In the early 1800s, Andrew Crosse observed a strange thing happening on an electrified rock in his lab, and he was catapulted into the public spotlight. But before that and after, his life and home at Fyne Court were filled with eccentric delights.
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Welcome to stuff you, Minister,
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hello and welcome the depart cast. I'm Tracy Wilson
Holly fry after we did our best
John cleave thin, and his ideas of the earth
being hollow. Somebody suggested that we do in episode on Andrew Cross. I rode off down, including the fact that he thought he invented life from crystals and now I'm in a totally depart
from there. The document that I gave Holly for outline to come in here, because I just figured out who
You suggested this. What was originally written in this outline was that I had got looking in
email and our facebook com. Thinner are twitter mentions being like who suggested this. I wrote all this down
and I did not write down their name literally sitting
this studio. I was like maybe it was a comment on our website. It was a comment on our website from Komori. I hope I have said your name correctly, I'm so sorry if I did not who left the comment habit of hot calf on Andrew Cross, who thought he created life in eighteen, thirty, six with his crystals and electricity, because
its goofy. It is goofy. This was a joy to work on a authors of came together with remarkable. If such a great- because I was taken a long weekend- and I wanted that- I needed to get on Myself-
no shade at all to committee for having left this comment on our on our website, but I will note we do not get notification of comments on the website at Miss in history, dot com- it is often weeks or longer before we ever see anything on there, and we also do not have the ability to turn the comments off because it's like a whole,
Bunny wide thing to have the comments on their site. If you are gonna leave, a comment on our website were really not get to see it in a timely manner, and we may never response you it, but at my last minute, literally sitting here in the studio. Oh, maybe it was a comment on the website it was. It was crosses account of what really happened:
a little bit more down to earth than thinking, but he invented life or not invented life, but created life with crystals in electricity, but still delightful story, so a lot of fun to work on. Thank you commodity again. I hope I have said your name right. I have a good and check because I literally made the connection just now that Dunton. Yet thank you for for suggesting this. So Andrew Cross was born on June. Seventeen seven
maybe for at fine court in Broom Field, Somerset, England and the Manor House at fine court was first built in the early seventeenth century, and then it was added on to over the year. So by the time cross was born. It had been his family's home for well over a hundred years, Andrews mother was named Susanna and his father was Richard Cry
high sheriff of Somerset when under was for the family moved to France and they stayed there for the next four years. Andrews spoke both french and English. By the time he got back home, but after that he really did not keep up with the French and he eventually lost at all. Although he studied latin and greek and school, he didn't really think he had
much of an aptitude for languages. However, he did invent a new language with his younger brother, Richard and the two of them,
eight up a world that was populated by beings. They called either Hubble jeez or how police we don't know for sure which they made out of fur cones and they imagined the whole society for the hobble geese, complete with its own legal system and a system of government which is about as charming as
get in my opinion. In his own words, Andrew was quote a very high
The boy careless extravagantly fond of fun and both
These were somewhat eccentric, as they grew up we're gonna get in,
Andrews eccentricities in more detail, but as for Richard, as wanting
while he was really really do the metric system so much so that his clocks were divided into ten hours instead of twelve. I have a number of questions
that is like, if you're running your household on ten, our clocks. Do you just translated your heads and make sure you're on time, rear engagements? Or are you always not on time? We're gonna have a talk about this in our Friday episode.
Super, because your foolish co host may have tried something similar as an adult. Oh I'm so excited after the cross me am. I got back from
Prince Andrew was enrolled in a school in Dorchester. That was run by a Reverend Mr White and then
seventeen ninety three, when he was nine, he moved to a school in Bristol Run by the Reverend Mister Samuel Sayer. In addition to his work as a teacher Sayer wrote, memoirs, historical and topographical of Bristol in its neighbourhood from the earliest period down to the press.
Time and did not really enjoy his time at the school. He never felt like he had enough to eat em. He thought the food that they did have was terrible
He also didn't get along with Sayer or some of the other teachers plus being extravagantly fond of fun included, getting into mischief and plain jokes and pranks on people like when a class.
They asked him for help. Translating some Latin Andrew
old him that what he wanted translated meant. The stork is safest in the middle of the
and when it really meant the middle course is safest and say: you're apparently did not
this particular brand new silliness, some of the trouble,
Andrew got into at school was also more serious than that Andrew Light to make his own fireworks and Thou
what he was doing one day while he was also studying his Virgil, Sayer came and caught him and took what he was working on a way in Andrews words quote I watched wary.
