After Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, people were incarcerated in inadequate and dehumanizing camps. Even once the detention program ended, things were still incredibly difficult for people after their release.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff. You missed an industry from house up we're stuck her, allow and welcomed the plant has time Tracy meanwhile, plan on how infra they we are picking up the second part of the two parties. So if you have not heard our previous episode, I strongly recommend getting into Thou before you get into
when President Franklin Delano Roosevelt find executive order. Ninety sixty six on February nineteenth of nineteen forty two and this paved the way for japanese Americans to be removed from the Pacific Coast on Mass and incarcerated in camps for the duration of world war. Two last time we talked about the history of japanese immigration into the night.
Aids and how the? U S arrived at deciding that needed to plan a mass removal. This time we will talk about the executive order, what happened in the camps and then what happened after the war was over following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the? U S. War department in particular began to advocate for aggressive action to eliminate the potential for espionage, sabotage and anti american
activity on the part of the japanese population, its recommendation, was a wide scale. Effort of removal and incarceration. Mr Recap: the thing that we set at the top of part, one japanese nationals were not the only people targeted by the
There are also Germans and Italians who were incarcerate as well. There were
and millions of people in the United States of german or italian ancestry further possible way to turn them all and no effort for any kind of wide scale. In terms of Germans and Italians, and occasionally we will get note. Some people suggesting that there was there was really not like he architect of the removal of japanese Americans from the West Coast was Karl bandits and his background was kind of deceptive. He was there. He was the son of jewish emigrants, who basically changed his name
and made up that he was an emigrant from Denmark so that he could get into an exclusive fraternity when he was in school, like us were of shady
his background, and he was in this case working out strategist. He formulated the basic concept of how and
Could order could get around the many many unconstitutional aspects of incarcerating american citizens without due process based
their nationality. There are a lot of ways in which that
Tire idea is flatly unquestionably unconstitutional, so instead of conceiving this as an order, targeting japanese
Americans. He instead framed it as a means to set up zones to be placed under military jurisdiction from which any and all persons could be evacuated. He also recommended a three step process to setting this up. There would be an executive order that would give the Secretary of WAR a thought,
be to do it. There would be established men of the military zones themselves when they would be
a provision for removing persons from within these zones. The old
persons really being targeted here, even though it never said specifically were japanese Americans at first. The wreckage
military zones, where imagined as small specific areas, around vulnerable targets, like bridges, power plants and military bases, but during discussions leading up to the actual drafting of the executive order, they grew. Whole cities were named as potential zones them whole regions. Soon it stretched the entire length of the way
coast, which was also where nearly all Japanese Americans were living apart from Hawaii
There were only a very few japanese Americans living anywhere in the United States other than the West Coast in Hawaii. On February, seventeenth of nineteen, forty two President Franklin Roosevelt told Harry L, Simpson, the Secretary of WAR and John Mccloy, the assistant secretary of war, to draft an executive order.
get out of this accomplished and he specifically directed them not to involve attorney general, France's spittle who, as we know it,
a mass incarceration as unconstitutional from several angles?
but all would why about finding out about this? Only upon seeing the final approved draft, after which point he sent word
More memo through the president. He stressed that distrust of the job
Yes and a desire to take over there now successful farmland. Not national security was
we what was driving this purse for removal, the end result of all
was executive order. Ninety sixty six, which was titled authorizing the Secretary of war,
superscribed military areas. It superseded. Previous proclamations made by the attorney general, who had re so many objections to the plan and instead granted authority to the Secretary of WAR
the order Arthur authorized. The Secretary of war and military commanders that he designated quote to prescribe mill
three areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate military commander may determine.
from which any or all persons may be excluded and with respect to which the right of any person to enter romanian or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions, the secretary of,
or a worthy, appropriate military commander may impose in his discretion the Secretary of WAR
Literary commanders were also authorized to take whatever steps they thought, where appropriate, to ensure compliance with these exclusion zones. The orders-
find that the government would quote provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter and other accommodations as may be necessary. It authorized all executive departments of the government to assist the Secretary of war and military
commanders with this effort, the executive order did not have its own enforcement provisions. These came in the form of public law, five of three
also drafted by the word, a permanent, been introduced to the Senate. On March night, it was introduced to the House of Representatives on March Temp
with signed into law on March twenty first nineteen, forty two public law, five o three, was quote to provide a penalty for violation of restrictions or orders with respect to persons entering remaining in
leaving or committing any act in military areas or zones. It set a fine of up to five thousand dollars and imprisonment of up to a year for each offensive. Entering leaving or committing any act in a military zone established under the exact
order, Roosevelt of another executive order, number ninety one, oh to quote establishing the war relocation
already in the executive office of the president and defining its functions and duties on March Eighteenth, the war
Creation authority with the civilian agency that was responsible for creating and maintaining the camps that would how's the people who were removed under the terms of executive order. Ninety sixty six, the war
Relocation authority was part of the office for Emergency Management executive.
