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Andrew Carnegie

2018-03-26 | 🔗

Carnegie was a child of poverty who became one of the richest men on Earth. But his life, while largely charmed, had a massive scar of bad judgment on it. He also decided that the most important thing he could do with his money was to give it away.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
I move that the vote of stuff- you must, in history classes black to you by W W, formerly wait. Watchers didn't know that most people have already given up on their resolutions. Thirteen days and the new year. I am proud to say that is not me- doesn't have to be
you either great thing about the new. My deputy programme is that it really encourage you to stick with it. It is their most groundbreaking and customize proven wait lost land because its Taylor, just to you, which makes it easier to keep up with and stick to join W W to get matched with your very own. Customized proven weight loss plan had on over to Debbie Debbie dot com. That's w w dot com to joint Debbie Debbie today, with a limited time, offer work unto death. You missed in history class from hast upward. Stockholm allow unwelcome pine camp and Holly FRY and I'm crazy, wealthy Tracy. Have you ever wondered how Pittsburgh got the nickname steel down? I have some ideas gets thanks in part to cities, broadcast subjects our tiny about Andrew Carnegie and that's make a note about his last name, because you'll hear it said, Carnegie pretty frequently
Carnegie with Mormonite Sound is also not uncommon and we depending on the show- and I think we ve probably both of those pronunciations, because there's so much variance for the purposes. This is all about his life. We're gonna go with Carnegie because sounds the closer to the way his family seems to pronounce it, so I might say we're gonna we're going to church to do that yeah. But it's one of those things where, when you have said something a certain way, your entire life and then you try to stay in a different way. Sometimes you mess it up and you don't notice until your queuing pod gas money as a few late to do it over. That is a hundred percent correct and because it isn't of those things like, I don't think I have ever heard. Anybody uttered the words our Nagy Hall, but they say Carnegie all the time. Their fate save think so. Keep in mind that this part of lake, cultural pronunciation shifted sometimes happens, we're good or go in for the correct when we may slip up. But the point is that
life story is one that is inspiring in some ways it the story of a child who started out just abject poverty and then went on to make more money than he ever could have possibly imagined when he was that child that was part of the same it was really struggling. But his life while largely charmed, and I don't I don't wanna make soundly- he didn't earn anything because he worked really hard. Any really good at seeing opportunities and then working really hard to make those opportunities. Work for him, but there was some charm in it that those opportunities did come up in his life. He did. however, have one sort of massive scar of bad judgment in his life. But then famously and what he's probably most known for today, is the fact that he decided the most important thing that he could do with his millions and millions and millions of dollars to give it all away. They are one of them.
That's really interesting to me about him like today. You will hear a lot of people. Think about wealth disparity as a problem and he added had no issues whatsoever with wealth disparity. He was like a sort of thought that was our life's gonna. Be is no problem with that but the people they had all the wealth should be doing useful things with it wished me is an interesting point of view, Andrew Carnegie was born on November twenty fifth eighteen, thirty, five and unfairly Scotland, a father. Will you the weaver and unfairly had been known for quite some time for beautiful linen and particularly for its damn, ask linen. William struggled in his trade as industrialization became more and more common and hand loomed goods couldn't keep up as steam powered looms, became more and more popular
The valley really struggled to make ends meet, but William was obstinate that he wanted to remain a weaver, even though he couldn't really support his family, doing that and as a chartist William Carnegie believed that the way to make change was to get working men elected to parliament so that they could make to the legislative level that would help working men like him. If you're not familiar with term charges that sort of sums up. The whole thing was a national working class effort at parliamentary reform. So William and his brother in LAW, Tom Morrison both were committed to the charges, eyes. They were organizing strikes, they were riding for chartist publications and meanwhile Andrews Mother, Margaret Morrison Carnegie, stepped up by taking work Ending Susan running a small group of three to try to keep the family afloat thing. Is parents struggle also living in poverty as a child. Deeply impacted the young Andrew, yet he wrote about it later in his life will talk about that, but basically he seeing
His father have to beg for work really really stuck with him. For ever, Margaret sister in the meantime, had moved to the United States and settled in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. She was Therefore, like eight years before, it started, I'm a possibility for the Carnegie to follow and murder sister was writing letters back to Scotland assuring Margaret the conditions were far better in the? U S, particularly for working people, and these serves, really started Margaret thinking about across the Atlantic, move as one of the families few remaining options at making a better life, she managed to and William that it was worth the risk and to be clear. This was a lot of risk. Once they got to the United States, they would have less than nothing they had fell all their belongings and then borrow money on top of that just to pay for the voyage
