“De re Coquinaria,” also referred to as “Apicius,” is a cookbook featuring recipes that may have been collected as early as the first century. Who wrote it is a mystery, but it offers unique insight into the food culture of ancient Greece and Rome.
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This episode is brought to you by Pinterest. Pinterest is where you find a do the things you actually enjoy and for this episode we got to enjoy putting together a Pinterest board on the subject of cooking as part of our pinterest presence, so that we can do
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You missed in history glass, a production of I radio
hello, and welcome to the park gas power for nine and I'm Tracy. We will then right out of the gate. We will tell you that this episode of sponsored by Pinterest in fitting with that it seemed natural to think about the types of things you might look at on Pinterest
and it's no secret, that we absolutely love to talk about food and food. History has been one of my favorites when
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Because I have came of on a tear of doing cookbook. Cook throughs in the last couple of years are basically trying to cook every recipe. Rest Vienna, cookbook. It got me stuff.
turning to wonder about the earliest cookbooks, and that is how I landed at reading about direct
look we're, not area, which is also referred to as a piteous or sometimes thee. A piteous
and we're gonna talk about but may move. Picky is because there's a little bit of a history mystery connected to it, but really too
talk about this cookbook. We have to talk first about the food culture of ancient Rome, so there,
Only a few surviving written accounts of roman food culture from the first several centuries guys petroleum arbiter in his satire satirical includes a section. That's titled Senator Marquis onus and he describes the banquet table of this the titular character in detail. This is traumatic you and that's the personal story, who is a formerly enslaved person who has acquired just for dick you'll US levels of wealth through all kinds of the various and unscrupulous means and his life in the time the book is set, is
all about just indulgence and access and, as a consequence, the descriptions of this banquet are probably an exaggerated version of what a person would typically find in a wealthy home of Rome. I mean it, it is a sad ire have ruin him suggests, but also give some insight into what this
world was like yeah. It also gives some insight into the types of of foods that they were using, so
one course is described as follows: quote on the tree.
he stood a donkey made of Corinthian Bronze Bearing Penny a containing olives, why
in one and black in the other two platters flame.
the figure on the margins of which were engraved from altos name and the weight
the silver in each door. My sprinkled, with poppy
seed and honey, were served on little bridges, soldered fast to the platter and hot sausages,
silver gridiron, underneath which
we're damson plums and pomegranate seeds and the courses just kept coming, it becomes apparent that the visual presentation was hugely important as an aspect of the matter
I quote, there was a circular tray around which were displayed the signs of the Zodiac and upon each sign. The caterer had placed the food best in keeping with it rams vetches on areas. A piece of beef on tourists
knees and lambs fry on Gemini, a crown on cancer.
The womb of an unfair owed sow on Virgo, an african food,
on LEO on Libra, a balance one pan of which held a tart and the other a cake, a small fee, fish on Scorpio
a bullseye on Sagittarius, a sea lobster on Capricorn us a goose on Aquarius and to mow it's on Pisces
in the middle, lay a piece of cut sod upon which rested a honeycomb with the grass arranged around it. So much work.
I got about halfway through that now is like man is the light right and the guests.
Incidentally, in this book were sort of chagrined by this course, which is
scribe in the text, as quote vile, fair and which to
yo assures them is quote only the sauce and
hope is next served, stuffed cape arms and South Belize and
here equipped with wings to resemble Pegasus, May were also served. A wild boar with baskets hung from its tusks. Those baskets contained dates from Syria and the
when Gervasio cut open the boar live, birds flew out, which sounds incredibly extravagant and also very growth
I may have had a long discussion with my husband about how one would achieve such a thing, and why would you bother
it's really submitted to, I don't want to eat, rose,
anything that might have bird poop in it another source for gay.
an insight into the tables of ancient Rome is authentic.