Ninety one or two would also quote, provide in so far as feasible and desirable for the employment of such persons at useful work in industry, commerce, agriculture or public projects prescribed the terms and conditions of such public employment and safeguard the public interest in the private employment of such persons. There were also other acts and laws that were connected to our
this as well, but bees to executive orders and public law. Five: three, where the primary ones involved with establishing the authority to remove people.
forcing that removal order and relocating in housing. The people who were removed in some cases also giving them work to do.
If you begin with the point of view that the government can be trusted to see to the best interests of its citizens and residents and to be clear, that is not what was going on here. This might sound somewhat innocuous. It was basically saying that the Secretary of WAR and his designated military commanders could set up of accusation zones for the sake of national safety and security in the Pacific Coast, for example, was considered high risk given how easily Japan could reach it, and if your home was deemed to be in an exclusion zone and you had to leave, the government would have to provide you with food and shelter. It was all framed out as being a military necessity and most government communications on them.
and use euphemistic terms like assembly point and Relocation Centre and evacuation as though this entire removal plan was for people's own protection deceptively.
Normal seeming when you read it and during peace time, it certainly would have raised a huge outcry,
It clearly gave the government a very, very broad authority to divert deprive people of their rights to privacy and property and due process and the constitutional protection against unreasonable search and Caesar under the fourth amendment, just as if you accept
rules, but in time of war, especially given that the attack on Pearl Harbor had been such a devastating shock only a couple of months before it was deceptively easy, especially for people not actually affected by this order, to read it as common sense for the sake of national security, certain parts of the nation
It had to be evacuated and for any one evacuated the government would see their care and housing. This sounds so,
reasonable, in theory,
Pierre and, of course, there were also p
We were in favour of it. There were motivated not by a sense of national security or safety, but by greed, for the farm, land,
and the property that we're going to have to be abandoned. Another factor was definitely prejudice
and they were all manner of other issues involved that had zero to do with national sick.
Eddie and also in spite of all the very real,
national sounding language. In this it was not
evacuation two or relocation centre. It was a forced removal to a concentration camp
and we are going to talk about that actual removal after we first pause and take a little break in here from one of the sponsors that keeps his show going
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the first step to executing executive order. Ninety sixty six
as a recommendation that anyone of japanese descent leave the established military
voluntarily and these military areas spanned the whole West Coast, but
enemy aliens again, that's just people who were citizens of a country at war with the place that they were living
since enemy aliens assets had all been frozen. That meant most people just did not have the means to do it even if they wanted to their assets were frozen. They had no way to fund a trip anywhere. Some who do
Try to leave voluntarily also encountered violent resistance on the part of white residence. In the places they tried to ghosts. They were forced, turned back and returned to their homes of forced removal, followed thanks to the nineteen forty cents,
switch had been handed over to the army and the FBI for this purpose,
new, where nearly all japanese residents were living. The first mass remove
was from terminal island in the port of LOS Angeles, which was owned by the military beginning on February twenty fifth, the first mass
who will from a civilian location, was from Bainbridge Island Washington in March
throughout the duration of the removal which would span about six months from when it started, and so everyone being out of the Pacific coast. Japanese,
comes on. The West Coast were placed under a curfew as well as movement restrictions,
Eventually there would be a hundred and eight individual exclusion orders each of them targeting about a thousand people. For the most part. Both first
second generation. Japanese Americans cooperated with the removal. Some of this was an attempt to demonstrate their laws
key to the United States? Many
Japanese community have vocally denounced the japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor and invasions of
nations in Asia and the Pacific and they had expressed their support to the United States too. Many
doing, as the government asked in this removal would be another way to show that they were true Americans, regardless of whether they were citizens and regardless of their japanese ancestry. Some of this was also cultural, japanese concepts of bearing difficult circumstances with dignity.
