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Frances Glessner Lee and Tiny Forensics

2014-05-14 | 🔗

Many forensic investigation standards of today have roots in the work of a Chicago heiress who was more interested in crime scenes than high society. Her most notable contribution to the field came in the form of tiny homicide dioramas. Read the show notes here.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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words, and even though she sort of forced into that role- and she had some be no society bucking instincts about where a woman should be in in her place and how that was gonna work. You know she was still nonetheless, an heiress and part of that structure that had made her that had given her that position and her name was France Glass nor Lee, and she was a very meticulous woman, their stories that you'll hear that she was so exacting that she actually would number the bottoms of vases and knickknacks, and similarly label the shelves that they were supposed to go on with corresponding numbers.
Everything would always be in its exact space. That's just like a quick character in sight for you, because it it would maybe be no surprise, then that this woman, who was surprising in many ways, was a major contributor to the world of forensic science and criminology, and we actually have a lot to thank her for so Frances Glass Nerli came from a very wealthy family. Her father was John Jacob questioner and he made his fortune in the farm implement industry. Her mother, Sarah Frances Macbeth Lester, had met John Jacob when her family had taken him and is a border The glass nurse were very active and civic affairs. Both of France's parents wrote a great deal, John served on the boards of many civic organisations, including the citizens, Association of Chicago and the Chicago Orphan Asylum, and he was also a trusty of the Chicago Orchestra Association
fairer was something of a renaissance woman. Not only was she skilled, as seems to us, but she also studied piano, silversmith thing and beekeeping. She organised gatherings for women where they could hear lectures and readings about contemporary writing and she was one of the founders of the Chicago Chamber, music city and was passionate advocate for the arts, Sarah and Johns First child was George Macbeth Listener and he was born in eighteen, seventy one and because George had chronic and serious hay fever.
The family ended at building a second summer house in New Hampshire, so he can get away from the the issues in Chicago in spring and summer. That would cause this hay fever to sort of the problem for him. The couple had a second sign in eighteen. Seventy four other the baby John Francis sadly died when he was eight months old and then their daughter, Frances questioner was born on March. Twenty fifth of eighteen: seventy eight because of Georgia's ongoing health issues, the children were home schooled instead of sent to school by a series of tutors, and I was also actually pretty common for well to do families at the time to school, their children at home, where we ve had a lot of podcast subjects who I learned at home. Frances grew up in lessen our house, which was designed by Architect Henry Hobson Richardson and was built in eighteen. Eighty seven, this house, which is I'm Chicago's Prairie Avenue in South Loop, has now announced
historic landmark in museum. Once the glass nerves moved into glass nor house, they spent winters there and summers and their new Hampshire cabin, which was called the rocks and during one of this summer's while they were in New Hampshire. The family was jarring joined by Georgia's friend another George named George Burgess Mc Grath, and this name you want to just keep in the back your head because he would become a pretty significant influence from Francis later in her life as Frances. He went by fanny among her family members, asked me to approach. head. She became interested in pursuing a career in law or medicine, but her parents were really against this idea. There are some unsubstantiated reports that are father. John actually believe that, ladies, should know nothing of the human body. That sort of makes me go a little bit, but you know you have one you're gonna, fundamentally, no, if It's an interesting mindset, and not all of that unusual for the early nineteen hundred. I imagine so instead of going
university, which she had wanted to do, in which her brother George was doing a Frances spent a little more than a year. traveling through Europe, with her aunt Helen Macbeth from eighteen, ninety six to ninety seven and after returned to Chicago Frances made her formal society. They view in November of eighteen. Ninety seven, just a few months after being presented into society, Frances Married lawyer blew it Lee. He was distantly related to Robert E Lee and the new couple moved into a town house. The glistening had built for Fanny on Prairie Avenue near the questioner house. Her brother George also had a town house built by their parents, and Francis was nineteen. When she married this marriage,
not an especially happy, one eventually became clear that France's and blew it really did not have all that much in common and they didn't share that many interests. One story that her son eventually tells us that you know she wanted to make things and do things over time and blew. It was not into that. So it really. They just had a separation of mind, the pair eventually divorced and nineteen fourteen, but not before they had already had three children together for their children were John lesson early. He was born in eighteen. Ninety eight Frances Lee born in nineteen o three and Martha Lee, who was born in nineteen o six before we go on and talk about sort of what her life becomes after divorce. Let's
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lesson only after her divorce. So once her marriage was over and she suddenly had a new life to begin phrases returned to a hobby that she had actually learned as a child which was making miniatures and in nineteen thirteen while she was separated, but not yet divorced from her husband she completed. First so low miniature dire rama- and this is a detailed recreation of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, which was one of the many arts organisations from other, was very passionate about, and this was complete with tiny pieces of sheet music and tiny instrument. Cases and little instrument stands, and it was also As a gift for her mother. She also take advantage of her new found independence to learn about a subject that she'd been introduced to buy the family friendly mentioned earlier. George Burgess Mcgrath- and this was the forensic science Mcgrath had studied medicine at Harvard and then had gone on to become a medical examiner emigrants. Work was immense.