It was on the window, sill of a room which was always kept locked. The wind
though not glazed had close iron bars through which nothing could pass. The case was hopeless. I could not recover my rocket mixture, but a happy thought struck me. I was resolved that no one
still enjoy. The spoil which I regarded is so valuable. I had a burning glass in my pocket and I thought of Archimedes and the roman fleet. The sun was shining,
soon drew a focus on the gun powder which immediately blew up. It was well that the house was not set on fire ass. For me, I was reckless of all consequences at one point
some of the boys at school decided to go on strike to try to get longer holiday breaks, but beyond just referred,
using to go to class. They were inspired by the british troops fighting in the French Revolutionary WAR, so they also plans to take over
school armed with muskets. This plan was discovered and thwarted.
thankfully, before anybody carried it out and although the ringleaders were expelled and other participants were flogged,
Andrews, somehow escaped notice, as I from all of that, though, Andrews love of science and particularly of electricity really blossomed, while he was it Mr Sayer School this might have have roots back in his whole life. His father was actually friends with Benjamin Franklin, but while he was at Sayer, school Andrews saw an advertisement for a lecture series with the first instalment being about optics and the second about electricity. He asked for
permission to go and that was granted and things really took off from their soon. He and some schoolmates were shocking people with a laden job that they made from an apothecaries bottle, so unladen jars of this
This store static electricity, in this case, probably a stoppers vile filled, partly with water, with a wire through the stopper which you charge by touching the wire to something static, IP
before long Andrew was riding home. To ask for money to buy various electrical gadgetry be clear. This Ladens are shocking would not have been dangerous.
But it would have been annoying and his father died in one thousand eight hundred, and he was sixteen and about that time he started to experience what he described as nervous attacks, and they would require regularly for the rest of his life. While he had described himself in childhood is happy and careless. He grew up to be kind of a generally anxious person with easy
ex coming on suddenly and lasting for as long as thirty minutes. At a time in eighteen, oh to cross, entered Brays knows college at Oxford, which he called quote a perfect hell on earth. Wine seem to be the focal point of social life at the college and he hated wine. He also hated his classmates snobbery and classicism, and later
and he said quote: I was less liberal at this time than at any other of my life. It took some years to rub off the prejudices of class, which I had acquired in Oxford Cross, earned his degree in law in one thousand, eight hundred and five, and he also inherited fine court. After his mother's death,
my third of that same year. This is one of a long series of losses. Over a period of about five years, he lost both of his parents, a sister Anne Uncle to close brands and one of his household staff, who he described, as quote a most faithful and attached servant. It's not really clear
the grief over all of this led him to abandon law, but he did. He gave up law after two or three years. Instead, he has done.
himself as a country, gentlemen, at fine court becoming absorbed in studying electricity, mineralogy and chemistry,
He also served as a magistrate where he developed a reputation for being quite liberal, and he
a lot of poetry, growth became friends with George John Singer, author of elements of electricity and electro chemistry like Cross singer was an amateur scientists, two's family business involved, making artificial feathers and ours, but he was knowledgeable on a subject of electricity,
We held public lectures and demonstrations that were attended by people like Michael Faraday, Cross and singer did experiments together until singers death from tuberculosis in one thousand eight hundred and seventeen at the age of only thirty one,
George John singer had built a laboratory and lecture Hall at his own home, but Andrew crosses efforts to devote his home to research went even further. Will talk more about bad after we pause for a sponsor break.