Anna concept, known as should keep a gun. I or it can't be helped, come up repeatedly in accounts of how people on an individual basis than within their community. You dealt with this room.
once there when we will order, came people had an average of six days to prepare, although sometimes it was as little as one they were
to bring only what they could carry, but they were also,
Wired to bring their own linens clothing toiletries in the lake before
leaving? Many japanese Americans tried to liquidate their property
some were able to sell their homes and their property if they had stores, they had close out sales for their stock, but because they had so little
I'm many had to sell their property for much much less than it was worth those who owned.
arms often tried to negotiate with their neighbours to see their crops, while they were gone, which in some cases this worked out and in others it did not. The only actual sabotaged conviction of a japanese american stemming from all of this time was,
Farmer who ploughed under his strawberry crop, because he had not been allowed to harvest it before being sent to a camp as people were
leaving salvage companies used for
you're salesman and others made the rounds offering to buy people's possessions and generally,
offering pitifully small amounts of money for them. Some who didn't sell?
to return home. Eventually had their homes looted after they were gone, others destroyed their possessions, sometimes in front of the people offering them
play. Small amounts of money rather than sell them. The coastguard also requisition boats
in the docks after their owners were removed so that they can use them in the war effort as people were removed, they were first sent to temporary assembly points that served as basically a place to gather large
numbers of people from different places before then moving them onto a more permanent camp. Lot of these were places like race tracks and horse stables and
other facilities that were not really meant for housing. People, for example, over
course of the removal. Eighteen thousand five hundred people were housed at the Santa Anita race Track, including in the horse stalls Zactly, where George decay and his family were housed immediately after their removal from the assembly point, people were transported by training with the curtains closer. They cannot see where they were going
to one of ten relocation centres, better known as internment camps and, more accurately known as concentration camps. These were scattered
in remote areas in why homing California, Utah
Arizona, Colorado, Idaho and Arkansas. For the most part, these camps,
cells or built on land, but the government already owned, which was often less than ideal for human habitation and cleared things like dry lake beds, while the fields deserts and swore.
native american reservation. Land was also used, the camps or hastily built military style,
Housing with communal mess, halls and blocks of tar paper barracks, they were surrounded by
barbed wire with armed guards and searchlights.
Even though the plan was to put people in these camps for a long term stay, there had not really been a lot of thought
but ensue. Maintaining the needs of communities with things like schools are houses of worship, people who were incarcerated their basically had to take care of those things themselves
No one of japanese ancestry was exempt from their removal.
polluted in the order, sick people in hospitals who were kept under guard until they were either well enough to be removed, or until they die
children, including children, living in orphanages, who quote look to japanese, japanese children that had been adopted by white parents, persons with severe disabilities. Seventeen thousand
those removed were children under ten years old, two thousand were over sixty five years old and one
I'll, were disabled or very ill. One exception to the removal order was Hawaii was not yet a state.
at about a hundred and seventy five thousand people Hawaii japanese population was too large to just incarcerate
and many were working in industry is that were critical to the war effort, including carpenters. He were needed to help rebuild the base at Pearl Harbor while thumbs.
but he's Americans in Hawaii were deemed high risk and incarcerated. Most were instead. Subject occur, fuse and movement restrictions and were banned from deep sea fishing, and all of this was done without due process and with no opportunity for appeal. The camps were fenced and guarded, and the people incarcerated there could not leave unable to work or pay their bills. Many of those
treated lost their jobs, homes and possessions. Additionally, many of the states that were home to these camps were fiercely opposed to japanese prisoners being sent their wives
Senator Nelson Smith insisted that the state would not be California's, quote dumping ground and said quote. If you bring Japanese into my state, I promise you they will be hanging from every tree. Governor Herbert MAW of Utah argued that the constitution should be changed because quote. If these people are dangerous on the Pacific coast, they will be day
risk here, even in the face of not in my back yard style, opposition to the camps themselves, the general public
over well mainly in favour of the removal and continued to see. The japanese community is a real threat even after they had been removed in December of nineteen forty two a year after the bombing of prohibited and about ten months after the signing of executive order nineties
six, a Gallup poll, found that forty eight percent of Americans believed the japanese detainees should not be allowed to return home after the war half believe they should be sent back to Japan, while thirteen percent responded put them out of this kind.