As of now Gratis and with any US can
to the historical record of rooms tables because he referenced and quoted famed
ancient food ease in his work and one of those its brow
A light in the writings of Athenians was orchestras who live between four hundred and three hundred
b, C e on Sicily, so quite away back, ARCA Stratus was not himself a cook. He was a connoisseur of all kinds of foods and wrote a poem, titled Hetty path here, and that gives all kinds of details about food, but the evidence of that poem is found in the writing of Phineas, specifically a piece of writing from two twenty eight c e, which has titled philosophers at dinner. In that book, the guy.
gathered further dinner, quote Arcas Stratus to one another. Sixty two fragments that appear in the writing of Athenians are all we have of this longer poem. The name had a pathetic, translates to luxurious life or play
life. But even though we only have fragments those quoted fragments once again give us an idea of what food was like along the Mediterranean and its mostly
based on where and when to get fresh sea food or how to prepare things for optimal flavour, an orchestra us is-
rather judgmental about how some people prepare their food in one fragment. He writes quote
Do not allow anyone come near. You, when you bake, see Wolf, neither Syracusan nor Italia out, for they do not know how to prepare them decently
They ruin them and make a mess out of them with cheeses and sprinkling of the liquid vinegar and the silver.
Brine. So there was clearly plenty of food culture in ancient Greece and Rome. Well before this cookbook specifically is known to have existed. There was enough of a food culture that there were people who were famous gastro nomes and we'll talk about one of them in a moment. While there is some advice about food prep in their writings, most of these strategies were not cooks themselves. They were just really enthusiastic and knowledgeable can
members, who were also educated enough to write about their fondness for fine food, yeah, there's a whole le secondary
discussion that could be have which were not diving into here about the fact that problem
Any of the food prepared for a lot of these people was prepared by people who were very skilled but were, in fact enslaved labour, which purse ancient Greece and Rome had its own whole culture of, like that being a very inexpensive way to run one's home, which is a very messed up thing in and of itself.
but it also is something to keep in mind. As we talk about like all of the ways things get prepared, these people are
reading about it. But they're really leaning on people other people to do that. Heavy lifting in terms of the work, and so
All of this in mind, we come to what is believed to be the oldest known cook book in the West, and that is direct,
one area which translates to on the subject of cooking and this book,
with a number of caveats and question marks, is believed to have been
piled initially in the first century, although the oldest surviving copy is estimated to have been made some time in the night centuries, though hundreds of years later. Additionally, it's not known how closely that surviving version might resemble its predecessors. That was probably
added, augmented and otherwise changed over the centuries, and of course that was copied by hand. So there are probably just errors or stylistic changes made to better appeal to the sensibilities of any given copies time
of creation. Yo Yo also see that probably in terms of actually writing it down these May.
Sort of gathered together from
century recipes, but not actually written down in a collected group. Until later, it's there
lot of question marks about the beginning point of this collection of recipes and the
Big question mark around the book is who wrote it to begin with? The name of piteous is associated with,
Several different people in relation to this book, em
be even more generalised word to describe food lovers reminds me me a little bit of the the Taylor and that fraud of Salerno, who we talked about not that long ago, on the show and just sort of the question marks around was this person. Was it a title like
What exactly are we talking about here? While we might never know with certainty who a piteous was the person who is most often cited as the most likely candidate is Marcus Gaseous, a piteous who is an influential roman mirth
from the first century and we're gonna talk all about markets Gabby as a pig use, at least what we know of him after we pause for a sponsor break. This episode is brought. You buy, Pinterest Pinterest is where you find in
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arms where a lot of times you just doom scowling following when other people are doing and kind of feel bad about everything when you're done, but I'm interest, you can find
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I myself, if I was ever just needing a moment to think about what I was writing when one of the things that I really enjoyed was having examples that I could put on pinterest of those two ninth century manuscripts, so that you can see that one of them is a very simple basic copying exercise. As a we mention in the episode, there are some things that are struck out and the writing is you know what kind of a practice situation, whereas the other one. Is this very rich text? That's illuminated, it's got guilt in it. It looks like something that is made to be enjoyed by very wealthy fancy people, and so that's a really interesting juxtaposition, since both of those pieces were copied from the same source document which we unfortunately do not have those pinterest, I can look at them site
I sighed pretty easily and switch back and forth and really get a sense of just how a piece of information can change very much just on the basis of how its replicated now, what
but I also love about that. Little collection that we ve pent up is having some people who have used that could work as inspiration to try to do modern recreations of those recipes, sometimes with varying success. Listen there's a lot of honey in that cookbook. It's very delicious.
