In the early 20th century in Germany, Emmy Noether pursued a career in mathematics, despite many obstacles in her path. She became one of the most respected members of her field, and developed mathematical theory that's still important today.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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to define destinations, dot, com and scroll down to the roman foreign strip with stuffy. Mr district lass stuff you missed in history, has struck works, not welcomed by Molly tried, I'm tracing the lives and today we're going to talk about a subject that was directly inspired by a listener. Mail and we're gonna talk in some detail about that listener. Mail at the end, but just noted it did and well credit the person when we get to the end, because it's pretty speeches It did and well credit the person when we get to the end, because it's pretty spectacular, we're gonna die when I really am asian of her name is a matter of some debate here at the office on live through, so it's Emily Carter, you'll, sometimes also hear pronounced more like nature. well and when I looked at for well that One german speaker pronounced that more, like NATO.
yeah, and I was like we can't say it that way: that's not gonna work, so I think we decided we're gonna hover right around murder that within our possible respects to me- and I hope we do not offend- her ghost should it exists or german speakers. Northern Ireland speakers are people who love math and love her as a figure, so we're just temperate into talking about her Amy, Osborne, Emily Emmy nurture on March twenty third eighteen. Eighty two in her lying in Germany and her father MAX nurture was a mathematician Her mother IDA, Amelia Kaufman, was from a very well to do family and after Emmy was born MAX, and I had we sons, other two of them died when they were very young. Only brother Fritz survives to adulthood. Young child by most accounts, Emmy did not really stand out, as especially gifted she's a bright child, but nobody's like this is the future of mathematics. She attended
state girl, school inner long in from eighteen. Eighty nine eighty, ninety seven studying the basics of school curriculum and she also piano lessons actually learn to speak French and English and, as she grew into her ten years, she dancing and she was known as a very friendly, clever girl when she was team. She was certifying to teach both French and English and the series of exams that she had to go through to get this sort of vocation was pretty strenuous. They took four days for her to do this, but instead settling into a career teaching, girls, schools. She decided that she would go to university in study. Mathematics, and this is a pretty big jumped. suddenly make- and we don't know why am I had this sudden shifting interests her life up to this Why have seem to follow a pretty standard course for young women in that period. I'm in Germany from it, the actual middle class family. You know she would potentially get married, but if not, she had this backup job as a teacher
and none of her personal writing from this time has survived to offer us any clues. Why she suddenly decided that what she really wanted was to pursue a mathematics courier? We did it wasn't a completely foreign subject to her her brother, It was studying mathematics at the time and her father also entertained other mathematicians and their home from time to time that she had been around the subject of math, her whole life. So while it seem like quite a shift to go from teaching french and English to studying math. It was something that was completely new to her. Just the same, though this desire to take university courses was incredibly ambitious, so schooling, that girls received at this time in Germany, was vastly different from the way that the boys were educated. The goal for a girl school was to turn out proper young ladys or trade worker depending on the young woman family background, when they just simple not receive the kind of edge
national groundwork. That would make a transition to university studies. A natural step, This is exactly how it was that she arrived at this decision and we went to the University of our Lange and to continue her education, but because was a woman, and it was nineteen hundred she couldn't just enrolling classes. She had to get special permits and from every instructor of every class and then she didn't actually in role as a regular student. She could only audit the class she had to you. again get special permission to actually take the exams from the instructors yeah, so she really had to jump through every imaginable hoop just to get this math education, It decided she wanted. In July, nineteen o three Emmy took the enrollment exam for the university at the Royal gymnasium in Nuremberg and she passed basic. proving at that point that she was even with male classmates, despite having missed their educational background.