interesting to Francis there's a story that, while she was ill at one point, he would come and visit her every night and talk about his work to keep her company and she just became utterly in engulfed in passion for it and she became so interested in it that in the nineteen thirties, she gave Harvard an endowment of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which has been estimated to be about three point: eight million in today's money adjusted for the establishment of a department of legal medicine.
It is often speculated in biographies of glass, namely that she was as a divorce say, who now made her own decisions and was truly independent, she's making up for the education that she had been the nine when she was a young woman in and had wanted to study, but had not been allowed to buy her family. She also continued to give financial gives to the university. This went on through the years to further the departments, growth and development, and her friend, Mcgrath became chair of the new department and taught pathology is part of the programme and, as we mentioned earlier, Francis was from a very wealthy family and she married well, even though the marriage did not last, but she we cannot say enough how much she did not fit the usual mould of money, eighty heiress, so while the other women of society
we're throwing dinner parties for equally wealthy friends and associates. She would often host large dinner parties for detectives and investigators and scientists, so she could pick their brains about their work, love it so much. I do to end as being a part of her again meticulous
character that people love to talk about in any interview with anybody that new her. They seem to really want to be very clear that this was an exacting person like the menus would just be really should be so picky about everything that they ate and it had to be perfect, and she, you know, wanted them to absolutely have the best of everything as though they were. You know her equals in terms of financial footing in society. These dinner parties were apparently amazing and in nineteen, forty, three glasses or Lee really made a bit of history because you ve been learning about forensics. Imp had really been kind of moving in these circles for so long that she was made honorary captain of the New Hampshire state police at this time- and I was a title that no other women held at that point. In nineteen forty five hosted the first harboured associates and police science or perhaps a seminar. This was an invitation only event where attendees retreated to lavish
heels in an intensive week of learning, the latest methods and crime scene investigation from experts in the field, and those were also equally meticulous. These social events that centred around it there's a story that I read and in one of my sources that she purchased in. thousand dollar China set for the hotel that hosted this event every year and it was only used for this event. It was basically her China, which kept at the hotel for this thing. That would happen twice a year and because I guess there's wasn't good enough
It was unclear why she felt compelled to buy this whole set of China, but eminent think. Maybe she was his personality. I think a little bit spent through all of her talks with investigators and detectives and her discussions with Mc Grath about his work. This idea had been forming English, normally his mind about how she could personally further the field of investigation outside of just being a financial donor. I mean she was really following a lot of money into this department at Harvard with the intent that she was going to raise the standards in a through education of how criminal investigation worked. So she came to realize that if the police had prolonged access to a crime scene, they could find
clues. That would reveal the events that have occurred. The air which to us is kind of like while yeah but crime seems just can't be maintained indefinitely and the evidence there can be corrected are lost and, additionally, for investigators and training, there were just never enough. Crime seems in which they can practise their skills. So glass narrowly came up with an idea to train investigators and to develop their observation skills. So this sort of thing she's, most well known for over a seven year period from nineteen. Forty three, the nineteen fifty system, This was going on concurrently with her development of these seminars. She assembled this group of projects called the nut. Shell studies of unexplained deaths
and these were tiny dire ramos that would have been the most regards idyllic dollhouse scenes were it not for the fact, the fact that each of them depicted a death of some kind. So each of these themes, their eighteen and all, was assembled based on case reports and court records about actual deaths and of the dire honours would combine multiple cases and, while all of their case, details were meticulously recreated that they call any two gravely scene was It was in by the heiress. So these have been done. By many with some degree of amusement, because there clearly like the impression that, wealthy woman, who is only known a life of luxury, has of how the middle and lower class live. There often pretty garish yeah it's one of those things that people kind of giggle about even now you know she really wasn't into all of the society trappings. State was clearly all she had. No
