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Eunice Newton Foote

2021-09-08 | 🔗

In 1856, Foote became the first person to make a connection between the Earth’s temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, though she’s rarely credited for it. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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hello, and welcome to depart gas time Tracy Wilson and I'm Holly fried we have done various episodes related to the environment on the show before so things like that to Nora Smog, Cuyahoga River fires and the London smog of nineteen. Fifty two you talked about extinctions and our twenty eighteen episode on emblems about invasive species and our said, on Australia's rabbit, proof fence and then, in more recent times in our episode on cuts you that came out not too long ago. While all of these topics are, late to the environment and humans in India. Breathe impacts on the environment, not really about climate, I know that we ve ever talked about the climate in terms of like the current climate crisis. We ve talked about things like the year without a summer which was a
a climactic phenomenon a year we ve talked about ways. Different scientists have measured various aspects of the climate, a little bit yeah. Some of that has come up in an earthquake. Yet not climate itself, specifically yeah and the warming of the climate I in particular, which is an ongoing emergency. Obviously, so today, We are going to remedy that we're going to talk about Eunice Newton Foot and in eighteen. Fifty six. She became the first person to make a connection between the earth's temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere that credit, though you sure, goes to John Tyndall, who made the same connection a few years later. Yunus Newton was, born in Goshen Connecticut on July, seventeenth, eighteen, nineteen and she was baptized on September, twenty ninth of that year, her father
name was Isaac, Newton Junior, which is a delightful coincidence, considering universes path in life and her there's name, was Thursday and Yunus was the eleventh of their twelve children Isaac, not a scientist or a philosopher, but a few my and, although he seems to have been very successful at this, he also liked to invest in various business ventures, and these did not always work out and by the time he died in eighteen, thirty, five. He was deeply in debt sometime after Yunus was born, but well before her father's death, the family moved to EAST Bloomfield, New York, and that's where units Parents would live for the rest of their lives and really beyond that. We just don't know much about her early life accepted in eighteen. Thirty, six when she was about seventeen, she enrolled at Troy. Female seminary that later became known as the Emma Willard School after its founder its past,
both that Yunus left journals, correspondence or other personally counts of her time. And truly or other times in her life. But if she did, they have not been brought to light suited really know much more about her time at the seminary than we do about her earlier life. But there are a couple of conclusions that we can draw one as that: her education there would have had a really strong foundation and science and that's something that wasn't really typical for a women's school. At the time Emma Willard correspond did and collaborated with Amis eaten, who was co founder of the Rensselaers school. That's now Rensselaers Polytechnic info. I was about seven miles or eleven kilometers away from Troy. Even was a natural scientist and on educational reformer, and his reforms included a focus on learning by doing rather than focusing on memory zation, so the words curriculum for the women Seminary incorporated a lot of these ideas, so Yunus word
only have attended lecturers on the scientists. She also would have learned designing and conducting experiments as part of scientific study. Its also possible that UNICEF time at the seminary influenced connection that would happen later in her life, unison, the seminary from eighteen, thirty, six to eighteen, thirty, eight and later on. She would live near and work with Elizabeth Katy Stanton, who graduated from Troy female Seminary in eighteen, thirty two, so it is possible, but not really documented anywhere- that these two women felt a connection thanks to their having gone to the same war on August, twelfth eighteen, forty one when Yunus was twenty two she married Eliza Foot who was about ten years older than she was after their marriage. They move to Seneca falls New York, also home to Elizabeth Katy, stand at one point: Eliza ACT,
bought the home. That's known today as the Elizabeth Katy Stanton House, although it doesn't look like the first ever lived in that house, both of units and alive children were born in Seneca falls and those were Mary who was born on July. Twenty first of eighteen, forty two augusta who was born October, twenty fourth eighteen, forty, four in eighteen, forty eight, while living in Seneca falls, both units and Eliza were involved with the women's Rights Movement and the Seneca false convention. Yunus was one of the five women on the committee that was tasked with keeping the key
prince proceedings, she and Eliza also both signed the declaration of sentiments that was crafted during the convention on most reproductions. Of that document, unison, signature is fifth. After Lucretia, Mont Harriet Katy eaten Margaret Prior Elizabeth Katy Stanton again, we don't have a lot of personal remembrance of her, but all of this suggests that she was an active and involved participant in this phase of the women's rights. some movement in the United States, while living in Seneca falls. Yunus became a member of the American, our union, which works to promote the creation and sale of american art. Eliza became district attorney for Seneca key tea and then a judge of the court of common. Please, eventually, the foot moved from Seneca falls to Saratoga Springs. New York,
and regardless of where they lived, both Eliza and Union seem to have both been really interested in experiments and inventions. Their published work suggests that they set up laboratories in their home what were they did experimental work that they hoped would be worthy of publication? This includes the papers that were read at the American Association for the advancement of science meeting in eighteen, fifty six, which is where we are at chronologically in this story.