the Carnegie S, that's William Marguerite, Andrew and Andrews younger Brother Thomas crammed into small quarters on the weakest set, which is the ships sailing from Glasgow for a fifty day voyage. No Sir As this was not a great way to spend nearly two months passed- there were often asked to help out with tasks aboard the undermine ship. But many were who seasick orders weak from poor nutrition. This was not a luxury crews. They weren't, really getting ever thing they needed and Andrew would volunteer for various additional duties in exchange for favours or a little extra food or some other benefit for his family. The Carnegie made their trip across the Atlantic and eighteen forty eight Ben Ellis Island wouldn't open for another. Forty four years, though, if that landed on the southern Tipp of Manhattan at the battery. They had several more legs of the journey there to make by boat. First they took a steamer Albany along the Hudson River. Then they made their way.
Buffalo by the eerie canal and from there they took several more smaller legs to get to the north side of Pittsburgh, which at that point was Alleghany Pennsylvania. Yeah that add, Allegheny Township, eventually got absorbed into the larger Pittsburgh, true area, but if you look at and you'd chart out this route that they took. It becomes immediately obvious that it was really a long way to do it these were, as I mentioned a moment ago about as this from luxury creases, as you could get the family was, of course poor and they were traveling the cheapest rates that they could get, and it took three eager to get from the battery in Manhattan to them Berger area, a trip that today takes about six hours by car or ninety minutes by direct flight mark it might have had romantic ideas about the new life that she and her family were going to start in Pennsylvania, but once they got there, they had some harsh realities waiting for them for what
the city was already dealing with pollution from industrial, a fire that had rather the downtown area three years before they got their from Scotland left the city with a code of foot. was still there Carnegie. would later right you washed the set off your face in your hands. They would be coated again an hour later and it wasn't a place where a new come on family with no money could live in any kind of comfort. He described this is a more or less miserable situation well, you'll Carnegie did find work. He got a job working in a cotton factory. For a while Andrey worked in the same factory as a bobbin boy. He was painted dollar twenty per week, to run bobbins to the weavers as needed and cohesion, to perform maintenance tasks on the machines later His life Carnegie road of this time quote it was a hard life in the winter father and I had to rise and breakfast in the darkness, reach the factory but
was daylight and with a short interval for lunch work till after dark. Hours hung heavily upon me and then the work itself. I took no pleasure but cloud. Has a silver lining, as it gave me The feeling that I was doing something for the world, my family, I have made millions sense, but none of those millions gave me such happiness. As my first weeks, earnings soon the young and very moved into a different factory job working with a boiler and a steam engine. This was hard work, but it offered a substantial raise ever being bobbin boy now. He was me, Two dollars a week: three, connection of his uncles Andrew transition to another job as a messenger for the City Telegraph Office in eighteen. Fifty when he was fourteen, He was a really hard work or any took these duties very seriously. He made a pole, To memorize all the streets of Pittsburgh, as well as the names and addresses of messenger recipients that were frequent sitting
he could be as efficient as possible and his job part of this was so he could. Denies any of the gentlemen that might be receiving a telegram message or any of their servants on the street and be able to hand something off without. Maybe I was having to go full distance does delivery, so he could be way faster and get more done. initially. He was not sure if he could handle this job and in his interview he told the hiring manager is much. But he also said that he would do best and that he would like a trial, and his worries were unfounded. He did really well and he had move up to earning two dollars and fifty cents a week, and he The position he wrote quote in every respect, a happy one only had one suit, it was appropriate to wear it of work and it was the same suit. He would normally where to church on Sunday. So when he got whole blade on Saturday night. His mother would wash and press the suit, so would be ready for the next day and he wrote. Drawing me about her saying quote: there was nothing
heroin did not do for the struggle we were making for elbow room in the western world. yeah Andrea, was very close to his mother and that relationship will be really port into how his life plays out a little bit later, but even He was working in these. You know sort of relatively menial jobs, even though it had done much better as a messenger boy throughout. of this he was really drawn to both culture and information. So he found out that he would have to deliver a telegraph message to a theatre, for example, he would arrange to be one of his last task through the day, so that he could then stay and watched the performances, and he also the advantage of every possible opportunity he hand when he had access to books and he read voraciously are going to get into his trial.