ten percent said leave them where they are under control, presumably advocating a permanent imprisonment of citizens who had done absolutely nothing wrong at about the same time. An Olaf's Angeles times, pull a number of questions were asked about people, support of that the incarceration
and what was going on in a work. Ten thousand five hundred. Ninety eight people answered yes to quote: do you favour a constitutional amendment after the war for the deportation of all Japanese from this country and forbidding further
immigration, with an overwhelming no vote for allowing an exception for american born japanese people here to be clear again, were already citizens and coming up we're gonna talk about the resistance to
movable and how it all came to an end. But first we will once again take a quick break and have a word from one of our sponsors. Putty cleared out my whole data LISA the whole day,
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on the whole japanese Americans, had
Why operated with the initial removal out of the Pacific Coast over Time divisions started to develop within the camps
Some of us was generational with younger need, say who were citizens of the United States
freezingly rebelling against being denied the rights of citizenship, me say: begin pushing back against people who had been.
in the japanese American Citizens League insisting that this organisation should have been pushing for a guarantee of their constitutional rights rather than working to a piece.
american government and these divisions between the first generation immigrants from
pan and their second generation citizen children were ignored.
surveyed by overcrowding, poor living,
decisions, insufficient resources and a generally degrading the experience and are certainly were people in
separated, who really were loyal to Japan, many of them, the ones who had been educated there and over time, the
groups banded together and, in some cases, turned on the rest of the camp bullying and harassing those who remained loyal to the United States. Ass time went on. This was particularly true a tool.
where people deemed disloyal or otherwise problematic were transferred.
Conditions in these camps were in general poor and they were
an insufficient to withstand the climates where they were located as an example, desert camps were often justs,
altering in the summer and filled with dust from dust storms, and they were all
No real incidents of violence, including at the hands of guards, for example, two men or shot to death and Lords Burg New Mexico at the camp there. On July, twenty seventh nineteen forty two.
Purportedly while they were trying to escape, although both men were described as too ill to walk at the time. Nineteen forty three saw
of huge changes in the war and in the camps on
We worry twenty. Ninth nineteen, forty three, a little less than a year after the executive order. Ninety sixty six was signed. The Secretary of WAR issued a press release describing the right to bear arms in the nations military
the right of every citizen, no matter their national origin after swearing there
qualified allegiance, enforced wearing any form of allegiance to Japan me say, would be allowed to vomit.
nearly enlist in the army. The response to this from within the camps was mixed,
There were people who were eligible to serve and were elated at the chance to be released from the camp, and many also
genuinely patriotic move motives for wanting to join the service, but other saw this as deeply hypocritical, since it made no sense for a population deemed soda.
The risk that they had to be incarcerated on mass to be invited to join the war effort. There was also the hypocrisy of the war in Europe, especially being like against a nation that was putting people in concentration camps, and the invitation was where people being held in concentration camps in the United States to join the effort to fight back
worse the latter up your head around it? Well, it's one of those things. Where were you when you really consider that I don't know
so much a lot to wrap your head around in terms of like the details, but it's like a head scratch of like who
Look at all of this ability of it does make sense. That seems your record. Some fundamental gymnastics involved you and I we were all
five times- and we have talked about wartime service and now has related to civil rights and has been involving black soldiers who joined the service.
to fight for freedom and then return home to find that they were still subject to the same discrimination and prejudice that had been free before the war, and this is a little bit different because it was literally like. Please leave this concentration camp where
we have been keeping you to join the service and fight Hitler. Yeah, it's a stretch it it's very. We I'm sure people reconciled it in their heads, but I cannot understand the math involved. I am sure we will get emails from me.
who insist that it was the right thing to do, and there have already been japanese Americans in the armed forces before Pearl Harbor and along with new recruits, most wound up in segregated units. These included the one Hundredth Infantry battalion in the four hundred twenty second regimental
combat team, which were eventually combined. These could definitely be
pursued on their own people have certainly asked for us to do that.
But overall, the short version is it. They served with extreme valor. My original plan
silly to include a lot more on them in this episode, but that the whole rest of this episode there is too much of it, so maybe someday in the future. We will have a show on them.
In nineteen forty three a number of policies also allowed some people to be released from the camps. One was a quote mixed marriages, not exclusive policy which allowed young people. He were part japanese, to be released
under the argument that being kept in a japanese only camp might turn them against the United States. However,
Many of those who were released had nowhere to go. They had no funds because their assets have been frozen in their families, have lost everything and they faced huge hostility out in the rest of the World
that same year. The war department in the WAR Relocation Authority also tried to put together a way to figure out if the people being held in the camps were loyal. Those who were not could not be
EAST under the newly announced policies. They did this through a questionnaire that big
known as the loyalty questionnaire and two of its questions in particular numbers. Twenty seven and twenty eight were problematic question. Twenty
Seven asked eligible man if they were willing to serving combat duty and ask everyone else if they are willing to serve in some non combat way, and people were afraid that answer and yes to question twenty seven would basically.