through the examined the summer, and we started on being advanced mathematics, horses at the university of getting in, and that started Winter of nineteen o three or four during these winter courses. She learned from teachers who would make incredible contributions in the world of mathematics, Hermine Cows, for example, develop the geometry of numbers. He contributed to number theory. Emmy worked on relativity, influencing his famous student Albert Einstein and David Bert. Another of her instructor set the foundations for functional analysis field climb influence the development of mathematics. Is it related to representing the properties of space and spatial relations through geometry? So she was from serious heavy hitters, but it don't you or she went back to the university of our long and because the school had started actually accepting women as for real legitimate students on October twenty four, nineteen o for she was officially enrolled as student number four eighty six and she was
the only woman student in a field of forty seven he's mentor during this time was Paul Gordana, who was a friend of her fathers, as well as an influential mathematician in his own right. And then we had known him since she was just a child. He was very close to their family, and here from described a sort of a second father figure to her. He went however, in terms of personality in stark contrast to her father MAX air. Her was gentle and warm. He was passionate about his work, but he is. I was described a sort of having this overlying sense of calm about him Gordon who is nicknamed the king of invariant theory, was unlike MAX the more dramatic figure he was empty. Save II, was expressed even very unbridled ways. He was given wild gesticulation, while he was talking, which I can identify with.
And he was the only doctorates didn't, that's that he ever mentor and she was really devoted to him. She kept a photo of him on her wall for the rest of her life. It's interesting and people describe enemies, behaviour she is sometimes described as having traits that are in some ways more similar to and her father. Like she, too, was given serious gesticulation and kind of would make methods and be very dramatic and very excited and so passionate that you can have least herself but She received her Phd in mathematics from Ere. Long several years as Gordon's protegee and her thesis. a dissertation on algebraic, in variance with she successfully defended on December thirteenth of nineteen o seven, she was given degree, sumac Laddie A on July second of the following year, the timing- really significant, because covered classes were not a thing in Germany until nineteen o eight the year after that successfully defended her thesis.
Any woman who had gone through the education system prior to that had like every had to get special permission and was not granted equal student status yeah just for clear, de. We mention that she returned to her long it because they were doing up in terms of Germany. Wide women were still not considered equal until that year. After she defended her thesis nineteen o eight Emily Did the international mathematical Congress in Rome, ITALY and she attended that, along with her father, she said this still a young woman in relatively unknown, despite sort of making this name self has an unusual figure. Being a woman in a very male dominated field, so it seems that there particular conference. She really kept up fairly low profile after Miss received her phd. She continued her research work at airline and, although she wasn't paid for any of this work, she has done her father in his research and then she was invited in nineteen o eight to join that. Your call,
I did, in nineteen o eight to join that your collar mathematical in ITALY and then in nineteen o nine, the german method. professional lecture was in nineteen o nine at the Salzburg meeting of the German mathematically union. she lectured at the Vienna chapter of the group several years later in nineteen thirteen, and not long after that. She also started guess lecturing for her father as a substitute and during this, period, although, as we said, we don't have writings from her. So we don't really know how this impact at her, but surely it did, Emily Mentor poverty and died in nineteen twelve, so just as her career was taking off so next up we're glad. about a significant move and Emily Life, but before that, let's have a word from one of our often sponsors who keep the lights on here. Our studio that sounds grand this episode of stuff you miss than history glasses, brought to you by love Book
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after Albert Einstein had published his theory of general relativity incline and hill Bird wanted nurture to work with them on unravelling the mathematics that were involved in Einstein's work, and there too, published several papers of her own by this time and she had really exhibited some insightful approaches to mathematical concepts. Issue is the perfect candidate to assist Hildy inclines work. She went to get again, but this move turned out to be Strangely controversial many faculty met, has objected to the idea of a woman on the teaching staff if Emmy network. Be granted faculty status. Halbert incline wanted, hurts you at least have what's called a private debts and which is a position similar to oppose stock. It would have given at least and officially recognised post within their getting an educational system, would so grant her sufficient title and permission to teach for
this- is to be accepted and for her to be granted. This prevent don't send the entire philosophy faculty had to vote on it, This umbrella of philosophy keep in mind, included, not only philosophy but also history, natural sciences and mathematics, and it turned out that the mass people there or were pretty cool with me, but the now mathematics people and makes were really vehemently arguing against having a woman teach students the arguments against nurture were that giving her a provocative position. Moat would mean that she was on track to be faculty and what, with returning soldiers think when they came back to war to find their supposed to take classes. I'm a woman, you have it framed it like what a slap in the face that would be these young men who had gone to defend the the ideal. Germany and they then come back and find a lady teacher.