but we're going to have a lengthy discussion of UNICEF scientific work later so. For now, we will move on to the rest of what we know about her life, in addition to their published scientific work, both Eliza and Yunus, applied for and were granted multiple patents Yunus as patents included, one for a quote filling for souls of boots and shoes. This kept the boots and the shoes from squeaking that patent was issued in eighteen. Sixty later, she developed a paper making machine according to a favourable right up of this machine in the Boston posts in eighteen. Sixty four one Massachusetts paper maker that put this invention and to use was saving a hundred and fifty seven dollars a day and materials should have been A significant amount in eighteen, sixty four that same article suggested that wrapping and printing papers that were made using this method would cost two or zero dollars and three cents less per pound than other paper did
of a specialities as an attorney was patent law, and he represented himself in legal disputes involving his patterns and send some of his power. We're financially valuable. There were several of those four ample one of his inventions was a device to regulate the draft of stoves, and a dispute over this patent lead all the way to the: U S Supreme Court in sills, Beaver his foot. This is obviously too convoluted a case to be summed up in an episode that is now about a or potentially even just that case, but a similar device already existed when foots patent was granted. But this case also just includes a ton of back and forth about who had been allowed to introduce what into evidence and how much money was owed to whom was a big tangle, not really in the scope of TIM Acres ship up when we ve done Supreme Court cases on this
before I have usually really enjoyed reading the text of the Supreme Court decision, but this one just made my eyes cross. I was a cat What are you even saying here so in eighteen, sixty four, though Eliza was appointed to the? U S, patent office board of Appeals and then in eighteen sixty eight. He became the Eleventh Commissioner of patents for the United States. His work at the patent office would have required him to be in Washington, Didn, see by this point the foot, daughters, Marian Augusta were grown. They were soon to be married. It's not entirely clear whether they and Yunus went with him, but we do No, that Yunus did at least visit on April, sixteenth eighteen, sixty eight Susan be Anthony's newspaper. The revolution published a piece by Elizabeth Katy Stanton, which recounted a trip to Washington DC. It read in part, quote, Judge Foot and
scientific wife, escorted us to the patent office which, like all other, depart of government, we are told, is used for political ends. We did go there, however, to lay bare its corruptions and favouritism, but merely that we might have it in our power to refute the assertion of the Reverend Doktor Todd Terrapin by Gale Hamilton, who, in his recent attack on his fair three women said that there had been no inventors among our sex and they are. We, found many witnesses against the unhappy Todd. Mrs Yunus foot has her I've taken out several patents and is occupied at this time making a new kind of paper about later Stanton went on to say quote MRS Foot remarked to us that she had no doubt that here ass the patents there worthy inventions of women, but as men,
have the money to get up the models and loved notoriety. They had been taken out in their names. If the Reverend Todd will take the trouble to investigate this matter for himself, he will no doubt find this to be true. Eliza was the commissioner of patents for a little less than a year until April of eighteen, sixty nine, and then he returned to his private law practice by the late eighteen, seven, is he in Yunus had moved to Saint Louis to live with their daughter, Mary who had married John, be Henderson? Henderson had served as the who s Senator for Missouri from eighteen, sixty two to eighteen, sixty nine and was co author of the thirteenth amendment to the? U S: constitution, which outlawed slavery, except us, punishment for a crime, and this is another one of those moments were not really having a lot of personal accounts about or from her means. We don't know a lot of what was going on behind the scenes. So this whole stretch, a note- has happened over a period of time that included the you.