Listen and some more lucrative work after we first take a little to break this episode of stuff. You miss than history classes brought to you by blinking blinkers. Does my favorite new app on my phone? It works on your phone or your tablet or your web browser, and it takes the key take away from thousands of nonfiction books and condenses amounted. Just fifteen minutes that you can read or listen to. I love to immersed myself with the details of our really long book,
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one in five percent off, but only when you sign up a blinkered to dot com, slash history, glass, ass, a messenger Andrea would sweep the office in the morning before the telegraph operators arrived. and one morning he actually took a message that came through when no operators had yet begun their shift and he did a good enough job that the operators started, asking him to keep an eye on the telegraph when they needed to step away. He actually learn to take messages by ear. So without the help of a running slip of paper to print the message out, he would just write it down, as he heard it. A signal get promotion followed when he sobbed in for another operator on a two week trial, because people realize he was actually quite good at this and he was soon given the title of assistant operator and he was made twenty five dollars a month while working for the telegraph,
Ferris Andrew met a man named Thomas, a Scots at the time Scott with Superintend and of the Pennsylvania, Railroad Scott noticed how was it and driven the young Carnegie wise and made him an offer to leave the telegraph office than become Scots private secretary and also run his personal telegraph machine Carnegie was offered five dollars a month and to him that seemed like a fortune, so he took this job. men started learning about the railroad industry. Carnegie once again doing really well, because he carried that same work ethic into every position he had any was, can a name for himself at the Pennsylvania, rail road, but father in the meantime, had not met with success in the United States after struck, owing to make enough money through weaving jobs. William Carnegie made a stab at entrepreneurship and he tried manufacturing his own cloth and then selling it as a trembling salesman. But that really know took off
William died in eighteen. Fifty five when Andrew was twenty and that left the eldest son as the primary breadwinner in the family a year, after Williams, death Andrew started to expand out his business efforts. He invested in Woodruff sleeping car company with alone and paid off Sunni was making fun. Thousand dollars a year from his investment, which is so much more than he had been earning from his railroad income. He was also promote. to railroad superintendent in eighteen, fifty nine and he uses increased income summary of himself and his mother and sue Ann nicer, home. There's an interesting being bit plays out over and over where he starts, making more and more and more money on investments, but for quite a while he actually still kept as much lower paying job, which is kind of interesting to me. When the civil war began, Thomas Scots, his boss was hired by the union to manage transportation of its troops, so pretty, naturally ran, a railroad that they were like hey Y know. Why don't you run a similar said set up for us,
Carnegie was also hired. He was working alongside his boss is part of the war effort and meanwhile, his earnings from that sleeping car company investment. Toward a new business venture here, eleven thousand dollars in oil in eighteen, sixty one and he doubled his money in the first year. I think he took in something like eighteen thousand dollars premier, he began diversifying his investments further and soon he was More than forty thousand dollars a year from them, that was a massive some in the eighteen sixties, Andrew Carnegie was drafted and eighteen Sixty four, but he didn't windup serving as part of the draft terms. He had the option to pay a sum of three hundred dollars or find a replacement serve in his stead. So he up, the pay another man, eight hundred and fifty dollars to feel to fill a slight. And by the time the war ended. Andrew Carnegie had come to the realisation that the iron industry had great potential and innocent.