so even in their cabin in New Hampshire, which was a very small and sort of simple affair. It still had the best of everything and again this is a woman that spent thousands of dollars to have the perfect China for her for police seminar so clearly his she knew a certain aesthetic and a certain life, and so when she imagined wet poor people live like or even middle class people. It was kind of very funny the thing she would put together and pick out as how their houses would look. The smallest of these directives is eight by fourteen inches and the largest is a thirty and square three room dwelling an item
lights stress enough. How incredibly detailed these are there in one inch to one foot scale that they have teeny tiny cigarettes that she hand role. They have mice in the walls and sometimes mice and little traps. There are socks that she hand knitted on straight pins and she would break with all but should hand widdle, tiny, tiny clothes pins that would fill these dynamic, so they were full of in a sort of the debris of life and in all of the things that are just normal parts of any given home in this teeny tiny scale that she had meticulously
He did so again. The word meticulous keeps coming up and there is a reason she was the skin on the dolls that she used was tearfully painted to mimic de composition in some cases, if it was a case where the scene was supposed to be found with his body having been there for a while. The blood spatter is carefully applied. The walls in cases where there is one there's one piece: that's entitled, burnt cabin and she had again meticulously built this entire cabin, and then she burned it down with a blowtorch and she was also using. She didn't do all of this all by herself, although most of it was but should also use com under sometimes yet a carpenter that she retain and really trusted, and he would work on some of the smaller woodworking elements of it. So alien dire others, the shades and the drawers all work, the doors have these tiny functioning locks with anybody keys in this
where there are children, there are many at your toys that are carefully recreated to mimic full sized virgins and, aside from their criminology impact, these directives are just incredible works of art all on their own, but the most important thing about these scenes as much as I can personally go on and on about all of their it little details that just come,
really capture my attention. They provided really important. Learning models for investigators, so through an analysis of each of these tiny crime, seems a systematic approach to crime. Scene investigation was really developed. She basically introduce these two investigators, police officers and attacked us, and they use them to develop the methods that are still being used today. These include, like using search zones to analyze a crime scene and investigative patterns, were though sometimes circle a scene from like the outside and spiral in word, so that they don't miss any details, and these are standard procedures now and they came from these tiny little sort of dollhouse die aromas, yet with amazing to me, isn't just but their standard procedure now, but that.
before anybody put together. A methodology like this, the whole field of crime scene investigation was kind of chaos like we talked about in our acts. Man of New Orleans episodes yeah like there were people didn't really have a say.
Guys do methodical way of looking at a scene to try to find evidence, and so they didn't, and so, even when they would consult with her other investigator. Sometimes they just want working on the same page because they didn't use the same approaches in all cases, and it just me things really tricky and needlessly complicated. So one of the things that achieving did as part of her seminars that she was hosting is she was basically creating a network of investigative researcher, so men had gone through. Eventually, I presume women attended, but in the early days it was a man that had gone through these classes in these seminars would then be connected to one another after they graduated the seminar and they would consult with each other and she sort of developed this. You know she catalyze this network, developing. Where detectors could talk to each other about things they had found it crime scenes and really you no kind of growth, the field in a way that it
or would have grown. Otherwise. If somebody hadn't said, let's get no room together and talk about what we're doing it's very cool, this episode of stuff you missed in history class, is brought to you by earnest. If you have student loans, refinancing them with Ernest could save you money or lower your monthly payments, and it only takes two minutes to check your rate online that funding, Oh relief can really go a long way when you are trying to pay down those loans. If you are still paying the same. That Europe had. When you graduated odds, are you could reduce your monthly payment and really save earnest is the easiest way to refinance or student loans saving you tie and money, and checking that me rate is so fast and easy. You just complete a few questions on line. It only takes a couple of minutes. You'll get a personalized rate estimate all of it without affecting your credit score. If you qualify, earnest offers customizable low. Terms and no fees so start saving. Today, our listeners ghetto,