civil war- and we just don't- have a lot of information about anything in their lives. Related to that we can reasonably conclude, though, that their daughter marrying the co author of the thirteenth Amendment to the constitution, probably means that they were all against slavery in this context, but not something that's particularly written down anywhere. Yet one would hope, but, as we know which today not ever when in a family feels this equal pay up. Now, I'm not everybody in New York or the other places they live was totally aligned on that. Even though these states in question had outlet slavery by the time the civil war started anyway, to return to story. Elijah died of heart disease at the Henderson Home on October, twenty second eighteen, eighty three and UNICEF life after that point, pretty much a mystery. She died on September, thirtieth, eighteen, eighty, eight and Linux Massachusetts at the age of sixty nine.
see and Eliza were entered in the foot, family, mausoleum and Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn New York, according to a nineteen fifteen new family genealogy that was compiled by arena. Newton Leonard Yunus was quote a fine portrait and landscape painter. she was an inventive genius and a person of unusual beauty. No picture of no survives at least not one that has been on earth yet, but her science writing does and we'll talk more about that after a sponsor break protecting veterans? Is the department of Veterans Affairs top priority during the pandemic, all veterans, their spouse, is an their caregivers can receive safe and effective covert. Nineteen vaccinations for free from Visa, the science behind the vaccine has been in development four year, so it was able to be quickly deployed to protect against covert nineteen. The delta variant is spreading, quick, ie and covered cases and hospitalizations are on the rise. Those who have not been back
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White containers or visit proven winners, color choice, dot, com with Amazon Prime such a prescription. Compare prices across pharmacies save high five yourself find them s price for your prescriptions with Amazon. Prime time changes. Everything, The american associate for the advancement of science was established in Boston in eighteen, forty seven and it held its first meeting. in Philadelphia in eighteen. Forty eight. The organizations purpose was to both promote in advance science and to that end an official membership roster, but it also array annual meetings there were open to the public in terms membership in those early years. There were no strict criteria. Anyone was nominated with some one else. Seconding. The nomination was admitted as a member. It was increased
we rare for someone to be denied and for the most part, once you remember, you were a member for life as long as you paid your dues but that rule only came into being after the organization realised that there were a lot of people on its membership list who were not paying dues and work really active anymore. I was one of those moments where people were looking at the membership. Less like are these people. Are there even still alive? I don't really know. Eliza foot was elected to the American Association for the advancement of science. At its tempt me in which was held in Albany New York in August of eighteen. Fifty six and at that meeting he also read a paper that he had written, which was titled on the heat of the sun's rays. According to the programme, he was to read his paper on Friday August, twenty second, but some accounts place. It is happening on the twin
Third Yunus, as paper is listed in the programme immediately after relations, with a note that it was to be read by Professor Henry, that was Professor Joseph Henry, who was the first secretary of the Smithsonian institution and a past president of the Tripoli, es, although the programme that was printed ahead of the meeting shows both of the foots papers with the same title when UNICEF was printed later it was, with the title circumstances affecting the heat of the sun's rays. Soap. Side. Note here reasons that are not clear to me at all, neither Eliza nor Unison papers was printed in the proceedings of this eighteen. Fifty six AAA s
meeting, nor were they included in the list of papers that were not being printed because their authors hadn't turned in a copy to be printed, which delights me that that was a list in there and that there were seven these six papers on it, which just feels like a lap its tricky to tell how that number of seventy six papers compared to the total number of papers. That were red, though, because in the programme some of the papers were read more than once. So I tried to figure that out to building ok, how many people read a paper and didn't turn a copy, the paper and then I was like I would have to prevent all this thing out and cross off. Duple it's an that's just not happening today, so both these papers there were later printed in volume. Twenty two of the American Journal of Science and arts that was in November of eighteen. Fifty six each of the papers was noted as having been read at the Tripoli S meeting. So it's just
kind of a mystery exactly what went on in terms of the proceedings given their son their subject matter and some common elements in their methods, it's likely that Eliza and Yunus collaborated with one another on their experiments in their papers. Alliances used a variety of set ups to compare the ambient temperature to the temperature that the thermometer recorded when it was placed in the sun measuring what he called the quote: relative heat of the sun's rays which got stronger when the ambient temperature was hotter, he also did the same experiment using a burning glass to focus the sun's rays. Unicef experiment looked at how the heat of the sun effect