yeah and keep in mind. This wasn't even soldier saying this. This is kind of the weird trumped up argument that the Non Mathematics faculty was trying to put together to keep em in their turn off of their cookie, its club and her Mentor and now colleague, Hubert's response was gentlemen I do not see that the sex of the candidate is an argument against her admission as a private doesnt. After all, The Senate is not a bath house and he meant, like the educational Senate, not their governments in it, and his argument, though, didn't sway. The detractors and Emmy was not granted this title helper Klein had the convention in order to stay. These reasons, but she couldn't. Actually under her own name, so they had become up with a sneaky kind of work around the lectures were stayed under filberts name but nurse
the state Underhill Birds name that nurture was the one you actually delivered them. Yes, she worked under his name for nineteen eighteen, however, has been doing this sort of sneaky workaround plan for several years? At this point she had develops through her work with silver and climb nervously which deals with the relation between what are known as the cemeteries with physical system and its concept? laws. So among the revelations of this theorem is the linkage between time and energy directly relating idea of conservation of energy, so that, in case you ve not remember, is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but merely in this form. This is incredibly significant stuff It is really a huge part of physics, as we know it right.
incredibly important concept, a theoretical physics and her peers at the time recognised its significance. So much so that the following year, Emmy note was finally officially racking recognised as an academic lecture with the private zones and title that we ve been talking about for so long the lecture without she no longer had to lecture under a mailman towards name- and this was easily incredibly significance, but it's not maybe the huge win that we would all be hoping for. because just to be clear at this point Amy nurture, was in her thirty's. She had published numerous influential and important papers and she was working with the best mathematicians at the time as a result, peer of theirs on the mathematics of relativity and aspire all of that she had up to this official. You no kind of track to be it in a faculty position. Zero stability or safety in her career, but
even though she now had a title that made it ok for her to lecture ass herself, her position did not actually come within. You pay he could not get any pay is a lecturer until nineteen twenty three four years after she was made a pivotal year weed I know exactly where the money was coming, that supported her. This is one of those kind of wiggly fuzzy points, presumably she was getting some from like a family fund and possibly sort of private grants from other mathematicians, but we don't really know nineteen. Twenty she collaborated with colleagues, Verna Schmid learn to write concerning modulation, non community, his fields, particularly in differential and Fritz terms in this like really establish sleep without question nurture as a mathematician at the very top of her field, while the start
world, where one kept her from travelling to speak it gatherings of mathematicians starting a nineteen twenty. She was often on the road lecturing throughout Germany and for eighteen, twenty two, nineteen, twenty six nurtures work focused on. What's called general theory of ideals, no more commonly in modern times as competitive algebra. Her worker, this time united a lot of different mathematical concepts. But this was in terms of her personal life, a period of ups and downs for Emmi in nineteen twenty one, for example her father died. So at this point she was left without both of her father figure. Men towards in mathematics, and in the middle of all that work. As we said, she was given a lecture ships civically an outbreak in nineteen. Twenty three does too later amused. First student to complete a doctorate under her mentorship receive her phd and we had mentored another woman, Gretta Herman through her thesis process and Herman finished her doctorate. In February, nineteen. Twenty five
around nineteen, twenty four while she was working with Gerda, Herman and lecturing and doing her research nurture. at the centre of the sort of interesting. walking in talking phenomenon on campus suited Some scholars alike would take long walks with Emmy around the school grounds talking about what else mathematics a theory and this in my group, which came to be known as nurtures boys included rush scholar, Pavel Alexandrovna, who was a visiting professor from the University of Moscow Better and Alexander became friends, and she was, actually invited to Moscow as a guest lecturer in the nineteen twenty eight twenty nine academic year. This was the only international recognition you she was receiving during this time there. She also delivered a paper at the international mathematical Congress in Bologna, ITALY, that was a nineteen twenty eight
a few years later in nineteen thirty two. She addressed the same group in Zurich so He twenty seven nurtures focus shifted almost exclusively to non competitive algebra, and these are how to browse where the order in which the numbers are multiplied affects the outcome and nervous Work in this area yielded a theory that enable the conceptual unification of all of them and her work in this phase of her career. She collaborated with Helmut Hoss and Richard Brower and publish papers, hyper complex number systems in their representation in nineteen, twenty nine and non competitive algebra in nineteen. Thirty, three from ninety Thirty two nineteen thirty three. She also worked as an editor on the german mathematical annual throughout all her research writing and editing. She was also still teaching regularly, but even so still employed at a level. Are below what her colleagues thought she deserved.