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end of markets, Gavest PIG Phooey proclivities, is fairly epic. The wealth he cried
in business is said to have been spent, almost entire
in pursuit of thrilling, unique and exceptional eating experiences. One story goes that he travelled from Rome to Libya simply because he had been told that the plan
and that could be found in Libya. We're just exquisite. This trip was apparently a bust, though he got home unimpressed.
Apparently he ass, he neared the shore, a boat of fishermen approached the ship that he was travelling on and showed him the problems they had available and he asked
if there were any finer in the land and when they said no, he had of ownership turn around to go back home. This is not what
making land. I would rather just stay on this ship dependent
on what sorcerer reading you'll also see those prawns listed as crawfish or like another crustacean, there's clue
some translation going on there, but just now that the lesson is the same, he found them insufficient.
But in addition to food adventures, it appears that mark is giving us a piggy, as was also pretty invested
scholar of food, even though this may have been considered kind of exceptionally indulgent at the time
he has also been credited with creating a cooking school to instruct, coax, based on the research and the information that he had gathered over the years foul of the globe trotting and research into food that markets Gabby as the pinkies did was also expensive. It was so expensive that he ended up spending his whole fortune chasing down the various flavors that excited and, unfortunately, sometimes eluded him like those prawns. He was also known to throw huge, huge banquets if they were anything like the ones that we mentioned from literature at the time.
It is no surprise that his finances were really completely drained by the end of his life and the end of his life is kind of its own story. It's one that was recounted by numerous writers of the time, including Seneca, the younger and whilst
The details vary depending on which specific account you're looking at the basic version is that when my
This gave us a piteous realized. His money was running out. He made
decision that death was his best option. Now. This reasoning?
times given is a fear that he would starve to death. That doesn't really,
hold water because he asked
We still had quite a bit of money, you'll see different numbers bandied about, but it's like Emma. You know thousands are sometimes hundreds of thousands of dollars.
The other reason often cited for his decision to take his own life was that he knew he no longer had enough money
live that life of pursuing knowledge in deliciousness at this sort of grand scale.
And so, according to pretty much every version, he staged one last lavish banquet and he poisoned himself at its conclusion. This is
of course, a deeply melodramatic story and we don't even have any certain evidence that this is anything more than an inch
generated tail told so often that it just came to be believed as a truth, but we
I don't know otherwise about this food lovers em. So this is kind of Benny accepted with it
his life, but he really important thing, though. If this is the UK
yes, whose named in the manuscript Marcus Gavest appears, was probably the inspiration for the books name, not the person who wrote.
book as a well known gastro nome, he would probably have been exactly the type of person you will dedicate a cook, but to and even so the earliest estimation for the books. Completion is still centuries after he live. That was, in the fourth sense
so as any US whose ratings we mentioned earlier, actually references a pic use the man, but not this Cook Boca.
gathering of writings in any of the writing that Athenians was doing in the third century, so that suggests that this book itself
may not have been particularly well known, yet if it already existed at that time,
as any is also mentions, recipes and dishes they were named for markets Gabarus appear, so he was
only well known for his love of food and possibly because of that fame. At some point, the name, a piteous became a common use term. According to writings of the first century, Romans satirical poet, juvenile, the word a piteous was used to refer to a beauty. Juvenile was born a couple of decades after Marcus
obviously picky is died just for like a timeline reference. Yes, so it would have been after he was gone and it could have been by that point. Twenty years late,
People were just being like all your kind of their previous. Aren't you you're? Really you really fancy in your food choices. I've been a start introducing that and casual conversation halfway
So to continue the case that direct Romania, as it has survived today, doesn't really appear to be the way
about food, loving aristocrat like Marcus, Gabby, us a piteous, it just
written in a way that some one of that station would right it's possible that a pic use was
collector of the various recipes or even
He may have paid for an initial effort at bringing them together like this was his little financial project.