different gases and her words quote. The experiments were made with an air pump and two cylindrical receivers of the same size about four inches in diameter and thirty in length in each were placed two thermometers and the air was exhausted from one and condensed and the other after both had acquired the same temperature. They were placed in the sun side by side and while the action of the sun's rays rose to a Odin, ten degrees in the condensed tube it attained only eighty eight degrees and the other she concluded in this part of the paper. That quote, this circumstance must affect the power of the sun's rays in different places and contribute to their feeble action on the summits of lofty mountains. She does specify what these cylinders were made of, but they were presumably glass. Yunus repeated the same, Paramount, using air that had been saturated with moisture in one tube and air that had been dried with calcium, claw
ride in the other, and she found that when the cylinders were placed in the sun, the air that was full of waterways got hotter than the drier did and third, she repeated the same experiment with common air in one tube and carbonic acid gas, which was the term used at the time for carbon dioxide in the other. She wrote quote the highest effect of the sun's rays. I have found to be in carbonic acid gas. She also noted that quote the receiver containing the gas became itself much heated very sensibly, more so than the other, and
being removed. It was many times as long in cooling foot concluded by saying of the carbonic acid gas quote an atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a high temperature and, if, as some suppose, at one period of its history, the air had mixed with it. A larger proportion than at present an increase temperature from its own action, as well as from increased weight, must have necessarily resulted on comparing the sun's heat, indifferent gases I found it to be in here- bridging gas, one hundred four degrees in common air, one hundred six degrees in oxygen gas, one hundred eight degrees and incur make acid gas one hundred twenty five degrees. The significance of this wasn't really understood at the time, but this makes Yunus Newton foot the first pillar, send to connect carbon dioxide and water vapor, which we know today as greenhouse gases to the earth's climate and the possibility of a warmer planet.
There are a lot of sources that say that Yunus was prohibited from reading this paper at the Tripoli S meeting, because she was a woman and that that's why Joseph Henry read it on her behalf, and there were definitely man in the Tripoli S who did not think women belong there, but the Asian did allow women as members the first woman to be elected, was astronomer, Mariah Mitchell in eighteen. Fifty entomologists, Margareta Morris was elected that same year, AAA S, meetings were open to the public and the AAA S had issued. An open, rotation for women's. You attend its first meeting in eighteen, forty, eight and women free we did at hand. Although again, there were certainly men in the AAA S who considered women more like companions and ornaments for the male membership and participants like active participants with knowledge and interests of their
the union was not a member of the AAA Ass, but non members also presented papers at every AAA S meeting between eighteen, forty eight in eighteen, sixty strangely, AAA Ass records of non member activity, don't record any non members presenting in eighteen, fifty six that may be, but. Joseph Henry Red UNICEF Paper for her because she was considered to be covered under her husband's membership. That list also assumes that non members in question are men. So it also wasn't unheard of for people's papers to be read by someone other than the author themself at that one thousand. Eight hundred and fifty six meeting Arthur that's paper on the geology of the lower Rio. Bravo was read by topographical Engineer, W H, Emory, who was a major and the? U S: Army, Emory, also Red Marines he W Chandler is on the meteorological phenomena observed at various points on the boundary survey and the reasons for
Marie reading these two papers in proxy for someone else, that's not really noted anywhere. So it's possible that the organised years of the Tripoli S meeting in eighteen. Fifty six prevented units from reading her own paper because she was a woman, but if that is the case, it's just not Doc did anywhere and the ongoing involvement of women in the Tripoli US at this point suggests that there may in some other explanation, foot the only woman known to have presented a paper that year, even though it was presented by proxy after the vote on that proxy Joseph Henry was extra Emily, prominent and well respected in the scientific community. So it's also possible that his reading of the
paper was intended as an honor. He also seems to have felt compelled to make some remarks on the subject of women's roles in science. There's no word for word transcript of what these remarks were anywhere. They were summarized in an one thousand, eight hundred and fifty seven volume that was ended by David, a wells, and this was titled. We have a long title, which everyone knows we love and he will look scientific discovery or yearbook of facts and science and art for one thousand, eight hundred and fifty seven bidding the most important discoveries that improvements and mechanics, useful arts, natural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, zoology, bought me, mineralogy, geology, geography, antiquities Et Cetera, together with a list of recent scientific publications, a classified list of patents, obituaries of eminent scientific men, notes on the progress of science during the year. Eighteen, fifty