rising move. He left the Pennsylvania, railroad any started. A new company in eighteen, sixty five called the Keystone each company keys The entire business was upgrading existing wooden bridges to sturdier iron structures, and this proved to be extremely lucrative. Just a few. Yours into it, but he had made himself a wealthy in eighteen. Sixty seven, you started the Stone telegraph company, which cut such a lucrative deal with the Pennsylvania, railroad to run telegraph wire on the railroads, pulls the Carnegie and Partners were able to flip the business and triple their money in a very short period of time has estimated worth in eighteen. Sixty eight was for hundred thousand dollars. Folks, it is always really tricky to convert historical worth into modern value, but a rough estimate is that this was five million dollars. He was only thirty, three
yeah. I did want to point out that you know he was making these deal still with the Pennsylvania railroad. So even though he left, he really left on good terms and maintained business. With them. For a long time. There were always quite positive. in writing high on his string of successes Andrew Car we decided that he was only going to give business who, more years before, turning to a life of philanthropy, he wrote this plan Now, in a letter to himself in eighteen, sixty eight any, I'll, keep it out that he could live comfortably off the money he had made by allocating himself fifty thousand dollars each year and then using the rest of the money to benefit causes that he believed in but in eighteen seventy, he wasn't quite ready to say goodbye follies. Various industries. that same year, he also met a young woman named Louise Whitfield through a mutual friend and Andrew became social with the Whitfield family.
Yeah. He was interested in Louise, but he was interested in a lot of women. It was pretty casual Then, when Carnegie was almost thirty seven, he learned about Henry Bessemer refining process that could convert large amounts of iron and steel, and he learned about that. While he was visiting Bessemer plants in England, Carnegie believe so strongly in this process and the steel that it turned out that he invest all of his money plus alone, so that a lot of money at that point to build a steel plant in Pittsburgh, the plant was completed in eighteen, seventy five and it was named. The EDGAR Thomson works after the head of the Pennsylvania, railroad and eighty Maybe Andrew began a relationship with Louise Whitfield and, of course it was a bit may December romance because Andrea was forty five at the time and Louise was twenty three, but it appears to have stayed pretty innocent part, because Andrew had promised his mother that he would never marry while she was still alive and
when his mother were incredibly close and as he became the primary breadwinner in the family, he had assured his mother that he would provide further the comforts that she had gone without when he was growing up, we're together, a great deal of time, His mother Margaret was even known to walk into business meetings along with her son. I think he was trying to make up for the the ban, times they had had in the past, and so he really was. bet indulgent of her, but he had order and while some people might have been chagrined at this kind of obstacle, Louise was actually in a unique position to understand Andrew Carnegie prioritization of his mother, Louise also very, very close to her mother, who needed ongoing medical care. eighteen. Eighty one Andrew became business partners with Henry Clay Frick by purchasing a controlling interest and bricks. Coke company coke was a coal based fuel. That's it
year. He took his mother Margaret back to Scotland, and he asked Louise Whitfield to join them on the trip. His mother, though shut that idea completely down. Yet she was not cool. two years later, Andrey bought, Additional steel mill, the homestead works, and he also became greatly engaged to Louise. In the autumn of eighteen. Eighty three content: it seemed to just wait out the remainder of Margaret Carnegie Life, something we would discuss above and modern terms, not having healthy boundaries, but yeah it's going interesting because Louise's mother was very close to Louise, but really kind of the opposite. She was like. No, I want you to go out and be with other people live your own life, whereas Louise was late, but I want to take your view. Carnegie mother seem Blake, no notice. You promised me, let me first
So, three years into this engagement in the summer of eighteen, eighty six Andrey wrote to Louise Quote: I have not written to you, because it seems that you and I have duties which must keep us apart. Everything does, upon our mothers with both of us our duty as the same to stick to that, the last. I feel this every day. an essay written by Andrew Carnegie was published in for a magazine in eighteen. Eighty, six and in it here passionately about workers, rights specifically right to union eyes that way, a big year for Carnegie and the writing department, he also published a book entitled triumphant democracy this work celebrated the United States Republican suggested. The great Britain could benefit from following similar model to the one that was in place in the states. I was very kind of just as the United States become the