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in one thousand. Eight hundred and seven Andrew Cross became fascinated with crystal formations in whole, well cavern, which is a limestone crevice in Broomfield, not far from where he lives, but entrance to this cavern has since been filled in and in crosses words quote. I felt convinced that an early that the formation and constant growth of the crystalline matter which law
The roof of this cave was caused by some peculiar upward attraction and reasoning. More on the subject, I felt assured that it was, electric attraction Cross
a tumbler of water out of the stream that ran through the cavern, and he ran a current through it on wires and eventually some crystals did start to form. This was
First of many experiments that he conducted in electoral crystallization, which is when metals are deposited onto electrodes, eventually forming crystals,
He would eventually start to experiment with electoral refining or extracting metals from their oars with electricity, which is also called
electoral winning Electra, winning which, by the way, sounds like a great bam name was first, do I loved by Sir Humphrey Davy, who came up in our John Cleave Sims episode, everything connection history Davy was one of the people who thought John Cleave sense did not know what he was talking about,
because he didn't have cross experimental, bow. More and more of his home became devoted to this work over the next few decades. He installed six or seven furnaces for purifying metals. The estates glassware in China became laboratory vessels and he purified the household silver for use in his experiments. He also strung up about a third of a mile of copper wire from poles and the tallest,
trees on the grounds and he connected all that to about fifty Ladens hours in the organ laughed the music room. This set up became pretty,
Similarly dramatic in foggy or stormy weather, Sir Richard Philips visited
core and relate a conversation with cross, quote he told
Sometimes the current was so great as to charge and discharge the great battery twenty times in a minute with reports as loud as a cannon which
in continuous were so terrible to strangers that they always fled. While everyone expected the destruction of himself and premises,
if the weather wasn't cooperating, Cross could also manually charge. The laden jars by turning a device with a crank here is
a visitor described fine court during all this quote here
an immense number of jars and Gallipot containing fluids on which electricity was operating for the production of crystals, but you were startled in the midst of your observations by the smart crackling sound that attends the passage of the electrical spy.
mark you here also the rumblings of distant thunder. The rain is already splashing and great drops against the glass and the sound of the passing sparks continues to startle your ear. Your host is in high glee for a battery of electricity is about to come within his reach, a thousand fold more powerful than all those the room strung together. We follow his hasty steps to the organ gallery and curiously approach
but once the noise that has attracted your notice, you see at the window a huge brass conductor, with a discharging rod near it passing into the floor and from what nod to the other sparks are leaping with increasing rapidity and noise RAP Rap Rap, Bang, Bang, Bang. Nevertheless, your host does not fear he approaches as boldly as if the flowing stream of fire were a harmless spark.
comes the big no surprise moment. Many of his neighbors did not particularly careful fits cross. Wasn't it.
Maybe the wizard of broom field and at once
He was speaking at a meeting ahead of an election and local
farmers were booing him when
outsider asked what was wrong. Someone replied quote: why don't you know him? That's cross a broom field, the thunder enlightening MA am you can
near his curse house at night, without danger of your life them, as have been
You have seen devils all surrounded by lightning dancing on the wires that he has put up around his grounds. At the same time, though, there were local people who thought his experiments had curative properties and her account of his life and work crosses. Second life Cornelia described the case of a local man who was paralyzed on one side of his body and also had a solitary gland issue, quote after being electrified twice a week for six weeks. He was so much better that he could walk to fine court and the complaint in the
wrote was entirely removed. I am making a grimacing face. Another Jem from Cornelia about their booming flashing property quote. We were never
troubled with burglars fine courts. We will get back to Cornelia in a bit
They got married later on and Andrews life. His first wife was myriad Hamilton daughter of Captain John Hamilton,
they got married in eighteen, oh nine, relatively early into crosses time as a gentlemen scientists. They would go on to have seven children together,
over the next ten years are there. Three of those children died when they were still children, their oldest child John, was born in one thousand. Eight hundred and ten cross seems to have been really deeply fond of his
and children, and very traumatized by those three deaths. At the same time, though, it
was a family he'd been on his own aside from a couple of younger siblings for four years before he got married, and he just was it.
Used to having a regular home life and, along with all of his experiments, made things a little bit chaotic ADA Lovelace became friends with both Andrew
his son, John ADA in John, actually had a romantic relationship that was also tangled up with her gambling. She summed up the atmosphere at fine court.
sway quote the dinner hour was an accident in the days arrangements, even though there were living in the seventeenth century, Manor House, which suggests a lot of wealth. The cross family lifestyle wasn't it
early extravagant compared to other people. In a similar situation. They did have problems with cash flow, though, and crosses words.