fix etcetera as a zippy one just rolled up the phone. I got almost to the end of the list of subjects before I had to take a breath before summarizing the content of foots paper wells characterize him comments. This way quote Professor Henry then read a paper by MRS Yunus foot prefacing it with few words to the effect that science was of no country and of no sex, the fear of woman embraces not only the beautiful and the useful, but the true. If Yunus Newton Foot was indeed prohibit kid from reading her own paper and they one thousand eight hundred and fifty six AAA S meeting that prohibition seems to have been listed the next year. Eighteen, fifty seven that year, she was scheduled to read on a noose. of electrical excitation at the annual meeting in Montreal. According to the programme, she was to present her paper on Friday August, fourteenth and
There is no notation in the programme that would suggest that she did not read it herself. Although there's another report that suggest that she was introduced again by Joseph Henry. This second paper documented an experiment, she had done over the course of eight months again, using pumps to either condense or evacuate air. In a container she concluded quote the commission shit or expansion of atmospheric air produces and electrical excitation. There are only two physics papers known to have been written by women and published in american journals prior to eighteen, eighty nine, and they are these two papers by Yunus Newton Foot. She also wrote two of the only sixteen physics papers. Since you have been published by american women and the entire nineteenth century also
in eighteen, fifty nine after ongoing discussion with the triple s about women's roles in the organization. This statement was printed in the proceedings of its thirteenth meeting, quote No action is necessary in regard to the motion to admit Ladys as members in asthma the two Ladys have already been admitted. It's not clear. either that motion its reference was made and addressed before or after educator and science. Hissed Elmira, Lincoln Phelps became a member which happened at that meeting. Elmira Lincoln. helps, Mariah, Mitchell and Margaretta Morris are the only three women known to have officially been AAA as members before. One thousand eight hundred and sixty all those many people on the member list included only their initials. There might have been others we'll talk about how Yunus Newton Foots papers were received and their impact after another, quick, sponsor break
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fall and the American Journal of Science and arts and David a Wells annual of scientific discovery paraphrased both of their papers as well as Henry's introductory remarks of UNICEF paper. Even though unison paper is much shorter than her husband, his synopsis of many a little longer than the one of of her husbands is perhaps she was so Saint T felt he needed to Lake really make sure people understood the September eighteen These six issue of scientific American included in article titled scientific ladys experiments with condensed gases It commented on women's participation in science reading in part quote owing to the nature of means duties. Few of them had the leisure or the opportunities to pursue science, experimentally, but those of them who have had the taste and the opportunity to do so.
Have shown as much power and ability to investigate and observe correctly as men with article than described, foots experiments and her conclusions before dipping a toe into a debate that was going on at the time between the pollutants lists and the Neptune nests. Briefly, Fleetness argued that the earth had previously been molten and that rocks were formed through volcanic activity. While Neptune nests argued that rock said form from sediment in the oceans. Now neither of these two ideas was totally right and neither one was totally wrong. They both have some valid points and some inaccuracies, but geologists, Thorgest divided into these two camps. The author of this scientific american article contended that fits experiments provided quote a more rational cause for quote ancient great atmospheric heat, banned the idea of the earth having previous
been a fiery ball. This base ended by saying quote: the columns of the scientific American have been oftentimes graced with articles on scientific subjects by lady, which would do honour to men of the highest scientific reputation and the experiments of MRS Foot afford abundant, evidence of the ability of woman to investigate any such act with originality and precision the October eighteen. Fifty six edition of United States magazine was overall, not as flattering has that was its article science and survives and America, which was written under the pen name and propose covered eighteen. Fifty six AAA S meeting
