You may never have heard of him, but Avicenna was one of the first, and probably the most influential, Islamic philosopher-scientists. He's listed among the great philosophers in Dante's Inferno and is mentioned in the prologue to the Canterbury Tales.
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Welcome to stuff you missed in history class from how supports that can allow and welcome to define tracing emails and I'm Holly bride and many have never heard of today's subject. But ever since I was one of the first and probably the most influential islamic philosopher, scientists he's
among the great philosophers and Dantes Inferno and
prologue to the contrary, tales. The doktor of Physic, who was in the party, has studied his work. There's also a port
of him hanging in the hall of the faculty of medicine in the University of Paris. We have this expansive
brilliant knowledge, and he was so methodical and systematic and the way that he wrote down and catalogued information, but his
in medicine became sought after basically, all over the place he info
in the field of medicine, throughout the islamic and christian medieval Worlds and his info
then, Europe in the
of medicine lasted well into the seventeenth century. To the point that schools,
base, their entire medical curricula on his writings,
He was also one of the most important philosophers in history. His work,
it was written mostly in Arabic, was rooted in Islam, along with Aristotelian and NEO Platonists philosophy in them.
From world this philosophy
continues to be studied today and the
That adversary was influential to both Christians and Muslims makes him really unique among ancient philosophers and scholars of his time. Today. His work
and more than two hundred commentaries annotation,
abridgment and translations
As we usually do will start at the beginning and in fact,
see his name is actually Ibn. Siena in Arabic,
its Abu ALA Hussein. Even sooner
The summer is actually the medieval wet modulation of his name for calling him that, instead of calling him Encina because the,
overwhelming preponderance of information about him, regardless of what culture its written from calls him
yeah, he became known by that name a very, very long time ago,
he was born around nine eighty in a village near because IRAN, which is now in in Central Asia,
require is in south central Uzbekistan at a river delta and lay along the silk road. Today,
the centre as a UNESCO World heritage site.
the time it was the capital than it was
intellectually rich place to grow up. This was also the
century of these long calendar in this part of the world was really flourishing in knowledge and intellect at this point
Father was a governor and a scholar as well.
The centre was a very bright and gifted child and he claimed to have memorize the entire Koran by the time he was ten years old. His father
his position and the number of libraries and scholars where they lived meant that has broken.
This was really encouraged and nourished.
His early study was an aristotelian philosophy, but he surpassed
teachers when he was quite young, and so he furthered his education on his own one.
They no longer had any thing. They could teach him at the age of
sixteen. He turned from studying philosophy, studying medicine, which was
suppose. You said he found extremely easy friend when
still quite young, the Sultan of Bouquet era, the city where he was living, got sick and the coffers
And were not able to cure him, but ever since I did cure him
to reward the sultan, gave him
as to the Royal library which opened up all kinds of avenues for his personal, steady, getting at
as two books and knowledge through its practice of medicine for wealthy patrons. Actually,
became a pattern that he repeated throughout his life. The cell,
but he got from all this was so broad that he also claim to have mastered all of the sciences by the age of eighteen, brilliant.
Slash, a little egotistical? Yes, that comes out of Ireland in writing about him that, in addition to being extremely smart, he knew he was extremely smart and could be kind of conceited about it.
So when I was a young man, his father died and he for awhile held an administrative posts. It's possible that,
seated his father in the governorship, but their records are not entirely clear on that point, so we knew a fair amount about Addison his life because he dictated and autobiography to protegee named out.
protegee also added additional biographical information.
some of us in his own correspondence also survives, but we don't really have a whole lot of contemporaneous accounts to balance out this perspective, and
The existence of the autobiography also seems to have had this unintended side effect of prompting
scholarship about his life. It was basically
There's already all this information: here too, we don't,
to go on a quest to find more of it
especially when it comes to his youth, the autobiography is all we have ended,
Discussion of his childhood is really more like the study of a scholar set out.