The next step kind of in evolution of of great Britain society like in going out in colonizing they had kind of got into that next level. In his opinion, Carnegie lost both his brother and his mother in a very short period of time, Tom died in October. One eighty six from pneumonia that he had initially thought was just a cold following months Margaret Carnegie died also from pneumonia, she had already been quite ill when Thomas who was living in Georgia at the time died, and nobody actually told her of her younger sons passing for fear. setting her while she was so ill Similarly, when Margaret died, every was sick with typhoid and his mother's death was not immediately relate to him actually lowered her coffin out of a bedroom window, so he would not see a passing in the hallway after Margaret
Carnegie died, it removed that obstacle that had kept Andrew and Louise from beginning a wife together, but the couple waited to announce their plans, a merry out of respect for Margaret and because Andrea was still quite sick for a while, but ass, he later wrote quote I covered slowly in the future, began to occupy my thoughts. With only one ray of hope and comfort in it back comfort, of course, was ways and while Andrew had spent time with other women, it was more apparent to him than ever that she was the one he wanted to spend. His life with and they Adrian had been on again off again. It wasn't like they were too people so passionately in love that they were, like anything, will get through anything for example, when he wrote her. That letter was lay grads pretty much all about our moms. That was kind of lake doesn't airy. Down. Yeah was. Can I not really gonna happen
So when he first reach down after having this revelation and was like, I M ready for you and me, he was initially a bit surprised that she kind of came off a little indifferent to him. She had spend time with potential suitors as well, some of whom were younger than Carnegie in closer to her own age, but, more importantly, she really wanted to be an important contributor in her spouses life, and she just wasn't sure that a man with so much money could ever really need her. She that had him while he was staying with some friends and she saw in Andrews words quote that I needed her. I was left. In the world. so Andrew anyway, you were married on April twenty second eighteen, eighty seven, the ceremony took place. There he's a family home with just thirty guests, and no attendants. Andrew was fifty one when he Mary Louise, he was thirty.
Before the wedding took place. Louise actually signed a prima up, indicating that she did not want any of her fiance money and that he intended to give her nothing in the will other than an allowance to live comfortably in a moment, we'll talk about how Andrew Carnegie Steel, mill and homesick Pennsylvania became the sight of one of the most violent conflicts over workers, rights and United States history, but we're going to take a little sponsor break before we get to it. Is that without of stuff you missed in history classes brought to you by W W previously wait? Watchers did you know that most people have already given up on their resolution? Thirteen days and the new year
privacy, the thumb he does not have to be you either. I first Joint Debbie W, because I really wanted a plan that was going to encourage me to make healthier eating choices and w W formerly way. Watchers has really done that great thing about the new. My deputy we programme is that it really encourage you to stick with it. It is their most groundbreaking and customize proven weight loss plan when you join the my debit every programme, you'll take an assessment about you're eating habits and you're behaviors, and that will find civilly Matthew up to a customize weight loss plan, one that can make it easier for you to stick to head on over to W w dot com. That's w w dot com to joint Debbie Debbie today, with a limited time, offer colonel into business. Interests had continued to yield a massive income over the years throughout his life. He had always continue to champion the cause of the working man, at least in word. Indeed, the situation
was not actually so rosy in eighteen. Eighty seven same here that he may really weave Carnegie had friction with Frick, over a labour strike prick wanted to form a coalition. with other companies to shut out laborers that wanted to strike cutting off their source of income. But at that Why Carnegie and not for I, had the controlling share of the company and he was able to force a settlement, but this really temporary stay in eighty I need to another conflict between mill workers at the Carnegie OWN Homestead Steel Mill and the management resulted in a deadly. conflict that contradicted the image of Carnegie as a worker's rights advocates. The steel workers employed I Carnegie and Frick faced, credibly dangerous working conditions for very poor pay to you.