noting that no women or people of color were included in the organizations membership list clear what whoever wrote this article was using as the list that they are working Frahm, because the list that was published in the conference proceedings included both Maria Mitchell and Margareta Morris. This article, though, claims that foot and Mitchell, or both filtered to be members, while not mentioning more is that all this article mentions Henry reading Foots paper and quote apology: rising as he did so for the lady who he said, although thus devoting her. I'm too science had a feminine heart. We protest against such apologies and feel that it is the opposite fact so few of our country. Women can be found who give any attention to sciences. Amateurs pardon this, MRS M or investigators. It is this fact that needs
their explanation or apology, but this goes on to describe quote Ladys of perfect breeding and finish gracing by their presence, the chambers in which the sessions were held and listening intently to the enunciation of abstruse principles at mathematical and physical science Ah, the sort of sounds like it could be leading into a discussion of the barriers to women's participation in science, but it does not do that, and so it becomes insulting, saying quote: we could not help asking ourselves. Why does it not occur to this portion of our race that they have faculties of observation and reason as well as we, and that, instead of displaying the last new bonnet and the richest lace, besides seeds, or perhaps whispering and tittering over some trifling ludicrous incident in the proceedings? It is their problem. it is not less than that of man to bring upon the tabus before a scientific body. The results of their investigations, discoveries and deductions
common world of matter and mine, which, with them we jointly inhabit It started so good immediately, and why are you Dinghy, women! Look! I really am I started reading it. I was like a man. I really think this is going to be talking a lot about like why there weren't women and people of color and involved in this more now it became a bunch of Saxony, stands all night, a summary of the eighteen. Thirty six meetings of the british and american associations of the advancement of science was published the canadian journal of industry, science and art its summer as UNICEF Paper, but makes no mention of her husbands. the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal for eighteen. Fifty seven summarizes Yunus paper as well, but since it also mentions Elijah's work. It's a little unclear which of them the journal is attributing the experiment tomb The german journal, yeah, there's barracks printed, a summary
as well, which was dated eighteen, fifty six, although that play came out in eighteen, fifty seven, but on May 18th one thousand eight hundred and fifty nine irish physicist John Tindall made a similar observation to Eunice Newton foots about the ability of water, vapor and carbon dioxide gas to hold heat. he reported this observation to the Royal society of London later that same year and in his work he credited french physicist Claude Matthias proof. for having done earlier related work and there's been some discussion about whether Temple knew about Yunus Newton Foots work and disregarded it because of her sex Rowan Jackson, he was publishing in the Royal Society Journal of the history of science, and twenty nineteen argues that he probably did not that this omission is more about the state of scientific communication across the Atlantic and the mid nineteenth century he's
actuates that Tyndall, just wouldn't, have been likely to have read any of the journals or other publications that referenced foots work prior to his own observations. Toodles experimental up was more sophisticated than foots was but unlike her, He did not make the connection between these gases and the earth's climate until later in his work in eighteen, sixty one he did, some research. They showed that carbon dioxide, water, vapor and hydro, carbon gases like methane, absorbed more the energy them nitrogen and oxygen, which are the primary components of air. That's really when he started to speculate. The different concentrations of these gases can affect the earth's climate in the first paper to really quantify the carbon dioxide concentrations involved in the greenhouse gas effect was published by swedish scientists vaunted August Orianas in eighteen. Ninety six, his later work also suggests that the burning of
Fossil fuels contributes to this process about ten years after Tyndall published his work on this, he and Joseph Henry became acquainted with. no suggestion that the two of them ever talked about foots work and how it related to kindles However, there were other people who cited Yunus Newton Foots work later on in the nineteenth century, for example, then Samuel, cheapens. Eighteen, eighty eight book gravitation the determining force references, Henry's, reading foots paper at the Tripoli S in it action on conditions likely to affect the temperature of the moon surface. The section of the book discusses matter on the moon and how different densities of that matter must have different capabilities for retaining heat, because an interesting to make us think
not only that people were familiar with what she had written about, but that they thought it was important enough to also apply it to other situations than what she was directly experimenting on today, John Tyndall, not Yunus, Newton Foot is often known as the founder of climate science, but over the last decade people have been trying to correct that attribution. This ever really started in twenty eleven when Raymond Sorenson published you sports pioneering research on co2 and climate warming that was published in the American Association of Petroleum geologists. Certain discovery Sorenson had stumbled across that summary of Foots paper that was in the eighteen, fifty seven annual of scientific discovery and had why's that significance. There was even less publicly available information about Yunus Newton Foot, twenty eleven a there is today, not even the text of her but had been unearthed at that point. Soaring