The two ways to act as evidence of avarice of his own thoughts on knowledge and wisdom is
recounts, his learning. It moves through increasingly difficult material and sequence and
his own without instruction, so you basically came doesnt with math
The natural progression of I learned,
bit, I learned some harder things. Eventually, I had to seek out my own knowledge, because no one can teach me right
so rather than sort of being a story about how he grew up this autumn
obviously when it comes to. His youth is more like an illustration of how a person can acquire wisdom and knowledge through intuition, so its honest, more alike,
curriculum for learning things and an example.
Having done it rather than an auto biography, as we would think of it today, this episode of stuff, you, Mr History Class, is brought to you by earnest. If you have
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take stock and change your habits because we all want to be our best selves and a lot of times. This is the time of year where we really try to make this those shifts in those changes that can make our wellness even better, and if you need some help in that area, Sakharov is here to help along with their delicious meals. The car also has daily wellness essentials like supplements and urban tease. That will support your nutrition and, right now, cigarette is offering our listeners twenty percent off their first order when they go to secure a dot com, slash history or enter the code history at check out that security S, a k, a are a dot com, slash history, to get twenty percent off your first order. One more time for
this sakharov dot com, slash history and his adulthood. He was known to be a gregarious person who loved life and its pleasures included
thinking of sex,
he was witty charismatic and he was often in the company of friends and others.
In time, as is often the case, the geniuses he could also have
Periods of breeding and loneliness, so go figure
rise. Really not really.
As in many religions, excessive tax on alcohol consumption were quite frowned upon among strict Muslims where he lived so this these
trades. That kind of defined him also put him at odds with islamic conventions and social norms
earned him a lot of enemies as well. He had to move
from place to place and from patrons patron, as he rubbed people the wrong way with his flaunting.
Of religious and social expectations, and we now being
a pretentious and hard to get along with them as well.
You said earlier, he was also a little conceited and arrogance. He was brilliant, any new it and he was not afraid to tell people how much he knew or how very
He was at any particular thing and
this is it always makes me go no ever since he was also not shy about embarrassing and shaming his rivals if they rubbed him their own way, the air. So he was pretty outspoken about his greatness and everyone else is not greatness right. You do things like save some one of four
Knowing that it was a forgery to see if that person would spot that it was a farce of forgery in front of others
and when the person did not spotted.
the ordinary make one of them to a kind of a brilliant jerk yeah by it, as we are about to talk about extends
woody hugely influential an important, especially in the worlds of philosophy and medicine, by a
The age of twenty one Addison it had started to write and before his death he had written more than two hundred and forty books, treatises and other works, and these
all kinds of subjects, including math, science, philosophy, music and poetry and asked,
known. It was most influential for his work in medicine and philosophy, so we're gonna talk about his philosophy first and his medicine. Second, his most important philosophical work is the Qatar Bathsheba
is the Qatar Bathsheba also called the cure, which was
cyclopaedia of logic, physics and metaphysics, and this
was modeled after the work of Aristotle, with the grounding in Islam, and it was translate
into Latin in Spain. During the twelve and thirteen centuries after which it became hugely influential in Europe, the fish
Volume wasn't just what we think of his physics today. It also
included. What we classify more.
biology, meteorology, mineralogy and even psychology them.
Ass. The volume also includes geography, astronomy and music, in addition to the arithmetic and geometry. That would immediately come to mind when we think about math
Also wrote about dream interpretations, talisman and alchemy as well, although in the end he rejected the idea that base metals could be transmuted into other things as a whole.
Server one of his most notable thought experiments was called the flying man I'll centre.
floating man which reflected on what a completely blank slate of a person could be aware.
So in this bar experiment, imagine that God has just created a fully formed adult person in kind of sensory vacuum. This person has no memory
no sensory input at all. None of his body
so in this thought, experiment. What would this new?
newly minted person be aware of according to Edison s philosophy he would be,
according to Addison as philosophy. He would be aware that he existed so
I was sent. This meant that self awareness is a fundamental part of life, and that also suggested
that the soul is different from the body, because you could be aware of yourself without being aware of your body, and this was signal
can't because it was different from much the theology at the time which largely TA
the soul was a material substance that have an atomic make up.