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all of these schemes they all had a backstory of their own. They were put together based on actual case reports and actual information about crimes, but the gall, according to Glass Nerli, was not to solve the crime that has happened in the dire Rama. It was to practise observation, and the nut shells became part. As I said, of these half seminars- and they ve been used to train investigators at the gathering for years. So normally when she was first doing this item of the methodology of using them has changed, but lake each student would be two of the models and they would get approximately proximately ninety minutes of study for each scene and then later the student investigators would give a verbal report before the group and
We all have a discussion of their findings that would ensue, and one of this goal one of the goals of this practice. As I said, she was developing this network in this dialogue among different investigators and how they would approach things, but it was also to get students away from this concept of following a hunch and instead to take in all of the evidence that they see on a crime scene, with an open mind like, instead of just looking for things that verify what they suspect has happened. She wanted them to learn to look at everything in a crime scene and not let any street detail go because they didn't think it. Where did what actually happened since reminding me of like an episode of bones? It should because a lot of that grew out of this She is also allegedly it and put it in here initially, but there have been
for four years, that she was actually the inspiration for Angela Landsbergis Character, a murder. She wrote because she was an older woman at this point. Doing all of this excited crime. Scene investigation glass narrowly continue to advocate for medical training for legal aid in Sensus, Eyes investigation practices, law enforcement all the way until the end of her life, your prior to her and her work with. Mcgrath coroner for example, didn't even have any medical training. It was you note an appointment, the thing and then they would rely on on the people below them to cover the medical bases, but she really wanted to make sure that there is a systematic way too. make sure that trained medical personnel were involved in investigations, and it wasn't just people guessing that did not know the workings of the human body. Frances died in New Hampshire at the rocks at the the small home that her family had had built there on January twenty seventh night,
Sixty two and four years later, the Department of legal medicine that she had endowed at Harvard was dissolved for lack of funding. The collection of nutshell, studies became part of a public display at the Maryland. Medical examiner is obvious when the department go. Medicine was closed, so not only are they available for public viewing, but there also use this teaching tools were forensic investigation. Here I think now you have to actually request permission to go. See them. I think, there's one in the lobby. I read a few different reports and eight fall at different times like different years. They ve been written. I think there's one or two still in the lobby that people his walk in and see and you can examine all of them. If you just make an appointment to go up, I think they're on the third floor of the Marilla Medical Examiners office, so it now
You may need to the net shells actually underwent a restoration that cross about fifty thousand dollars, just a general sort of upkeep and refresh other. They still have the cookie de corps in sunny Twelve, a documentary about the nut shell studies. made entitled of dolls and murder, and it examines the place of questioners, leaves work in relation to the forensic world as well as the role of women in society, of modern historians have Panem wanted to analyze her place in terms of lake and an early phase of feminism, which I didn't get into here. It's covered by other people. I really wanted to focus on her crime work, but one of the most interesting things about less burmese work is perhaps the fact that, while she was a self talk, criminologist that was afforded access to this hobby just because she was an heiress with immense wealth. She became incredibly respected by the men that she worked with him
and she helped to train, and she once said quote, I didn't do a lot of work to deserve. What I have. Therefore, I feel I have been left an obligation to do something that will benefit everybody wondering why an heiress thought that it would be fun to do this and became so impassioned about developing criminology systems
That is why, in her early years of studying and working for forensic science, she may have been seen as a kind of this wealthy eccentric lady, but that image has been completely eclipsed by the important influence of her work. Many men in looking at research for this I saw many men that she had worked through the years really describe her, is one of the best criminologists they had ever met like she definitely knew what she was talking about. She wasn't just making cute dollhouse scenes to play with whom she was very focused in it was. It was not random at all. She really was super smart super well educated, even if it was not the formal setting and she wrote an article nineteen, fifty two for the Journal of Criminal LAW and criminology, and I just wanted to read the last paragraph of it because