But the reality is we don't know who a piteous is in relation to this book, and even the mark is gavest. Theory is really an educated guess without any hard evidence, according to an Garner curator centre for the history of medicine and public health, in a post that she wrote for the centre and twenty fifteen quote, these recipes appear to be written by and for cooks, the centre for the history of medicine and public health acquired their ninth century manuscript. What
one of the oldest known, surviving copies in the nineteen twenties and it was rebound and restored in two thousand six yeah. I think
the verified this, but I read one account that it had already been can rebound prior to that, and so it wasn't like they were. They were completely redoing. They were just trend and maintain it for posterity
A man version of the book was written by hand, and it was written by several different people
created a monastery and full of Germany and its possible that the full the book was used as a teaching or a practice. Doc
at first scribes and then
one theory that becomes up because there are a number of strike through in the text,
a kind of rewritten and fixed errors, and its also not heavily decorated
there's another ninth century copy of the manuscripts that appears to have been copied from the same source as the one from folder, although that source document has been lost, that other ninth century copy is in the Vatican, library and the Vatican copy contains the same text but its illuminated with guilt accents. So it's a lot
fancy year than that other copy. Yo Yo, sometimes see the two side by side, and you can see like this looks like a note book of writing in this looks like a fancy, pants, unicorn book
it is very beautiful in the illustrations- are super detailed, beginning
fourteen. Ninety eight, the rococo area started have plant, runs for wider distribution
of these was in MILAN. The second run came from Venice, two years later and since those
first he runs. It has been reprinted numerous times in a variety of languages.
was also another book, titled Peachy, except TAT. The
been Adagio and that was per,
used by a nebulous figure named vintage areas in the eighth century, and while these excerpts of a pic use that
in areas produce, aren't really duplicate of what most editions of the ambiguous manuscript include:
They are often included with printing's of different coconut area as supplemental material, because the style is very similar. It does kind of matchup and seemed like it could be of the same group that maybe some of those have been cold and then got used in this later smaller publication. This cookbook has been copied and reprinted for centuries, but it didn't make it into the english language until one thousand nine hundred and twenty six, when Joseph Dahmer's bailing published his translation and also made a case to encourage Acadamia to just
brace food scholarship. He describes in the preface to the book how studying food offers insight into the lives of the people who ate it. Writing quote. It has been often said that the way to a man's heart is through his stomach. So here is
hoping that we may find a better way of knowing old Rome, an antique private life through the study of this cookery book. He reiterated this belief
and the opening line of the book section of analysis, with quote anyone
who would know something worthwhile about the private and public lives of the ancients, should be well acquainted with their table. I feel like this is like the flag of it. We could carry through every episode of earth
right. We talk about it all the time. Oh now we know that they eat greens, which means that they were either too
they are doing their own. It really is liquor awaited to engineer your model of what it was like to live in these previous times. Veiling.
So cautions in his book about not leaning on presumptions and partial facts that have been repeated over the years so many times that people have taken them. As fact, rather than examining historical evidence, more carefully, writing quote they have
fixed ideas making reconstruction difficult for anyone who would go
the picture along rational lines, spelling list the three latin editions of the Apicius book that he used for his translation. The first was a one thousand five hundred and forty one edition by Albeniz Tortoise, and the second was the work of Martinus Lister, who produced multiple editions of the book between one thousand seven hundred and five and seventeen.
