits that were required before they can join the military in
for we go on to a completely different aspect of his working life,
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Now, let's go back to Alan's writing career at what point well
he was living in Oregon again Alan decided to take some writing classes, and his hope was that he would make some money as a writer when he couldn't find work in the medical field. Think of when a lot better than he even could have expected. He became a really successful novelist. Publishing for novels between ninety
Eighty five and nineteen forty two, they were called Doktor Mallory
the undaunted the lion
of men and doktor family sees it through. Most of these books featured idealistic,
young doctors who were gradually discovering
Crimination greed and Annette
practices in a variety of different medical settings, including family practice, research and hospitals,
eighteen. Thirty five, he wrote this tour of reviewer quote the ugly things
growing up in medicine are the results
though the ugliness and falsity of society as a whole of our a
and preoccupation with success and making of our
penetration of effort on the production of things rather than their use for a fuller human life. These things are not the
of the individual physician-
can they be remedied by him. So long as the mayor
people are permeated with the spirit of I'm going to get mine, no matter how
so long. We attitude filter into all the professions. Doctors are people first and
tractor by the current ideals, just as other people are, if you like, someone could have written as yesterday
that's exactly what I mean people still
writing. This were four
China can pick a parts that what really is the crux of problems,
eighty and this one has been recurrent for a while, and the book
also included a number of thematic ties to Alan's own struggles with his sexual orientation and his gender in his conscience.
Means a move after being recognised or to use modern term outweighed by his colleagues and forget
in the undaunted. He writes this description of a gay male character. He had been driven from place to place
job to job for fifteen years, because of something he could not alter any more than he could change the color of his eyes gossip scheme.
Rumour always drove him on. It did not
to live alone. To make few acquaintances and no intimates
sooner or later, someone always turned to recognize him and then
is that wretched business of resigning by request to be gone through again and after the count concoction,
the plausible story to account for the resignation and the ordeal of hunting another job, without explaining exactly why he had left the old one and at the
meantime without lying about it
each time he underwent these humiliations. His self respect seem first arrive and then to shrink the character.
this is written, was named Sandy Farquhar.
There also goes into radiology, hoping that is sexual orientation will be less of an issue working in a radiology lab instead of in a hospital or other practice with patience, I think of all of his characters, as is the one that
almost often associated with Alan himself and thinks think. Maybe this is a fictional representation.
Because it seems so closely mirrors his own life and experiences
in writing in you know,
we writing very closely about. His experiences seems to have been extremely therapeutic for him. He wrote that he could probably
probably not have survived without it just right.
Then he also wrote a book on radiology which was published in nineteen. Forty three called these missing
He wrote that he could probably he would probably
discussion of the uses of x rays and radium chiefly in medicine in ninety
forty five Alan and add the move to West Hartford Connecticut, where they bought a house and Alan became the director of tuberculosis control for the state for the first time,
his adult life, he was able to stay in one place for awhile and he actually held up
for seventeen years right up until the end of his life. He started
treatments after world war, two, which is when synthetic male hormones became available on the market,
possible these treatments, which would have made his masculine features more prominent combined
his long marriage to Edna and the new location, to give him a little bit more privacy and security in his professional life
Alan died of heart failure on July. First of nineteen sixty two anyway. Seventy one at the time here
Edna had been married for thirty, seven years, his body.
Cremated his ashes were scattered and his journals and papers were destroyed, as he had requested in his will. He also
question that no monument be erected in his memory may seem to me.
This sort of fade away that point yeah, I can imagine someone who has been through it. He went through probably did not want his life picked apart there he was gone.
no Edna lived for another twenty years and when she died. She left most of her estate to the Medical Research Foundation, which is part of the organ health. Science. Is universally in his mind
when she died and nineteen eighty two it was
to go towards leukemia reserves. His mother had died of leukemia, although I was unable to find the date when that happened.
Recent episodes on gene items. We talked about some of the difficulties that come with speculating about a historical figure, sexual orientation. When that
some didn't leave a clear self expressed identity and we ve got lots of mail about it and it's come up, but part of this
because identifications and attitudes have changed so radically in the last century, even down to really
significant shifts in the language used to describe people
quality and their identity right. So it does get really mean it
a dive and even though, for both drain items and our heart most of their personal,
where's were destroyed after their death because of
psychological treatment and have novels we have a much more personal understanding of Alan's identity. Then
in view of James relationship, there has also been
whole lot of scholarly debate about just how to define how hard he, under
surgery and transition to a male identity before the words, transsexual or transgender even existed. The first known
have transsexual with nineteen fifty seven and
gender was coined nineteen, seventy nine. So that was a few years before and after his death darker Gilberts case.