updated his paper and twenty eighteen to note that a copy of her paper had been found in the Saratoga spring. City historians, files in Saratoga Springs New York and now copy matched the one that was printed in the American Journal of Science and arts of us up. Eight also clarified that it was foot herself who made the connection between carbon dioxide gas and the earth's climate and the climate having been maybe previously warmer prior to the discovery of her original paper, though it had not been clear whether she had made that connection herself or whether it was something David a wells had speculated on when he was riding up that little summary of it However, we should note that claims that Yunus Newton Foot was totally forgotten until Raymond Sorenson published his twenty I've been paper are not really accurate Sorenson does seem to have been the first person to directly point out. That foot was the first person to observe
something that Tyndall got the credit form but Sally Gregory calls the formation of the american scientific community, the American Association for the advancement of science, one thousand eight hundred and forty eight one thousand eight hundred and sixty published by the University of Illinois Press in nineteen. Seventy six and it mentions foot delay in her paper on electrical excitation in eighteen. Fifty seven In addition to that information on foot, that's found that ancestry dot com also includes a scan of nineteen. Seventy six letter from Deborah Dean Warner, who was then the writer of the history of physical sciences at the Smithsonian to Doktor Judith Wellman at State University of New York, Warner and Wellman, had talked about foot Atley national archives conference on women's history. According to this letter, and the letter mentions both of foots papers and their titles,
Warner's science, education for women and answer Bellum America published in the Journal ISIS a journal of the history of science society in nineteen. Seventy eight also sites both of foots papers well means the road to Seneca falls. Elizabeth Katy stand in the first women's rights convention, which was published in two thousand for also mentions both papers existence, but not their subjects and lowest Arnold for lives in science, women's education in the nineteenth century, which was published at nineteen. Eighty four mentions foots article on the heat from the sun's rays, are using the eighteen. Fifty six scientific american article as its source on that. So there were various folks who were definitely argue about Yunus Newton Foot in other contexts. Before that twenty eleven we working out there, also a short film on Yunus Newton Foot called Yunus, and that was released in twenty eighteen and it is available on Youtube as units that I have listened.
circles back to invasive species which I had flags to re back in June when we got it is now August, and then I just I just didn't it somehow I overlooked it s. So this is from windy and windy right, dear Holly and Tracy, I have just listened to your kids. You episode and I'm finally prompted to email and thank you for your excellent programme. You succeed in combining deep, well considered research with an entertaining presentation, the kegs you episode reminded me of the prickly pear story which my mother used to tell me as a child. She grew up in the nineteen twenties and Queensland Australia, where the prickly pear cactus had become an invasive passed on farmland. She said it was introduced earlier to start a coconut industry, since the cocoanut insect, which is used to make red die lives on briskly pair plants, but it got out of hand and the nineteen twenties. The moth cacti blasted Catherine was introduced to Australia as a biological control. Since its
larvae eat the prickly, pear those pretty successful, and now there are very few prickly pear plants seen in rural areas, although there were still a lot when I was a child in the fifties, my mother was a whom science teacher she gave me her fruit, preserving recipe book from the nineteen thirty, which have a recipe for prickly, pear jelly. It starts with quote. Take forward. Does a nice ripe, prickly, pear errors and put them in boiling water to soften the prickles, then take a knife and scraped them all off cut into pieces and boil after that is like a normal jelly recipe strain in reducing the pulp. Adding sugar and boiling sounds like a lot of work. Thank you for your programme. I am a great fan of history. Can never miss an episode windy
Thank you so much Wendy. For this note, we have lacked a little bit about Coca meal in earlier episodes about things like dies and colors, and I don't think I have realised that the efforts to introduce plants that cochineal could live on had led to invasive species problems. It's not entirely surprising, because that does happen. When you introduce species to places they don't normally lives. Sometimes, so thank you again for your notes. If any one who like to write to us about this or any other broadcast were history. Podcast at I hurt radio not come and were also, however, social media admission history that three or find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram Megan subscribed our show I hurt radioactive than anywhere else. Like the turbine gas stuff, you missed in history class the production of Iheart radio for more broadcasts
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Transcript generated on 2021-09-08.