On the third was nineteen twenty two addition by Sea Dear Toto and Friedrich, Volmer and you'll notice, of course, that these are all additions that came out well after the recipes are believed to have been collected. Initial
like many hundreds of years, hundreds of years, yeah yeah. It's
is one of those things that I wanted to make sure. We pointed that out because we're talking about this ancient book, but where
a version that main nine
bear all that much resemblance to the initial. When we don't know that
dear autonomy, Volmer Edition in particular got some
harsh comments in the classical review when it came out in nineteen twenty two years
excerpt of the review penned by classical scholar, Wallace Martin, Lindsey arrogance.
Evidence in, but how hard it can be to work on a project like this that reaches so far back into human history. He writes quote
You're did what nine out of ten editors in these days would do he contented himself with the mania
groups within reach the night
century manuscript in the Vatican, library, the other italian renaissance manuscripts. He did not cross the sea,
to Cheltenham where in a library whose door opens but to golden keys, ism
isn't another nine century, manuscript of a piteous destined, doubtless
for the shelves of some dollar king, whose free
son will use its pages to light a super cigar. Indeed,
he seemed unaware of its existence
Luckily, Volmer intervened, the two
century. Manuscripts are the only foundation for, in addition, so this is pretty harsh
I like that, he manages to matter we criticise the editor, but also like society at large, like men of you value history like a hypothetical book buyer. However, Lindsey does go on to praise this additional,
review, even referring to it as a jam. In spite of those initial criticisms about relying on too late version,
Ray P, definitely praises Volmer for his involvement in the work and an seems to think that it would have been a disaster without him.
Work Volmer, even predating the publication of that addition also tackles the subjects of the name,
of the Latin that's used in the available manuscripts. So this is something
It has caused a lot of debate over the years because a lot of it
written in what is called vulgar Latin. That really just means afflict colloquial or casual Latin, as opposed to more formal, classical latin
former arrived at the conclusion that this is part of the book being copied as it passed through time and that probably somewhere in the fourth or
century. One of the copies that was made that survived was in the more casual language form. So this is something
what we most of us are familiar with it sort of like if you were to copy a recipe out of an old cookbook
an abbreviate or shifted the verbiage, two more modern sensibilities, but there have also been historians over the years, including Lindsey, who have made the case that, because of the book of cookery, really a how to manual, not philosophy or literature that the
The keenest manuscript might have always been and vulgar latin right from the start. That would make sense in a lot of ways, but that also doesn't entirely hold, because there are some sections of the book that use more classical latin
and that suggested the sections and vulgar Latin may have been integrated into the text over the years. So here
nineteen, twenty six english translation baling establishes his theory. I think, has continued to pay
that this is not the work of any one person, but it is the work of many he writes quote in our opinion.
Unfounded, of course, by positive proof, the pinkies book is somewhat of a gun
For now make Bible consisting of ten different books by several authors,
originating in Greece and taken over by the Romans, along with the rest of greek culture as spoils of war, these books or chapters,
fragments thereof must
I've been in Vogue long before they were collected and assembled in the present form. So now that we ve talked about the murder,
the origins and attribution of this book coming up. We will talk about its contents, but first we will take a quick break to hear from the sponsors who keep stuff you missed in history class
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of Jericho. Panada, don't entirely resemble modern cookbooks, although if you
someday any of our previous episodes with food journalist historian and burn you probably
we'll be surprised at the recipes in a piteous are not terribly specific. When it comes to actual directions, you have to know a little
what's going on. There have been theories that this was due to the assumption that people who
would be reading. It would know their way around food prep and they simply didn't need all of that extra language
There is also a likelihood that this group of recipes was always intended for private use and never as published manual, but more like something to be shared among food ease. The brevity of instruction
could also maybe have been as a means to conserve writing materials,
of arrangement, though the book might feel really familiar to anybody who has worked with a modern cookbook. The chapters are arranged buying, greedy
and this is an area where things can once again diverge from what might be familiar, because some of those ingredients like flamingo are not things that are commonly consumed today, at least not here, and
U S! The ingredients are ruled to a degree by season location and a lack of preservation options. Yeah we're is today, I think, critically,
in the: U S and other parts of the world. You can pick up a cook, but that has
even links that or maybe not in seas, inner or a little bit harder to get, and you can probably find them. They are lower
market or whatever, but this is a time when, obviously like they didn't have proof
Lucy around of every variety, and they did not have so there's some of that place into it as well.