My family were alone it an honourable man as long as I can look back, but they had a happy knack of turning a guinea into a shilling, and I have inherited that faculty pretty strongly Cornelia described him. Ass quote injudicious in his expenditure apart
from his friendship with George John singer. Andrew Cross was intellectually actually pretty isolated. One of his closest longtime friends was John Kenyan, who had been one of his classmates it, Mr Sayer School and while Kenyan was interested in crosses experiments, science was really not his calling. Their overlapping interest was poetry, Kenyan wrote, poetry himself and he was a distant cousin of Elizabeth Beret Browning
At one point before her marriage, he brought Andrew Cross to visit her. He also supplemented Robert and Elizabeth, Bear Brownings income and left them money when he died in eighteen. Fifty six so cross did talk about his work in
not really all that, often and somewhat reluctantly. On December 28th of one thousand eight hundred and fourteen, he gave an address that Garner and Lecture Hall, and it is possible that Mary Shelley, who at the time was Mary, Godwin, attended this lecture. She
France, is it in her diary, but her notes about it are also kind of vague. She writes about going from place to place looking for Thomas Jefferson Hog, but not finding him at any of those places before saying quote: go to garner ins, lecture on electricity, the gases and the phantasmagoria return at half past nine.
Shall I go to sleep? So it's not a hundred percent clear. Whether Garner ends is one of the places she was looking for hog and she was just noting the topic of the lecture that might or if she actually attended the lecture herself, either way. Though sometimes people point to the
Diary Entry as evidence that cross with an inspiration for Shelley's novel Frankenstein or the modern Prometheus, which was published four years later in eighteen. Thirty, six cross reluctantly agreed to speak
get the annual meeting of the British Association for the advancement of science that was being held in Bristol hidden
added to go to the meeting simply as an observer, but he was persuaded to talk about his experiments with electro crystallization. It turned out.
the people, were fascinated. John Dalton, who we just covered on the show, was in attendance and he told cross. He had never before listen to anything so interesting and all this attention made grass fairly uncomfortable, though,
and his words quote: I slipped away out of it all and he went home before the meeting with over. It was not long before he was getting even more attention, though, and we'll talk more about that after a sponsor break
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after the British Association for the advancement of science meeting in eighteen. Thirty, six, a lot of the response to Andrew crosses work was pretty positive, but he did have some detractors. On January. Thirty, first of eighteen, thirty seven, he wrote a letter to a newspaper called the ATLAS in which he responded to what he described as an attack by a doctor Richie. I could not find the text of this article, but Richie apparently criticized cross for framing his work as discoveries when other people had discovered these,
things many years before richly also described, crosses work in a way that just wasn't very accurate crosses tone, is kind of along the lines of you were there at the meeting. Doktor Richie, and you could have just asked me if you had questions instead of writing this incorrect article Miss Character
using me and my experiments, which I do
because I love them in this response Cross framed his work.
As observations, not discoveries. His letter ended quote Pierre.
I should have said this answer long since, but have been prevented by severe illness. I must beg in future
the climate engaging in scientific warfare with anyone having neither inclination nor time for that kind of amusement but doktor riches article, but he was responding to was just the tip of the iceberg, not long after he spoke at the British Association for the advancement of science. Andrew Cross became famous in a way that he really did not expect and also really did not want. He had been experimenting with a piece of poorest volcanic rock which he was using because of its porosity, rather than because of its composition. He kept this rock electrified with voltaic battery and he had placed it in a fluid that was sacho
it'd, with black flint and potassium carbonate. In his words, quote on the fourteenth day from the commencement of this experiment, I observed through lends a few small whitish excrescences or nipples, projecting from about the middle of the electrified stone
on the eighteenth day. These projections enlarged and struck out seven or eight filaments, each of them longer than the hemisphere on which they grew. On the twenty sixth day, these appearances assumed the form of a perfect insect standing erect on a few bristle.
Which formed its tail till this period. I had no notion that these appearances were other than an incipient mineral formation on the twentieth.
stay. These little creatures moved their legs. I must now say that
It was not a little astonished. After a few days, they detached themselves from the stone and moved about at pleasure. He went on to write quote in the course of a few weeks about a hundred of them made their appearance on the stone. I examined them with a microscope and observed the smaller ones appeared to have a
six legs, the larger ones. Eight cross thought the most likely explanation for this startling occurrence was that airborne mites had deposited their eggs on his equipment, which was exposed to the air.
But that didn't explain why the might seem to able to survive in an environment that should have killed them later on.