The earlier in eighteen, ninety steel revenue, youth had started to decline and then and eighty, namely to Henry Frick slashed workers, pay and set out to break the steel workers. Union and Andrew Carnegie was not blameless in this conflict. One thing in anticipation of the union contract expiring Carnegie had told Frick to increase production they would have the leverage to shut down the plant if the workers didn't, except the new terms, without losing any ground in their production schedule. Carnegie was in great Britain is all this was playing out and he sent word to freak that he supported Frick in whatever he chose to do Rick, emboldened by this statement, severely reduced the workers, wages and the work soon invested so much time and labour and increasing the males revenue, even some of them experience. Terrible accidents in the process we are not willing to back down Frick declared that he
not negotiate with the union and he would only talk to individual workers. The decision The union was a point in the negotiations that this could not be resolved, even after all, the were and then Frick COS down the mill and locked out the workers out. Yet this It was kind of like one of those situations where you know, there's a company that Both have been part of for a long time and they feel lake They are not sincerely part owners and the company, but like that they own, They have a sense of ownership over what the company is in the culture and, and really part of why these workers were so invested in this they were like. No. This is like our home. We want to make it better and the workers actually tried to reach out to Carnegie. But he was on vacation in Scotland and contact just couldn't be made. Colonel ye had wanted to do away with the union because they stipulated a need for more men than he wanted to pay, and he left it to to organise a new set up.
And he didn't think the maintenance of a union at the mill was really gonna, be the big issue that it turned out to be so fresh. turned the mill into a veritable fort setting up a fence parameter with rifle station Eventually. He also called in three hundred men from the Pinkerton private police. When the Pinkerton detectives arrive, They were met by a full force of mill workers and a twist of our battle began throughout this suit out, the pinkertons were trying to make and fall because they had arrived at the mill on river barges that the workers, preventing most of their men from disembarking the enforces actually tried to surrender for different times over the course of the day that this shoot out played out, but there flag was shot down each time in on this, Try. The surrender was finally accepted, but the aftermath was horrifying
with nearly a dozen people already dead, the surrendering pinkertons were brutally beaten as a crowd of reporters and onlookers watched the Pinkerton left homestead, but then Frick in the National Guard, so that strike breakers could enter the mill to start working marsh. A law, was declared over the mill and strike breaking workforce staffed. The male based up to normal production levels and a matter of weeks. But the tensions in the town remained strike breakers were refused service, it most businesses and they risk Attacked on the street, if they actually left the mill and the organised attack on the fifty black families, who had moved into find work during the strike resulted multiple injury, some of them very serious. The violence that started with Pinkertons arrival in July of eighteen. Ninety two finally came to an end. In November after the union gave up, strike leaders were charged with murder, and this
the charges were levelled at a hundred and sixty of the strikers, but none of the men were convict. Of their crimes. initially carnegie- who experienced the worst of this stuff going on while he was across the Atlantic Ocean saw the union giving in as a victory. He was at that point able to increase the length of the work day and cut wages as the mill reorganized co strike to become more profitable, but he's and felt regret over what had happened, and particularly over he, how he had handled things and better to William Gladstone Carnegie wrote quote such a foolish step, contrary to my ideals, repugnant, as every feeling of my nature, our firm offered all it could offer even generous terms, other men had gratefully accepted them. They went as far as I could have wished, but the false step was made and
to run the homestead works with new man. That is, the tests to which working men should not be subject, did miss expecting such a poor man to stand by and see their work taken by others. The pain I suffer increases daily, the works are not worth one drop of human blood. I wish they had sunk yeah he really really pretty much for the rest of his life. Regretted that thing in his part in air quality also at like family, usually makes it about him But I was like the other man gratefully exacted these terms right. Well, so allegedly, and I didn't look at the financial break down, but the terms that he had offered in other mills seemed like the man could potentially make more money, but they would not be able to have a union, and that was so important to them like to him it's
of course everybody would want this like it's just a union. You don't need that, but he didn't realize that that was a vital part of their well being is workers via the fact that they were working in a very dangerous environment for very little pay, a kind of suggest that they did me the union's exactly exactly but to him I think that happens in business all the time where sometimes people at the top, food chain, just look at it as columns of numbers, and they don't think about like the act human lives that are involved in producing the thing that their company makes or Creating this environment where it's actually like safe and Good to work work so yeah, think it was kind of that situation, but does the horrific violence of the homestead strike, somehow Andrew Carnegie Business interests survived and even thrived, and some historians have pointed to the fact that the the striking workers,