Volunteer them for active duty in the military question. Twenty eight asked whether they would swear loyalty to the United States and forswear loyalty to the emperor of Japan
being american citizens born in the U S, most of whom had never even been to Japan. Many had no loyalty to forswear and people were reluctant
swear, loyalty to a government that had been imprisoning them without due process, in defiance of numerous aspects of the constitution because of their national origins. People who answered no to both questions were branded as the no no boys branded as disloyal and, in many cases, transferred to tool lake there's who were released from the camps in nineteen, forty, three and beyond,
we need to face prejudice, discrimination, hostility and even violence, and this became more of an issue, as incident foot had actually happened earlier in the war involving the nation of Japan became more public. Knowledge is included, the baton, death March and the deaths of
participants in the Doolittle raid, who were captured by the Japanese. We have podcast under the Doolittle aid. If he would like to learn more about that story,
learning about these events cause an even greater increase and anti jumped japanese sentiment. People
increasingly angry that the camps were too soft on the people who were incarcerated there, especially in cases when the camps have facilities like hospitals, that the near by non incarcerated community did not have easy access to through these policies. In nineteen. Forty three overall can't population drop from about one.
Seven thousand two, ninety three thousand, but many who were able to leave were among the best educated, meaning that many camps lost an important source of internal leadership. Unrest and violent incidents within the camps increased, including more transfer to a lake whose non disloyal population had to be transferred elsewhere to make room in the spring of nineteen. Forty four me say once again that
The citizen children of japanese emigrants were made eligible for the draft. This led to the fair play committee at the Heart mountain camp being organised and forming a draft resistance with many of them, pointing out that they were being imprisoned by a government that was now expecting them to serve in the military,
involuntarily, the draft resistance and heart mountain led to indictments and convictions for violating me. Selective service act resistance to both the loyalty.
an ear and the draft of japanese american citizens eventually led to public law. Seventy eight dash for o five de Naturalisation ACT of nineteen, forty four,
allowing citizens to voluntarily renounce citizenship during wartime. The one hundred seventeen who first signed up had all been edges:
in Japan and were all incarcerated at to a lake and may have genuinely wanted to renounce american citizenship and returned to Japan. But then the administrator.
At two. A leg started: wilfully, ignoring problems there, including bullying incursion at the hands of the people,
who really were loyal to Japan. Eventually, five thousand
Five hundred eighty million people at the camp renounced their citizenship. Many under duress most of these Heather Citizenship restored. Thanks to the work of wind Collins from the ACL you get, a space basically became
when attempt to like, let's see how miserable we can make this situation, to force people to renounce their citizenship, so that we can deport them to Japan. Like that it, they were not very clever that that was. The underlying purpose
Aside from the increasing unrest and in some cases, violence at the camps, especially as the war dragged on there, were also legal challenges to the internment that played out over the course of several years for different cases went all the way to the Supreme Court
RO you SUI, was in the reserves and after being turned away from enlisting in the regular army nine times after Pearl Harbor. He broke curfew on purpose and was arrested. Newspapers then described him as a spy because his children had drawn pictures of the Panama Canal, Gordon hereby Ashy, who was a Quaker, also broke curfew and got arrested on purpose. Fred Korea Matthew had plastic surgery on his eyes and tried to go into hiding before being convicted of violating the executive order.
in MID Sui end, though, was chosen by the Asia you as a test case to try to have the removal and incarceration ruled unconstitutional. The Supreme Court unanimously agreed in nineteen forty three that Hira biology and you suis convictions work constant
and it held off on hearing the other cases until after the nineteen forty four presidential election on December 18th, one thousand nine hundred and forty four. It was unanimously ruled that the United States could not continue to detain loyal citizens of the United States.
