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Friedel Klussmann and San Francisco's Cable Cars

2018-11-26 | 🔗

San Francisco’s cable cars are the last working system of their kind. The reason they haven’t been completely replaced by more modern modes of transportation is largely the advocacy of a woman named Friedel Klussmann.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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The kid just a short flight from the? U S and fifty minutes drive from the airport Baja are isn't easy, get away any time of the year. The book your next vacation have one of the report's three iconic hotels and tourists or what you specials, including up to thirty five percent savings on your stay. Yes, thirty five percent visit Mordechai, that's Baja, more Dhaka. Ba H, it may are dot com Welcome to stuff you missed in history class from Housetop works, tat, come hello and welcomes the party ass, I'm crazy bewilderment, Polly frying earlier this year we finished up our West Coast Tour and our last stop. There was in San Francisco whenever we have a brake on that's where we have kind of a choice of where do we want to
and our night off in the place where we just finished, to show or the place where we're doing the next show, and I decided TAT. I had never been to San Francisco oh said she's. The one were during the next shall I spent my night off their and while I was in San Francisco, I stumbled across the San Francisco Cable Car museum. One hundred percent by happenstance and I'm in the front of the museum. I was immediately captivated by a plaque dedicated to someone who was known as the cable car. Lady cable. Cars, of course, are an icon. It part of San Francisco and same Francisco's. Cable cars are the last working system of their kind in the world. The reason they haven't been completely replaced by more modern modes of transportation is largely because of the advocacy of women and, in particular, the advocacy of Fidel clues men, who is the person who became known as the cable car lady, Spain established what would become the city of sandwiches
in September of one thousand seven hundred and seventy six initially as a military post, a mission commonly known as Mision Dolores Open that October, it's more formal name is mission San Francisco De Assisi and like the city itself, it was named for Saint Francis of Assisi. The mission's purpose was to christianize the native population and it was built using conscripted labor from northern California native peoples. The area became part of Mexico after the Mexican WAR of independence, which one thousand eight hundred and twenty one, but it was one thousand eight hundred and thirty five before there was an actual european settlement in the area. Beyond that missing a military post. That settlement was the village of Yerba Buena and one thousand eight hundred and forty six eleven years after Yerbabuena was asked list, Captain John, be Montgomery, captured it for the United States during the Mexican American WAR on January. Thirty, at that,
one thousand eight hundred and forty seven, it was renamed San Francisco San Francisco became part of the United States, along with the rest of California, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended that wore it first, San Francisco's population white small by the end of the mexican American. Warm there were about five hundred people, including Europeans, Africans native Americans and Pacific islanders. But after the gold rush started in eighteen, forty, nine, the population of San Francisco boomed. We talked about this little bit and our Levi Strauss episode and suddenly tens of thousands of people were flocking to the city hoping to strike at risk. or to make lots of money off of the people who were hoping to strike it rich. The city grew incredibly rapidly by one thousand eight hundred and seventy its population was about two hundred and fifty thousand people and one of its ongoing challenges with transportation and shipping. If you have never been to San Francisco, it is very
hurry hilly. Even if you seem seen footage of the city and movies are on tv. The steepness of some of the hills can be really incredibly startling when you experience them for the first time in person. It was a huge, huge challenge to safely move people and cargo up and down all these hills, especially in the winter when the city could be very damp, and all of this was also compounded by the fact that the terrain was very sandy. Andrew Smith, Howie gets the credit for coming up with San Francisco famous solution to this problem. Howdy was born Andrew Smith and was named after his father, and he took the name Halliday later on. In honour of his uncle and Godfather so Andrew Smith, the file and Andrew Psmith Hallidie. The sun had emigrated to the United States from the UK.
during the gold rush. Although Smith returned home in eighteen, fifty three, how it he had been a tinkerer since he was a boy and Smith was an engineer and inventor and similar Smith's patents were for wire rope, something that Howdy had worked with him on and which other inventors had been refining and developing as well as the name suggests. Wire rope was like hemp and rope, but it was aid with wire and consequently, with a lot stronger. Since its initial development in the early nineteenth century wire rope had started to replace, hamper rope for our task. That needed says something that was particularly strong so The royal Navy had started replacing hemp and rope with wire and eighteen thirties, and soon it was, so being used to pull heavy mine cars that were loaded with or and to support, aerial, trams and mountainous areas, suspension bridges, including the when bridge were also using wire rope for their suspension cables. Halliday start
working on an idea to employ wire rope, inner mass transit system in the early eighteen seventies, he was reportedly inspired deduce. A few years earlier, after witnessing a tragic incident, he had seen a team of horses pulling a heavy load up, one of San Francisco, steep hills, being resolutely driven on by their handler only to lose their footing on wet cobblestones any he that he could work out a system that would be safe for moving people in freight, especially on those steep hills. He wanted to eradicate, quote the great cruelty and hardship to the horses. Indeed, Did that work holidays idea was also informed by his time in the mining industry that which happened after he arrived in. The United States had worked on a flume that transported mining cars up and down hill, with the loaded cars being pulled up by the weight of the empty cars coming back down. He'd also worked on aerial tram ways and suspension bridge is all
relied on wire rope and all this work he was doing with what launched the manufacturing of wire rope in California. He's like a pre Disney. Imagine here with the ways he comes have with to move stuff around you're. A lot of his inventions were pretty ingenious. Yeah. When it came to San Francisco hilly terrain, he thought he could create an underground system. of wire ropes, wound around a series of police to pull cars above ground, and he called them. Underground system and endless wire rope way, and it required him to refine his wire rope until it had enough flexibility am tensile strength to him.