He also acknowledged that the early stage of these creatures formation was nearly indistinguishable from the early stages of crystal formation, so he might have just been mistaken. Beyond that, he said quote. I have
ever ventured an opinion on the cause of their birth and for a very
Good reason I was unable to form one. He talked over what he had seen with some other scientists and he sent some samples to rich
A win Owen was a biologist, comparative anatomist and a paleontologist whose actually the person who coined the term dinosaur area. He also very vocally criticized Charles Darwin work on evolution. Owen said that these were cheese, mates which our Iraq needs from the genus a chorus cross called them a chorus. Gov Atticus Cross never intended to publicize. This find any
but at some point he either mentioned it to, or was overheard by William Bragg of the Somerset County. Gazette Bragg published an article on December 31st, one thousand eight hundred and thirty six titled extraordinary, expiry
although brags article, did not make this claim soon papers all over Britain and Ireland were printing sensationalize reports that Andrew Cross of Somerset had used electricity to create life so to wreak clear Andrew Cross did make some far fetched
claims during his lifetime, like he told a story about being bitten by a cat that died, that day of Hydrophobia, which is rabies about three monthly
your cross, had a worrying combination of symptoms. He was thirsty, but his throat spasms when he tried to drink water and he had a pain that started in his hand and worked its way up to his elbow and shoulder
convinced that he was going to die of Hydrophobia. He went shooting and intentionally exerted himself and thanks
his physical exertion and mental focus. He was better in three days. He wrote quote. I mentioned the circumstance to doktor King Lake, and he said he certainly considered that I had had an attack of hydrophobia, which would possibly have proved fatal. Had I not struggled against it by a strong effort of mind. You cannot.
rabies with exercise and positive thinking. It would just never occur to me to be like I think I may have rabies. You know what I should do. Go shooting that's gonna help
I'm an anxious person. I can totally see myself
being like oh no, this thing is happening to me.
I don't really know if Doktor King Lake really did think that he had somehow staved off an attack of rabies are if, if king like, was humoring him, that's right. Dear, you cured your cephalopods
but even though we have the whole story about the cat and the rabies, he did not say that he had used electricity to create life.
He's steadfastly maintain that not only had he never made that claim. He had never said anything that are reasonable. Person could interpret that way. He really didn't know for sure why mites had hatched in his experiment. I mean he had that kind of best guest of leg. Maybe some mites put their eggs on there, but he be definitely did not think he had created them or
even wife to them with electricity for the next few years, though, Cross faced ongoing accusations of blasphemy and atheists, and because of this, miss reporting of his work and the rumours that followed people called him. A Frankenstein Anna disturber of the piece of families
Neely across later wrote, quote after disavowing all intention to raise any questions connected with either natural or revealed religion. He went on to observe that he was sorry to see that the faith of his neighbours could be overset by the claw of a mite. Other people tried to replicate crosses results, but only one, William Henry weeks of sandwich had any success in that happened in eighteen. Forty weeks had placed his experiment under a bell jar in mercury to feel
shut off from external air, and he said that quote: five perfect insects formed on November 25th, one thousand eight hundred and forty one after more than a year of the experiment running, so we could start of the experiment. One thousand eight hundred and forty and then reported this one thousand eight hundred and forty one. He named these mites a car is cross the eye after Andrew Cross Cross and.
we're both threatened with violence, and they were not the only people caught up in this media storm. Another was MIKE
faraday who was falsely reported, is having confirmed, crosses experiment in February of eighteen. Thirty seven not
We had he not done this. He also had not trying to. As all of this was happening. Several members of crosses family were serious
Li L, his wife Marianne died in eighteen, forty six and his brother Richard died just four days later. Andrew was absolute Lieber raft and he went to London where he said,
most of the next four years of the house and grounds of fine court fell into disrepair. While he was in London
met Cornelia Augusta, Hugh at Berkeley. Who was a fan of his work in her words quote.
in young. I had always been intensely interested in MR crosses experiments in electrical science. I had cut out scraps from the newspapers that made mention of his discoveries so that it will
with no common feelings that I looked upon. The man whose power in wielding that mysterious agent electricity had so excited my imagination,
She goes on to say that she was disappointed than at their first meaning he didn't talk about electricity. Perhaps he was hungry of that.