Following this decision, more and more people were allowed to leave the camps if they were able to demonstrate that they were loyal
after the end of the war they were gradually shut down to Lake was the last to close on March twenty nineteen, forty six
However, many of the cities and towns that had been home to japanese communities before the war no longer welcome them, including some going so far. As basically posting sign, saying, don't come back here.
in the end, fifty four thousands, japanese people and citizens of japanese ancestry returned to the pacific coast. Fifty two thousand went to other parts of the United States in Hawaii,
We five thousand went back to Japan, although many were allowed to return to the United States following Wayne Collins legal advocacy on their behalf, basically having the citizenship that they had relinquished under duress restored to them. Many of these people
trying to start over with virtually nothing the total property loss from the people who you there had to sell or lost their homes and businesses of s
it at one point: three billion dollars and the net income loss of two point: seven billion dollars, although that is a nineteen. Eighty three estimate would be more dollars than that now. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two people died in the camps, including an incidents of violence, including at the hands of guards.
there were no serious convictions of any japanese American during the war for espionage sabotage or in
The other activities that have led to the incarceration in the first place, however,
no at least ten convictions of White Americans for spying for the Japanese,
and he forty eight President Harry S. Truman signed the japanese American evacuation Claims ACT which granted a total of thirty
million dollars in restitutions, people who had been incarcerated. However, this amounted to a fraction of just the lost income from people's time in the camps
the commission on more time. Relocation and internment of civilians was established in nineteen eighty, after a lengthy campaign for an investigation and justice. After holding extensive hearings that recommended an apology and a twenty thousand dollar payment to each person, who had survived the internment and was then still living. President Ronald Reagan signed HR for forty two, also known as the civil liberties ACT of nineteen eighty seven into law on August tenth, nineteen, eighty eight, which offered the recommended apology and reparation. It quote, declares that one a grave injustice was done to citizens and permanent residents, aliens of japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation and internment of civilians there.
world war. Two to these actions were without security reasons and without any acts of espionage or sabotage documented by the Commission on Wartime relocation and internment of civilians and were
we by racial prejudice. Wartime hysteria and a failure of political leadership, three
that the excluded individuals suffered enormous damages, for which appropriate compensation has not been made and for the Congress apologizes on behalf of the nation, the same act
also establishes a fund for the elites who were evacuated from their home in Alaska, which was in a war zone and in turn, for far longer than was needed, mainly in old fish canneries, without sufficient care that online
the incarceration of japanese and italian and german nationals and citizens which were like
reasons of suspicion and there the idea that they were enemy aliens and all back of this evaluation was because
islands and benevolent peninsula they were living on was in a war zone and let back a whole subject of its own. I think I don't think there's a thing on an archive, but that boiled
since you basically being move for probably the right reasons, but in appalling conditions.
this way longer than was actually necessary for anybody, safety or national security
No jap unease emigrants became eligible to become United States citizens in nineteen. Fifty two, I feel we should also point out in case any of our listeners had wanted to go, see allegiance when it was a movie theatres.
miss the first round. It will be back in theatres this weekend, if you're listening to this the week that a public
is on five February nineteenth correct, yes, tickets are so
about where I live. I have my ticket so since I missed
the first time, because I was on a plane this time I'll get it
about listener mail. On this one
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Ass, an ailing warehouse and right in the front door was an old iron. Lung had sold sign on it, not sure what the buyer was going to do with it. But it was interesting, see I'm attaching
my mom said that when she was a young nurse, they had polio words with these iron lungs. Hospitals now have backup generators for one of the power outage, as you can imagine almost
everything at the bedside. Now has an electrical component, not so much when my mom was a young nurse
I bet you were regulated by hand, no bedside monitors, etc. She did say that they would if they would lose electricity with storms and stuck they had to pump the iron lungs with a foot pedal to keep the bellows pumping. I did a search on powders.
and came across a bunch. These were older than the cry worked with, but maybe not my mom there's a picture of a nurse holding a cigarette for ape
sent in the iron long. Sigh initiatives are linked to the voters. Merida may see how far medicine has come at a relatively short time. Early ventilators had very little that can be adjusted compared to the ones we have now sort of like two ten cans and esteem
compared to an Iphone seven. All I can think is that in another fifty years we will look back on our state of the art technology. You think how barbaric services a bit wordy? Don't apologize. It's great love the wide variety of interesting topics, your thorough
without overwhelming the listeners. Yours sandy. Thank you so much sandy
I'm gonna be honest. I had not thought about the fact that ape
o of the iron long would be
allowed patients to speak did not have a tube down their throats
Either but then, when I
throw that email. My thought was lake. If I were in a position to meet such a thing and have any level of say in the matter, I would be like Ireland please her. I liked
more yeah. I had not thought about that at all, and I can completely see how that would be, especially with children who don't necessarily have other means of communicating their own means, that being able to speak, while in
mine, could be really really beneficial, and yet there are lots of pictures of polio words that were basically rose in rows of iron lungs, with patience and them during the height of polio
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