I think it was an actual physical thing.
This whole idea also draws a parallel between humans and God,
because of its benefits. Are God, as a self thinking intellect so and Allison his view. Both human
and God have this ability for self awareness and that make self awareness something extremely special
according to ancient and medieval philosophy, Professor Peter,
Adamson, this is one of the first times that philosophy put forth. This idea in this connection between Man and God and Allison, are also created, a proof that he believed prove the existence of God, which ceased
deal of explaining. So we will link to a full explanation of it in the show notes, rather than kind of taking you through the proof
yes, I listened to you a thirty minute podcast. That was just an explanation of this brief, so, rather than spending thirty minutes
We will of all of the various logic their uses, the others, a lot of logic and a lot of sort of Philip
the gold groundwork that has to be put down first, that, if you're not already familiar with, takes explaining itself. So
before we move on to his discussion of medicine. Let's take
When I talk about our sponsor, that sounds great, I'm ok, this episode of stuff you missed in history classes, Morocco you buy Katy, keen! I love Riverdale. So I M excited that the creator of Riverdale has a new show, a sparkling adventure in the big apple full of fashion drama in dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six. At eight seven central. It is the new suitable series, Katy Keen we have singer songwriter, Josie, Jorge with his eye on Broadway. It girl, pepper and fashioned Easter legend to be Katy. They are in New York City of eight million and they are for of a kind, their friends who would give everything for their dreams and do anything for each other. So the big apple, better watch out, because no matter who or what gets in the way they are about to take a big ol bite. These four determine dreamers take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the New York City Social scene, where they find it more than just careers and the big city they find forever friendships. High style has a new name, Katy, keen the fashionable new series. Premiers February Sixth, on the seat
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Now I get back to some extremely important scientific work from very long ago, so Everson Asthma.
Influential medical work was the five book work
the Canon of medicine. I cannot fail to
which was influential both in his region of the world and in european medical schools and
this. Medical writing was based on the greek physician gallons idea that two of the four humours which her blood flam black, vile and yellow bile along with it-
we gave you a four elements of earth, air fire and water, and the Canon of Medicine also draws heavily on the work of hypocrisy. Is there
Also work on anatomy, the causes and treatment of diseases, hygiene, medicines, pathology, basically, the whole world of known medicine. At the time in one five volume work and the fifth
of the cannon, the medicine is actually a drug formulary, which was
completely new idea in the field of medicine. At the time, the sort of the first pharmacists manual yeah
of medicine was basically one work that distilled the whole.
Medical Knowledge and five volumes
So it's really not at all surprising that it became the mainstay of medical education and that lasted for hundreds of years.
rules in Europe finally drifted away from it. It was also moving away from the whole idea that Humours cause disease when they are out of balance, so
thickly Addison his work was the core of medical ethics.
until medicine moved away from the entire idea that a lot of it was based on, and although this
idea of humours. Is it part of mainstream medicine? Today
Overall Everson, as medical writing was well
Still it was evidence based there. Some really solid medical thought in there that still holds
Today we also kept clinical records, which were
tended to be used as an appendix to the Canon of medicine, those habits.
I've until today. But we do know some specifics about his medical practice is one: was it
recommended wine as a wound, addressing which was a common treatment in medieval Europe, actually said that it contains alcohol can be effective in helping differ
infection? He also used reduction techniques like pressure and traction to treat spiral, deformities, which is something that
properties had written of and this whole practice and disappeared for medicine after Amazonas time until a french surgeon picked it up in the nineteenth century,
so correctly used sweets, tasting urine today
diabetes. So did he tasted probably better the things we could do better
and that is definitely unify sugar and definitely indication that a person could have diabetes. We know
perform surgery and there are suitable instruments that belong to him and museums and women.