I'm so violent that they lost a little bit of the sympathy in the public eye. But his company. Carnegie steel was out producing Great Britain's entire steel industry. Just a few years later at the turn of the century, but by nineteen hundred Andrew Carnegie, who was in his mid sixties, was finally feeling ready to spend more time with his family and less time working here if it had a daughter named Margaret after Andrews mother in eighteen. Ninety seven, so even though seem to genuinely love business. He was also probably in the right frame of mind when the opportunity presented itself to sell everything he had. J P Morgan offered to buy Carnegie out that year and after thinking, the matter over Andrew Carnegie decided that it was indeed time to leave business and begin philanthropy and earnest. He added philanthropic works prior to that decided tat was kind of going to be. A second career so he rode down his asking price just on a little slip of paper, and he had employee of his hand the liver it more
made no counter offer, but immediately accepted the deal and bark and bought Carnegie Steel for four hundred and eighty million dollars of that sum, Carnegie walked away with two hundred and fifty million dollars the portion that, when Carnegie has been estimated at a modern values somewhere between four, in five billion dollars yeah and that's one of those things sometimes you'll see it reported a little bit in a confusing way, because since there are two figures involved there, that four hundred and eighty million purchase price versus the two fifty million that we Carnegie out of ideal you'll, sometimes see one or the other just reported on its own. So I wanted to make sure we included both of those for clarity and right in the midst of this allowed by the way was the time at Cassie. Chadwick was failing to be Carnegie S, daughter and massive fraud scheme and then drew Carnegie, never really knew anything about that until it came to light during Chadwick Arrest and her trial, which he did a ten, it didn't really impact. His life
something he really thought a whole lot about other than being what kind of amused about it but I wanted the context realize it on the timeline since that time, is episode about. Cassie does mention Carnegie Andrew Carnegie spent there There was life trying to give away all his money in eighteen ninety two years before the homestead He had written a popular book titled the gospel of wealth in which he wrote about the dude, that wealthy men have the better the lives of people with less than he was hey I'm living up to that writing focused on giving money away in ways that were enriching and would have lasting impact. Yet he was he did not just wanna hand, people money. He wanted to figure out how he could build something into the world that would keep people. all enriched long term and as part of his philanthropic efforts,
He built a library and a concert Hall in Homestead Pennsylvania. Any set up retirement funding for the workmen under the Andrew Carnegie Relief Fund, raising that it was quote as an acknowledgement of the deep debt which I owe the workmen who have contributed so greatly to my success. He funded nearly three thousand libraries, the United States and abroad. library, where I get most of my materials, for this pod cast is in fact Carnegie Library. He felt that with access to knowledge and a desire to learn anyone could become educated even outside of the formal education structures. Yes I was really how he had become educated and become a successful person. He thought lake. I want to give that avenue to everyone who might want it, but also funded many actual formal institutes of higher learning so Carnegie Melon University is the modern day outgrowth of a two million dollar endowment that Andrew Carnegie established in
ten hundred to set up technical schools in the Pittsburgh area and nineteen See he founded the Carnegie Institution of Washington with twenty two million dollars all allocated towards scientific discovery. In two thousand and seven, this organization became the Carnegie institution for science Maybe corporation of New York was formed in nineteen eleven to give away the remainder of the Carnegie Fortune and that did he remains and continues to fund trusts and educational institutions. The Carnegie Council for Ethics and National affairs was initially named. The church peace Union and it was established in nineteen fourteen with the two million dollar endowment with a gun, a finding alternatives to war. these foundations was established to build a court house and the library in the Hague for the permanent court of arbitration. That was one wait five million dollars in funding that was given by Carnegie to build what was called the peace palace
The foundation continues that buildings maintenance to this day. There are many more such institutions funded by Andrew Carnegie, when, as we mentioned in the castle, Chadwick Episode, you ve probably You seem a building or a school or a library that he funded after hearing I from business to pursue philanthropy as the second career Carnegie began: writing his recollections of his youth and his rise to wealth from poverty and in the future, to his autobiography, which was published in nineteen twenty. His wifely he's road of their time. In Scotland, when World WAR two broke out quote He delighted in going back to those early times and ass. He rode he lived them all over again. He was engaged in July. Nineteen fourteen when the war clouds began to gather and when the fateful news of the fourth of August reached us, we immediately left our retreat in the hills and return to school. to be more in touch with the situation.