Even as male mathematicians, were rising up through the ranks in the gutting in educational system, at a rate that really easily outpaced Emmi. They were hugely influenced by her work that many of them tried to point out how wrong this was in trying to protect petition for an improved title on her behalf It generally came to not with the greater university system, but in terms of the mathematics world. She was regarded not just disappear, but as a leader at this point, nine in thirty three would prove to be a pivotal year for Nurture Edward to talk about it after a pause chat about one of our asses sponsors who keep our show going. This episode of stuff, you missed in history glasses, brought to you by Norton three sixty with life. Luck with your shopping online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going
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twenty five percent or more of your first year go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, Dotcom, slash history for twenty five percent off. In nineteen thirty, three Germany changed obviously pretty If, when the Nazi Party came into power every nerve, who was jewish, lost her job, as did many of her colleagues, the Nazi Party had actually The number of laws that were intended Jews out of civil service jobs and that included academics for a while Emma gave informal lectures at her home and she certainly had students who were eager to continue learning from her. She was apparently not even bothered when a student or two you showed up in their nazi uniforms. She just wants to talk about math. Meanwhile, her friend, Pavel Alexandra was working to get the University of Moscow to appoint her to a position in his efforts.
we're really passionate, but they were giving slow response and finally, We just had to make a decision about her future as tensions mounted in Germany. She left in October, nineteen, thirty three to move to the United States she'd been for a one year, guess, professor spot it Bryn Mawr College, unbeknownst to nurture when she accepted the offer. The schools also setting up a graduate fellowship in her name for the academic year. She would be teaching there. She asked lectured and work on her math research in Princeton, New Jersey, at the institute for Advanced study and while dressed in her lectures, was initially slow to catch on. Eventually, Emmy did get a following of students and she sort of found this mirror group to the nurse her boys of getting in, but this group was called there's your girls and they would go on hikes on saturdays all the while
just ass! She had in Germany discussing mathematical concepts her one year invitation to teach it Renoir was extended. The following academic year of nineteen, thirty, four thirty five, but before it started back to Germany, to visit her brother Fritz and his family before they moved to Siberia, for a teaching position there, like Emmy lost his job at the Institute of Technology under the nazi government Emmy also visited her old campus and her friends it gutting in, but she soon back to Pennsylvania for another year at Bryn, Mawr enduring hers, year there, she mentored her first american Phd candidates, A young woman named Ruth how far the life of We need better, and rather abruptly in the spring of team, thirty five she went into the hospital to haven't ovarian sister, moved and whilst he seemed to be recovering well initially, she died quite suddenly. On April. Fourteen four days after her surgery, Joseph
weeks later on May third of nineteen. Thirty five, the New York Times ran a letter that was written by Albert Einstein about Emmy Nutter and he wrote within the past few days a distinguished methods. professor Emmy Neuter formerly connected with the university of getting in and for the past two years at Bryn. Mawr college died in her fifty third year and the judgment of the most complex living mathematicians, Fraeulein It was the most significant creative mathematical genius, thus far produced since the higher education of women began and the Roma. algebra and which the most gifted mathematicians have been busy for centuries. She discovered methods which have proved of enormous importance in the development of the present day, younger generation of mathematicians. Now, while we have reached the point in any story where she has departed, this earthly plain There's a little bit more to talk about in terms of her politics and the reason
putting that this at the end is because the primary information we have about it isn't from things that came up in her actual lifetime or again, her writings, if you dont have its, does it I've been eulogies memorials from colleagues after her death, specifically two of them in nineteen nineteen nurture joined the independent social Democrats group in getting in and some, the group was considered an extremely radical bolshevik group. It was a splinter groups that broke away from the social. democratic Party in nineteen fourteen as a centrist group between the Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party of Germany, the two of her close and fellow mathematicians interpret her politics and very differently when they spoke about her life First Herman, while why can analysis, number theory, foundational, mathematics and quantum mechanics among other areas, and he met neuter in getting in nineteen.