world of surgery, one of the things that he did was to describe how to find the healthy margins of a surgical site when performing an amputation. He asked
wrote about how to cut an umbilical cord and how to clean swaddle in feed and new born baby
basically all over all kinds of areas of medicine at this point
if his writing was also about generally being healthy,
how to get well and stay well and included the effects of recreation, the home family life and all sorts of other factors on human health. So, consequently, he's been referred to
a forerunner of preventive medicine, which is
we take for granted. The hay yeah,
really was the first to put forth the idea of sort of a holistic health view versus just treating incidents of health issues right
Amazon. It was extremely influential and extremely important, and unfortunately, his life was not particularly long at the age of fifty
seven he was travelling with his patron and he developed colic, which he decided to treat himself an ultimate
this wound up, leading that his death, the course of
meant that he wanted to undergo, involves getting eight celery seed animals a day and its
clear whether this was intentional on the part of one of his attendance at the formula that he gave to himself was prepared,
to contain more than double the amount of active ingredients that it was supposed to his intestines.
came ulcerated as a result, and it
The association he's a mild form of opium and at this time,
we know that there was a tampering that was intentional asleep.
The least this opium with an extra those whose health started to go downhill and
He refused to leave his patron kept travelling with him.
Condition got worse and worse, and he finally died in ten thirty, seven
and now the Senate is buried in home. It on and his two which had fallen into disrepair was refurbished in the nineteen fifties and
at home to a mausoleum in an eight thousand volume library and there's a big sort of.
pillared monument there. It's very striking to look at every said earlier
although his have medical writing, is not really part
of modern medical thought, his philosophy is still widely studied among Muslims. Today, he's one of these people it so it
until it's almost surprising that you don't hear them? I,
Muslims. Yeah, it's a really interesting story. I actually you kind of one.
His name had not stuck into my head and still until I started doing research on the spot cast
we read that somebody living at that time would have been that influential among both Christians and Muslims yeah. It's a really interest.
story, I actually you kind of wanna go read his proof which I have not yet
you're wrong. We listened to the analysis and description of it that that took like thirty minutes to explain lunchtime,
His name is, it is pretty pretty perfect lunchtime listening. There are some awesome.
Loss of upon casts some of which are used as sources, or this
We will link mollified and shone out, because I dont have them noted right in front of me, but her
dinner, possibly unknown person credited with the health and welfare of much of Medieval Europe right
some listener mail to share with us
Do I have to pieces of listener mail and they are both about the Boston massacre? The first is from Paul
Paul rights to s it's a rather long. Letters are not going to eat all of it, but he writes about where you listen up.
they cannot listen to us while driving, because it requires too much attention
has been listening while runs, which is critical.
then he says, as history major and a trivial aficionado. I particularly look forward to subject matter that I think I know well. I'm all
pleasantly surprised by the new facts or perspectives that you bring to the shares of horse. I love hearing about all matter of subjects that I knew nothing of it
more about communicable diseases that I may be would have cared to learn on man, for instance that deadline.
yeah, I know you and I
We did have a whole raft of tuberculosis Mamma. I did
put in my two cents about your boss, the massacre episode as a proud Bostonian. I felt it my duty. I was real.
cited this episode as the Colonial America, above any local of the boss. The area I did want to add another cause for tensions that led to the riot, namely the cornering acts, were Boston, colonists,
worse to how's the british regulars. You were sent there to essentially suppressed the Macedonians and their dissatisfaction with the Palestinians.
the soldiers were sent in part as a reaction to the non importation acts survive in Boston where the city refused to buy any imported goods at the measure that was adopted across the northern colonies. Eventually, this hit the English.
And get their wallets and that have been ineffective.
more appealing to stamp out blossoms resistance, became us
It eventually ignited the rebellion. The true presence was a catalyst but made boil subjects of the crown rethink their position. Imagine four thousand soldiers of occupying a city of twenty thousand
Another word massacre is an exaggeration about. I always wondered why a mob of hundreds didn't retaliate more violently against soldiers after they had shot into round. Certainly armed people telling unarmed people is an act of terrorism.