memoirs ended at that time, world, where wine was hugely upsetting to end Carnegie he had been so focus Can I be of world peace that it was a jarring shocked to see this conflict unfold? Carnegie was willing to put his remaining fortune to work to try to in the war, and he would have offered Keyser Ville him. The second massive sums of We need to end the conflict, but President Teddy Roosevelt blocked that effort Andrew Carnegie never fully recovered from this failure and is often described as having been heart broken over the matter and his last several years of life Andrew Carnegie died in nineteen nineteen two months after the treaty of her sigh was signed here, distribute three hundred and fifty million dollars of his fortune and the rest was the Carnegie Corporate Endowment and, as he said throughout his life, the and who dies rich dies in disgrace.
Has Tracy. My have discussed at an interesting thing he is, is certainly lauded for his great generosity at the end of his life, but he he would. had as much to give away had he not been then people live in fairly mediocre circumstance Having worked dangerous jobs, the eyes what's aimlessly advocated for the rights of workers and then like was also like, but the people working for him. Weren't were not necessarily living comfortably and his own idea of living comfortably with about part about he could live comfortably answer me like two thousand dollars a year like, Rarely comfortably hospital see comfortably. Yet I was sort of pretty luxurious amount of comfort. yeah yeah,
So on the one hand, unlike thank you cause, there's a lot of times. I have benefited from his generosity. We know in going to a library or also just reset, it's been done that we have benefited from by. The council A lot of libraries are really beautiful at a lot of the buildings that hee hee did were really quite spectacularly gorgeous like he had a good eye for picking good architects for sure. Do you want to hear about microbiology a little bit? I definitely do cassettes in our listener. Mail today illustrates our listener. Stephanie and she's writing about the entities, Unladen hook, episode and her email was titled. Anthony VON Levin Hook made my research possible. She writes I'm EC scientists completing my Phd in Australia. I loved your pod guest on Antony VON Levin hook as I do a lot of work with microscopes and I love hearing about early techniques. I study
group of algae called diet harms their special because their cell walls are made of glass to our eye. They look like clumps of browned palm scum that you'd find on rocks, but under the microscope there very beautiful I've attach some pick I took up my modern microscope, I'm leaving probably the first person to observe diet homes ever. Sadly, he wasn't able to describe them in detail, so he isn't the official discoverer. That credit goes to an anonymous person who sent a letter of reply to the royal society regarding VON Levin hooks work with a lovely illustration of the Diet Timetable area in seventeen o three I found Super interesting, since these observations were made more than a century before formal, I classification, started cool. I love it. I also anybody who is working in the sciences too, Or understand our world so that we can all better understand our work together, If you'd like to write us, you could do so at history, podcast, a house of works dot com. You can also find us
internet at missed in history, dot, com and across pretty much anything social media. What form as missed in history. If you wanna visit our website, it missed in history that com where you can find recycle episode of the show that has ever existed long before Tracy and I were hosts- and if you get the episodes Tracy my work done together. You will also find shone out for those episodes we're gonna visitors unexplored from history with us, at least in history, that for more or less and thousands of other topics has therefore extend com. This episode of stuff? You must, in history, classes brought to you by W W, formerly wait. Watchers did you know that most people have already given up on their resolutions? Thirteen days and the new year? I am proud to say that is not me doesn't have to
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