There are also some ingredients in this book that are mentioned that have kind of
nebulous meaning, so one of them is the,
like women. This is used,
most any time that anything liquid would be used like a stock or a graveyard broth that might come into play and
how understanding recipes context. It might be difficult to figure out which version of lick women is actually intended to be used. There is also a fish sauces reference. Several times called Karam that would have at one point referred to a sauce created with a very specific fish.
But in this case it seems to be applied. Pretty liberally threw out without that level of specificity, so kind of like any fish. Sauce.
is that you can really take all of these recipes. Literally again, they have to be considered in context, but there
so a lot of ingredients in seasonings that remain staples in kitchens today. Human is,
shared throughout as our eggs and leaks and time nuts savory
pepper and parsley. The first book of the cook book is called the careful experienced cook and offers up recipes for alcoholic
nations, as well as an array of ways to rescue items that are passed. Their prime maybe have begun to spoil little bit. I thought about this and wondered
it would really gross you out. Tracy causing food safety is important yeah, but most of the time of things that make things spoil, aren't the same things that make use
right so like. If there's a little mould on the bread digging just cut that piece of bread yeah reading, some of these are
Oh don't eat that, but yeah sure. But again it's not the same constant supply that we would have now, so you would have had to rescue things one of the rare,
peace in this first section that I of course gravitated.
who is for a rose. Why men, it reads: make
Wine in this manner rose pedals the lower,
part removed, so
into a linen bag immersed in wine for seven days, thereupon at a sack,
new pebbles, which allow to draw for another seven days again removed
old, petals and replace them by fresh ones for another week, then
strain the wine through the calendar before
having add honey, sweetening to taste, take care that
we, the best petals free from, do be used for soaking, there's, also a recipe for real
wine made without roses using citrus leaves of substitute sneaky
the advice on keeping oysters instructs the reader simply to quote fuming
of vinegar barrel with pitch wash it
with vinegar and stack the oysters in it see that's a little girls are to me,
I dont know why an oyster stack kind of ICT me out well, but the things in oysters that might make one ill will definitely just multiple tell with anyway book to is titled minces and it gives recipes for making several kinds of sausage meet puddings and meet loaves, for example, to make a cuttlefish, croquettes quote the meat is separated from bones. Skin chopped fine and pounded in the mortar shape the force meat into neat, croquettes and cook them in lick women they are displayed.
finally on a large dish, so support cook it fine school, get this cook it book. Three is the gardener and there are dozens of recipes to prepare fruits and vegetables in the swim, including
pumpkin melon cabbage cauliflower beats turnips carrots parsnips
the others. Vegetable dishes, promoting good health, are feature
In many cases there are numerous preparation descriptions for any given ingredient, for example.
There is a recipe for general pumpkin or squash preparation involving human stock and pepper, and then some
pumpkin alexandrine boiled pumpkin, fried pumpkin, which I kind of want to try doing
can boiled and ride. Mashed, pumpkin and pumpkin stewed with
him and then garnished with hard skin, peaches and truffles? The beat preparation is quite interesting quote: to make a dish of beats that will appeal to your taste, slice, leaks and crushed coriander and human. Add Raven wine boil all down to perfection
bind. It serve separate from the broth with oil and vinegar. Why is it a bee recipe big made, a full geeks? Will there be?
authority a mere in the Luke's added the follow up recipe for beats, which is simple
listed as another way and the english translation says, quote: cook the beef with mustard seed and serve them well, pickled in a little oil and
nigger, it's more like a letter from your Nana cookbook, just cooking the forest book.
is titled miscellaneous and features boiled dinners, finely minced dishes porridge group.