I always found Adams description of the crowd, which is laden with racial overtones, quite illustrative how
his forefathers really did, not believe that all men were created in way enough. Rambling here
The great works in Sicily Palm. Thank you how we did not.
Say explicitly that yes, atoms description of the people provided is quite laced with judgment. Can bigotry, I think, is the word
So that is what our one about the Fatima Oscar
I have one or two about the boss of matter and talk about the second one is from our Facebook wall in its from Sean chances
Fourthly and finally, I am a big fan of the past and recently risen to exert on the boss, the massacre during the pie. Casting
repeatedly how the term massacre seems an ant choice to modern ears to describe the event given the seemingly small amount of wives caught in the end.
compared to what we are sadly used you today, I agree with you guys. The use of the term was undoubtedly driven by political and propaganda.
James. I was also curious. Somehow the concept of what would pass as a massacre in the eighteenth century was influenced by the weapons available at the time and the carnage they could be spent.
in line with the british soldiers involved in the event we're all armed with large caliber single shot. Muzzle loading must get. These were
accurate at best, and even the best frame soldiers such as the hessian, the tie in another part has topic, could only be expected to manage three shots permitted in the best conditions. So far I can tell
None of the soldiers involved fired more than once, and some victims were hit multiple times.
It is therefore unlikely to have expected a greater number of casualties and what actually occurred, although
estimates very the number.
combat dead in the U S, revolution may have been less than three thousand people. I do not mean
anyway to diminish the loss of life, but merely venture the opinion that, just as the
of the term massacre seems uncalled for us today because of our cultural conditioning. Perhaps our forefathers looked upon it exactly that, because of theirs at any rate, keep up the often work guess I cast episode topic in future
Thank you also. Fine. We ve got a fair amount of black for
more about how we talked about the Boston, Macedonia and after getting this particularly reason to question from fun. I went and did some pictures
in textual qualified as a master ass, pretty ass, pretty
at the beginning. That I think of massacres today is something like horrifying in
terrible, and it turns out
always meant something horrifying and terrible.
So the word massacre comes from french words that relate to bitters knives and blocks. That's that's what it meant originally before it became something them at slaughter.
Its first uses in English came from the sixteenth century and referred to the bloody massacre at Paris.
the math, the massacre of Saint Bartholomew stay so to catch everyone up. If you have not heard this before,
in this massacre. Catherine,
who was catholic Orchestra.
The murder of the huge new nobility who were protestant- and these are people who were in Paris or a wedding,
not in any way aggressive. Well, I mean that there was temporary residence there. Yet her visit to Paris was not about with
I receive a wedding.
Typically, the wedding was of Catherine Dimity, tease, daughter, Margaret to him
of Navarre, who was a huge, no and would later become Henry the fourth. So the
all death toll of this massacre was in the thousands and
of the people who were killed were
they were in their homes or working in their shops. At the time
then we're even attendants who were attending human, no aristocrats, you were
in the loop,
for the wedding festivities at a time so like ice, I feel
people like there are people who felt like we really treated the massacre in quotation marks too lightly
massacre have really always meant something horrifying, involving either massive carnage or the slaughter of innocent people who are doing a thing and that's really not what was happening in Boston on that day in boss,
On that day, we had a big group of civilians, Q surrounded a small group of armed soldiers and we're like throwing
an oyster shells and things at them and insulting. So I'm not saying anybody should have gotten shot, it's silly
the tragedy is definitely a tragedy. It is also definitely not a massacre here by the definition of a massacre, not even the connotations of massacre, like the actual dick
very definition of massacre. So well,
definitely, not our intention to make light of anyone. There was
a lot of stuff going on. In terms of the fact
that led to the altercation in the first place and definite
for sure. The fact that American,
colonial writers portrayed as a massacre specifically adds been later on. Like you said
the first massacre ever
oh if you would like to email lesson, share your thoughts. You can do
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