He is actually a little bit problematic. It was public
two years after Alan's transition, and he gets them
It's for showing a great deal of empathy and trying to treat Alan rather than just dismissing him a sick or incurable, which was,
really unusual at the time that a lot of doctors would have been sort of dismissive within
even today. That still happens, but although there
study referred to Ellen only as H, he didn't do very much to the skies who he was talking about. Any cuts
did a lot of Alan's autobiography, which was written for the purpose of therapy and not intended to be shared with the world and an included very
very personal thoughts and information, extremely personal and definitely was not a piece of work that Alan was intending for other people beyond his therapist to read
was not clear until much more recently who,
who each and Doktor Gilberts case, study
story and Jonathan counts. As the person who made that connection and
nineteen, seventy six cats, a book called gay american history, which identified Alan as a lesbian, claiming that he was
clearly a lesbian woman living woman who illustrates only too well one extreme to which an intelligent aspiring. Let me early twentieth century America,
be driven by her own and her doctors, acceptance of society's Condon Condom
and of women living women in
twelve. On the other hand, cats referred to this designation as a mistake, and he said that,
Instead, it was much more important to think of how Alan considered himself and his own life so
was murdered. This more recent line of thought on the part of both cats and of sort of
dollars and general. Some of it seems to be because the whole
dear friends. Dinner was so new at that point,
as a concept in american consciousness like we didn't so much have the of a person
feeling themselves to be indifferent, gender, as, as then add, then they were born. There are certainly peep
felt that way, but we want something that was part of the american language in dialogue with that most people had never even heard of it or thought of the idea right. It did when you read accounts of of people who transition and those earlier years on, a lot of description that comes up involves
the basically the idea. I didn't even realise that this was a thing that people felt
Until I realise that I was feeling it
also. There are a lot of mount modern scholars who feel like this insistence earlier on in in texts that
Alan Heart was a lesbian rather than a transgender person is actually because of transphobia in both the algae.
He communities and the medical community and
if we're going by how he defined himself
his transition, he referred to himself as a man. That's full stop MIA men even as a child, simply kind of referred to himself, the boy re. So
concern may or that point yeah. I'm really glad that at the end of his life he was able to
settle in one place for a while and and maybe find a little more peace than he had had earlier on. Yeah, especially, you know, when you consider like some of the great contribution he made to medicine. It seems such a pity that a person that is working so much
mother's is being tortured
working so much to help. Others is being tortured, yeah well enough,
important a screen people for tuberculosis, so that people can be treated promptly in and we can try to cut down on that
number one: the spread of the disease and number two, the mortality of this disease, so
You did a really a lot of work in trying to screen people on mass for tuberculosis and get people into treatment before they even realise that they were sick. So
huge contributions to public health. In that way, sadly, I think
its books are out of print. I couldn't even fine, I couldn't even
like. Sometimes you can find old books that at archive dot, org or somewhere, and I couldn't even find them there- I did find like hobbies.
of his book on radiology that were being sold, three used in mere booksellers for like a hundred and forty five dollars or something but a convincing hands of that one either. So my beauty,
I hope, the New House ass, he began,
the more prominent figure in history which has been the case over the last ten or fifteen years and he's been a name that has come up more often
there may be some one will fight. There is neither put them back and print or if they are in the public domain, now get them into a place where we can read them with their alike.
do you also have with you. I have a listener: coastguard service, postcard, intellectual, but old. Sometimes it takes it
Four postcards to get it for some reason and we may all be postmarks
the more they fell
I'm not sure why exactly that happens. I have a theory that there's a part of like the Atlanta Central Post office hub where they just fly
if the postcards and they just sit there for a while. I thought- maybe you say they were sitting there reading them. Oh, maybe I'm just making it up, I don't mean to disparage the postal service in anyway basis. Postcards do seem to take for ever. Yes, we love to get them, but be aware that we might not see them for a while. This one is from high and it still is dated delight third eighteen sixty three and then the eighteen, sixty three curtains cross dialysis. Twenty two,
since high Ladys, leading from Gettysburg Pennsylvania, family, Heerd, civil war of off and flew across the country from the Ella area to be here for the celebration of the one hundred fiftieth anniversary of the battle had been
forward. To this, as I was thirteen years old and I'm thirty now so it's kind of fulfilling
like laundering. I wanted to share this with me today. Thousands of reactors
Milo pickets charge. Ending
at me, high water mark the closest?
inveteracy came to winning the battle and subsequently the war. Today
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finally base and
picture on the other side? Is the high water mark? This very clear
An accident lengthening if Mama found with postcard, sharing with the rest of the clay I'm trying, so everyone does, but it could be available. I love that story
If it's really need. I remember when I was going on. I my facebook
because I do a lot of costume was is filled of like peoples.
leave promoting the fact that they had not been able to make it up. Therefore, its world there,
king everyone else's themes that were there watching their pictures. Come through and let me tell you how much I would rather watch other people in costume doing that, because July his height and civil
we're tired you, especially if you are a woman person, there's some layers, many many layer. Yes, I would find that Vietnam,
you would, I love you like
I don't mind the heart of all. I mean I live the south for reason
covers layers. You can't get like your brain copes with it. For that,
when he reached a certain degree of like boiling hot switch off and go somewhere else
least idea, how it might be a servile symptom of being exhausted, fell upon
I like to think of him. Rarely come a navy, see ok
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