And a section headed as appetising dishes. That means appetizers not just things that are yummy
a number of pies listed here, but these are generally savory pies. Even the pumpkin pie that they list here is really more of liquor, a roasted pumpkin with pepper book five as legume so its full
PS, lentils and beans and there's a particular recipe in this section that than usual felling
notes in his translation that there's nothing quite comparable to it in any other source, and this is a layered dish which the translation calls peas, supreme style sort of like a layered casserole that has layers of crushed nuts cooked peas, sausage, bacon,
leaks and diced meets all on hand with a layer of peas over each other ingredient. Rights, then quote baked thoroughly, and a sauce is made with the yolks of hard boiled eggs, white, pepper, honey, white wine and broth heated in a saucepan.
I try that honestly, I wouldn to it's like p lasagna and it sounds kind of fascinating to me and I would probably eat it book six delves into ways to cook
all, including birds that you might expect like chicken goose in duck, but also
cream ostrich. Peacock parent and the previously mentioned flamingo- and this is where a piggy.
Covers how to prepare quote birds of all kinds that have a go dish, smell, which has followed by
section titled, another treatment of odor, so there is definitely a good bit.
advice about masking items that have basically gone off or starve. It hurt it smell a little gamey
Why birds with goodish spell just sounds like the title of a poem to me an book seven. The text covers some. She was dish is, as you might expect, these are all very rich. Most of the dishes are made with fatty cuts of meets this recipe for fresh ham mentions gingerbread, but this wouldn't have been a sweet. It would have been more like a biscuit. He bread made with savory spices, quote a fresh hammers cooked with two pounds of barley and twenty five figs
when done skin glaze the surface with a fire shovel full of glowing coals spread honey, you it or what's better put it in the oven covered with honey when it has an ice color put in a saucepan Raven wine, pepper, a bunch of rule and pure wine to taste when this is done. Poor half of it over the ham and in the other half soaked specially made gingerbread in the remnant of the sauce after most of it is thoroughly soaked into the bread. Add to the ham sounds kind of interesting as well
I think a lot of, depending on exactly what the consistency of that gingerbread right. If it's been Gideon, you soak it and saw that actually sounds pretty mummy. It's like biscuits,
wine. Gravy bookseller
also offers up some sweeter fair. So that's mostly very simple things like bread that has been.
soaked in milk and then fried and then covered with honey or date stuffed with nuts and then drivelled with honey? The ape the book as titled quadrupeds and it encompasses everything from wild.
Or to dormouse game animals like venison, wild, goat and Gazelle are mentioned in the text, along with preparations and appropriate sauces.
Book nine cover see food
Am. I really love this when, of course it's on the Mediterranean, so seafood is prominent and broil lobster
recipe in this case evidences how they're just some food preparations that have persisted through time. This one reads:
make thus, if broiled, they should appear in their shell, which has opened
splitting the live lobster into season with peppers,
and coriander saws moisten with oil and broil them on the grill.
When they are dry, keep on basting them more and more with oil or butter until they are properly broiled, but ten is labelled. The fishermen and its largely a section on sauces, believed that this was probably in addition to the texts, as there are already plenty of seafood content and the book
then the chapters that come before it so having Rennell this. It's easy to see why scholars and historians have come to view the study of food and food preparation as such an important
of human history and any literal hundreds of recipes collected in this cookbook? It becomes pretty easy to consider both the difference.
and the similarities of our own tables and those of previous civilizations.