Andrew and Cornelia, got married in eighteen fifty he was sixty six them. She was twenty three. They went back to fine court where they had a sign in eighteen. Fifty two followed by a two more children, bringing his total surviving, shoulder
to ten Cornelia helped. Andrew with his experiments and observation, he tried to use electricity to purify
sea water and restore spoiled foods to wholesomeness and make a hang.
we're cure, but electrifying wine and beer. When he published his work. He did so through the electrical society which took a more populist egalitarian approach than many of the more formal academic societies in eighteen. Fifty one the crosses, went to the great exhibition in London at Joseph Factions Crystal Palace, which we ve covered previously on the show. They also went on a tour of England coming back to fine court in eighteen. Fifty five on May twenty, eighth eighteen, fifty five Andrew Cry:
had what he called a paralytic seizure. It was probably a stroke that paralyzed part of his body. He died on July six in the same room where he had been born on his death bed. He changed his will to leave his property to.
His wife rather than his oldest son John, but she then gave the estate to John and his family Andrew
Ross is buried in the churchyard at the church of Saint Mary and all saints in Bloomfield Cornelius,
had an novelist erected in his memory there, an eighteen, fifty seven Cornelia, published memorials, scientific,
literary of Andrew Cross, the electrician, which discussed her late husbands, life and work.
including many of his poems and correspondence Anna complete account of the experiment with the mites in eighteen. Ninety two: she published Red Letter days of my life, which included her recollections about the scientists and writers and thinkers.
He had come to know during their marriage. Most of the Manor House at fine court is no longer standing. It was largely too
right in a fire in eighteen. Ninety four, but the library
music room are still they air, as well as a gardeners cottage in the church. Some of the structure still stay
The property are used as office space, including for organizations like Somerset, wildlife, trust and visitors can stay at the gardeners cottage. It is primarily a nature preserve with walking trails in a tea room, with a tea room currently only take out due to the covert nineteen pandemic. We have made some reference,
there's two and across his poetry, and I thought we would end on one of his poems. This is called the three trenches three circling trenches round. My heart I throw to keep at bay. Each intermeddling fell within the first. The world may enter free, whatever their sect opinion or degree
safe or the next. I greet affair array serenely smiling as the summer's day to pass the
bird, alas, how few contrive and of those dearest few how few survive as anti grass? This is one of the topics that, if I had to do over a time machine, I would have saved this for, like a tour share
oh fine, it's very, very fine. Do you have fun email? I do
It is it is it fine business from Jennifer Jennifer's, those high Holly and Tracy? I got so excited. While I was listening to the recent scurvy episode, I went down a history, rabbit hole,
a few months ago and didn't know how to write in about it. It's a long story, but I was watching a cooking show and the recipe called for black currents. I was intrigued because they looked delicious and I had never heard of it.
For now. It turns out in the early nineteen hundred for the: U S: band the cultivation, sale and transportation of currents. They can carry a fungus that is destructive to the white pine, so currents were banned to safeguard the timber industry.
that basically eliminated currents from the american Diet and other interesting fact. During the blockades and world war, two currents where one
the only vitamin c rich fruits that can be grown locally in Britain, Churchill encourage people to cultivate black currents and kept the population from getting scurvy current flavoured. Soda and candy are still popular in the UK. Today I love the show was my first podcast ever and it opened me up the podcast world. I love of history has grown so much because if you guys thanks for reading, thank you for setting this email
Jennifer. I got it this morning and I was like why have I had no confusion about what currents are, even though I do
no that I have ever actually them, and the answer quickly came into my mind that an end of green gables and is supposed to give Diana bury raspberry cordial
stared. She accidently gives Diana bury Marilla Black currant wine and then Diana gets very drunk and it is a big source of the tension in that part of.
Burke, and so I think, some time in my childhood. I was like what is what is black current line, and I found out that they're like little there like a little berry,
I worked in theory because, while I did not know all of this about there being banned in the U S, I just sort of assumed that they were something that didn't grow locally. That's not true at all, like they were grown a whole.
In New York in New England until this whole problem with the with the fungus, which is actually a rust and the ban like the federal ban, was rolled back before I was born, but there were still a lot of,
eight level bands. It is still not a commonly grown crop in the. U S at all
more than ninety, nine percent of the current crop in the world is grown in Europe, so that was an interesting TED bit for me to start my morning off with you. Thank you so much Jennifer for sending this email. If you would like to write to us about this,
podcast, we're history podcast that I hurt radio dot com and then we are all over social media at missed in history. That scenario find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest an instagram, and you can subscribe to our show on Apple pie, gasped, the Iheart, radioactive and anywhere else
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Transcript generated on 2021-02-03.