it is really sort of beautiful when it's a good way to end discussion about her. It's a quote. Technical skill, scientific knowledge and professional training, however, are not all there is to legal medicine. There is something else something hard to define which must accompany them quote. The application of medical knowledge and skill to the uses and purposes of the law. Unquote is not the whole story It is far more than that. It is an unremitting quest for facts. It is a constant and continuous search for truth in the interests of science in justice to expose the guilty to clear the innocent. It is a dedication of its own, peculiar wisdom and experience to the service of mankind. A sort of sums her entire approach to it, which makes me love it, and now I have listener me with an email. I have two pieces. Gazebo shorted first is from
listener. Alan who writes to us often and he's sent us some really beautiful pictures lately, while he's been traveling the world and is as high as you may know, from the tiger, I sent I was in India now, I'm catching up on. My Prague castle sewing behind. As a result, I just heard the one on Ambrose Beers. With that in mind, I would like to tell you something of interest. I, as a retired psychologist, volunteer at the veto in the Ps De Clinic in listening to his life after the civil war. It really
I did like he had PTSD the behaviors. You describe sound a lot like those of people suffering from PTSD, as did the experiences he had on the service, including the loss of his close friend. An ailing goes on to recommend the book Achilles in Vietnam by Jonathan Shea Empty Phd as a really good book on the subject of people are interested in it that occurred to me as well, but as someone who is not clinically versed in PTSD, I'm I'm always reluctant to make those jumps, even if it it seems like if it's all so, let's just get to have somebody who is a pro can a back up what I think, probably many of us were thinking in listening to the embers beer story. So my second note is from our listener, Kate and she wrote us on Facebook, and she says I recently discovered your broadcasts and I'm really enjoying it. Just listen to the two avarice broadcasts and was left wondering about the first woman. To sum up the mountain, you know anything about her or the history of women, climbing, oh, my gosh. Do I love this topic? I love love of this topic socially, like he asked about it, it's a little too
modern really for us to cover on the show there we have kind of it when we get some suggestions on times for things that are a little more modern than we usually talk about an hour are cut off, is kind of the late sixties early set you media and so on, but I will answer this is listener mail. It gives me the opportunity to talk a little bit more about Everest and a woman who is really amazing. Her name is Jim Quota. And she was the first woman to summit Everest. She is a native of Fukushima, and she made her historic assent in nineteen. Seventy, five and she's, really
credible in many ways. Her life story is fabulous because she fought very hard for women's equality in Japan. She actually founded the Ladys Climbing Club of Japan in nineteen sixty nine and she really broke cultural tradition on her assent because she left her three year old daughter home with her husband is unheard of culturally. At that point to just go off and climate Mountain and her husband is also a mountaineer to. Presumably he really had some understanding of either the drive that made her want to do this, her expedition, incredible because it consisted of a fifteen woman team, which was the first. It was mocked at the time by a lot of male mountaineers, so the events surrounding
summit were already pretty extraordinary and she has since become an advocate of sustainable mountaineering in the hopes that she can stop some of the destruction that happening as more and more climbers take on everything each year and will linked to a couple of really great articles about her in the show notes. If you want to read more about her, I have immense respect for her she's, an amazing woman, she's still alive sheets, just she has the most beautiful smile I love we think about her. I have a little bit of ever strategies for someone that doesn't want a climate, but I highly recommend reading up on her she's, really incredible. She only was the.
Feeling out to be the only woman than had ever summit it fairly less than two weeks. I think eleven, these later some another woman submitted that see em to continue her work in trying to really maintain the mountain, and I love her sustainable mountaineering work that you ve been doing. So. If you would like to write to us, you should do that. You can do it in a number of ways you can write to who, as the email at history Pike ass the discovery that cop you can check in with us on Facebook, at Facebook, back home, flash industry class stuff or on twitter aunt missed in history, We are also in history that tumblr com humour on Pinterest killing, like men, women. If you'd like to learn a little bit more about what we talked about today, you can go to your parent, faint House, the books and take in crime scene. Investigate in the search bar, you will get an article called how crime scene investigation works. One of the really cool things in that article is a series of dreams about the the investigation pants
they were developed as a consequence of the worst with Frank. This question we like this by Robert, I talked about in the sort of zones, investigation approach to crime scenes, and you can learn about that and almost anything you like it, our parents languages has to work. Then you can also visit us on our own magical, exciting history site, which is list in history done. We hope you devote the listening, thousands of how someone check this episode is brought in Burma
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