Thirteen, and they remained quite close throughout the rest of my life and then, while folk of any political stance. It was very much in the vain that she was a pacifist and she definitely was. We know that The great hopes for Germany's future and that really she saw the independent social Democrats as well. stage of the social Democrats, not as a radical shift, but as a gradual evolution and he, the root of Emmy. That quote, without being we in party life, she participated intensely in the discussion of the social and political problems of the day. On the other hand, Pablo Alexander off characterized Emmy is very pro soviet. He said that, She always had a lively interest in politics and hated war and chauvinism in all its forms and, with her whole, being heard These were always unwavering lay with the Soviet Union, so it seems based on the facts Alexander Off was working to get any opposition in Moscow in nineteen thirty, three that she was comfortable with the idea of living in the Soviet Union and the boss.
Big revolution took place while she was working and academia, though it's really unlikely that she was blind or ignorant to their political events that were playing out around her. But since then These men likely saw Emmy political stance through their own lenses and in the way they wished to see her, and since we do not have any of her own writing on the subject reference, we really don't where she truly stood. What's really The spirit of all is that any nurture with a major figure and mathematics, both in her time and today, as many others have built upon her work, She seems simply unflappable in the face of the difficulties we face, the she made a name for herself in a field that had very few women in it. And so I wanted to end with a quote from her friend Pablo Alexander off, because it describes Emmy in such a way that I think anybody would want to know her. It says quote her great sense of humor. made social gatherings and personal contacts with her so pleasant and they
her to counter the injustices in absurdities that beset her academic career easily and without anger. In such circumstances, instead of being offended. She would simply laugh but she was very offended indeed and protested sharply, when even smallest injustice was directed at one of her students. I love that cloak There is really no substantiation in any way, but there are. It will come up as theory, sometimes that she was connected romantically too while or Alexander off other. We don't know, and none of them, none of their letters ever hinted any of that. So we just have no idea, but we didn't choose very close with both of those men. So I love that that sort of lovely description of her now? What the listener mail. It inspired this whole thing and this listener mark. Who is amazing and he writes, I hope, Tracy I enjoyed listening to your pot cast. I thought you might like a laser engraving of one of my favorite mathematicians, Emmi Nerd, her I did it
leaving on one millimetre aircraft, plywood hoping that would make it a little more unique. I listened your packets. I'm on the road or in the lab. A guitar lab really keep up your great work and Since this absolutely beautiful engraving of emmy- and I just was so struck by it- that we had to do an episode, yeah. I work post picture of it, it's great it's so we ve got how I don't normally work in the same office is Holly anymore and so highly will semi pictures of the thing you come into the office and are amazing, and that was one kept zoom in on my phone. Amazingly text the origin it like woe, it's happening through the ordinary beautiful. I love it mark. Thank you so much I was so thoughtful and cool, and I appreciate that you took time to make us a really fabulous. Gift were very, very lucky few like to write to us. You can do so at history. Pike after house works, dot com were also Facebook com, Slash missed in history at Twitter, at missed in history,
I'm Pinterest our com, Slash missed in history and seeing a mist industry theme. It continues, Mr History, that tumblr com. history, that spreadsheet dot com. If you want to pick up some missed in history, goodies for your person or your parcels, we're pal. going our that, whereas on Instagram amendments in history you want to see them I'm silly and sometimes informative photos about history and the things we cover. If you do a little bit of search related to what we talked about today. Even more apparent site house works and you can tell them how math works fine, you get a family was article written by Robert from stuff to fill your mind about, because they want to read about bad. Don't say you don't guess it's really interest we would like to visit us. He could do so. It must industry dot com where we have all of episodes archive from forever. We have shown notes from any episodes Tracy, and I have worked out over the last few
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