Right. The unusual nature of some of the ingredients, alot of the advice and direction and the epic its text as pretty similar to the way things are done today, all the way down to the tools and the words availing, which seemed like a good place to wrap this up quote our own age is but the grandchild
of antiquity. The words we utter in their roots are those of our grandfathers and so do many dishes. We eat
they resemble those once enjoyed by a piteous and his friends content
I have so many thoughts for Friday episode
yeah. We should probably all
I mention that, since this episode is sponsored by Pinterest, we have pinned some things in our pinterest that are related to this book and the recipes in it. Yes, it is fascinating and inspiring to look at all,
old recipes and wonder what one might do with them today will talk a little bit about that in in our Friday. Episode
but for now I have cooking related email about a different episode.
These are related to our recipe, Lydia Mariah child and its former listener Betsy, who writes dear Hollywood, Tracy Long time listening first time, ye may learn
I wanted to thank you for your most recent episode on one of my favorite people. Lydia Maria child Maria, has played an hour.
Sized role in my life and education, but there was a huge amount of
didn't know about her until I listened to your episode throughout
school. I in turn that old, stir bread, village, a living history, museum depicting life in the late eighteen, thirty New England, so learned a cook enlarge.
heart over an open hearth and using the recipes from her cookbook the frugal housewife.
I no longer work at that particular museum. But I use the skills I learned their daily for anyone curious her recipes called receive
skim easily be adapted to a modern, oven or stove. It's pretty easy to approximate
cooking times in temperatures for different kinds of food, the hard part.
Interpreting vocabulary that has changed. Indian meal is corn meal and a Gill is half a cup. I particularly like her curried foul ideal for old tough birds, but
in a grocery store. Chicken will do Indian,
putting caraway cakes in gingerbread a recipe
People enjoy learning about, though, in my experience it always comes out. Soggy is her recipe for cupcake, so nowadays cupcake is baked in a cup, but in MRS Childs Day cupcake was measured in cups. One cup butter took up sugar, three cups, flower and four eggs. I
The frugal housewife cover to cover numerous times, and I knew she had also written fiction and better
abolitionist, but I didn't know the extent of her activism, scholarly education or editorial
career. So thank you so much for giving me the opportunity to learn about her many accomplishments and then
she asked us for some sources which I will send her and then rights
So one of you mentioned something about how you were sceptical about there being deep snow in November in New England. That was me.
I am not able to verify this, but the excellent,
and I have been given in the past- is that we were still in the little ice age and also the date of Thanksgiving hadn't been standard I
Yet it was just when the governor wanted it to be so sometimes it was in December
once again, thanks to the episode and freer podcast in general, I listen in nearly every episode with interest and I've got several friends
and also my mother, who may listen to this episode with into the show your friend and Listener Betsy. Thank you so much Betsy. That's perfectly!
makes a little book end for this episode about cooking. To talk about a much more,
something but still something we have to interpret if we want to make those recipes today, gap and that that explanation of snow on Thanksgiving makes total sense to me and was just not stuff that, with at the top of my mind when
You waited on it now me either. Yes, so I hope everyone has inspired to eat something the wishes
with this, we would like to you can write us an email and tell us what you Etas cuts. Quits, better
history. By cast at I hurt radio dot com, you can also find us,
social media as missed in history, and if you would like us
driver, the show we would like you to do that. You can be them on the heart, radio app or wherever it is. You listened to Prague, castle stuff. You missed in history class the production of a heart radio for more part,
for my heart. Radio visit by her radio have added mankind's or wherever you listen.
they retain. This episode was brought to you by Pinterest,
Penrith is where you find and do the things you actually enjoy and for this episode we used its opinion, some things that inspired
and were inspired by research. For today's episode. Time is our most precious resource, and yet we give it up completely freely the things they give us nothing in return. Pinterest offers you an invitation to reclaim some of that.
so explorer with an experiment with it check out all those cooking things. You can do that on our Pinterest Board and surprise yourself with what you can get into on Pinterest
Transcript generated on 2021-07-03.