All of this winding and moving without breaking and this system, a power house would drive the cable through the endless wire rope way. This was basically a bunch of giant wheels that would move the cables as they turned and the system of police that held everything at the right tension. Although today's powerhouse is electric the first power houses in the nineteenth century were steam powered so keeping out running, required huge amounts of steam and huge amounts of coal to power, the boilers that were making all the steam at street level. The system involved a set of steel tracks for the cable cars to run on and between these tracks is a slot under that slot. Is that finally moving cable and we could get into a lot more detail here and there are several different set ups of how all this work, which have evolved
over the years, but just to get a general sense of it. A grip operator of the street car itself operates controls that grip, the cable through the slot and that cable pulls the car and today that cable moves at a steady, nine point five miles per hour as about fifteen kilometers per hour. As I know the word for the person who does this job grip, men is still widely use, because at the job that's been almost exclusively done by men. Only to women have ever worked as grip operators in San Francisco. The first was Fanny May Barnes, who finished her training and ninety ninety seven and started working and ninety. Ninety eight. The grip operator, also lets go of the table when necessary, for example, when two cables for different lines cross over each other or when there's a curve or greed that the should coasts through rather than being pulled. The operator would also let go at the end of the line so that the carcass coast onto a turntable, which could then be used to turn around and point.
the car, the other direction, to go back down the same track. Cable cars also have several breaks for things like going down, steep hills and for emergency stocks Howdy by the time you started working on. This was well known in San Francisco. He was a respected businessmen and engineer. He was president of the Mechanics Institute, but at the same time, a lot of people that this whole cable car idea was completely cockamamie. So he had to struggle to get funding before Finally forming the Clay Street Hill railroad along with several other partners. There first attempted lime ran up. Knob Hill was a distance of twenty eight hundred feet. That's about eight hundred and fifty three metres with a rise of three hundred seven feet or ninety four meters. The passenger car looked a lot like the horse drawn passenger cars of the day with a grip car called an open dummy, replacing the horse
they had a deadline to finish this first stretch of cable car line, and that deadline was August. First eighteen, seventy three- they ve been working on for quite a while, and as this deadline got closer and closer, they got more and more frantic trying to finish it on time. Even after working overnight, ultimately missed it by a day, but the first test run on August second, with exactly as planned, with one exception. After the trip up the hill which happen at around midnight, the car was all set to go back down around four or five a m, but the operator was too terrified to do it. The hill was just so steep and it was very foggy and dark so how'd he took the car back down Knob Hill himself. I completely understand that fear I'm here with deep. It is, I mean I won't even leg: bride rollerblades down an inn,
line, like I say, think, it'll, even though they had missed their deadline once that successful first trip happened, people started. get really excited about how these invention in open for public service on September. First, eighteen: seventy three for the next four years: Clay Street Hill Railroad was the only cable car company in San Francisco, although many more followed after that. Ultimately, eight railroad companies lay fifty three miles of track over the eighteen, seventeen and eighteen eighties
Other cities also built their own cable car lines as well. How these original clay Street line in San Francisco was dismantled and replaced in eighteen. Ninety one on April eighteenth, nineteen o six, the great earthquake and fire did serious damage to the cable cars system, including destroying many of the cars, and by that point another innovation had come along electric street cars which had been developed in eighteen. Eighty, eight just a year before the last cable contracts were laid down in San Francisco, the electric street cars were more efficient and they were much less expensive to build and maintain. So after the great earthquake in fire, most of the cable car lines were replaced with electric street cars. But if you compare to cable cars performance to an electric street car in nineteen o six, the cable car could still do a much better job at managing San Francisco steepest hills. So
Most of the cable cars system was replaced with electric street cars, the healthiest cable car routes, where repaired and rebuilt as cable cars street cars continued to improve the which meant that, after a while, they were better able to manage San Francisco hills as well as more and more Caroline shut down, replaced by electric street cars and other forms of transit by the ninety. forties. There were only a few cable car lines left. We will get the how they almost went away entirely after a sponsor break situated on the beautiful cable beach by Hamas is a spectacular resort destination in the Bahamas, with your choice of three ocean front hotels, the grand high it s about and rosewood. This is the place to find perfect London Luxury relaxation and a lot of fun whatever you're looking for you can find it. I Baja MAR the Bahamas most exciting voluntary destination. The resort is home to over four restaurant bars in
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In eighteen, forty four, the Market Street Railway Company in San Francisco was going to shut down. Voters approved a measure for the city to by the company, giving San Francisco control of the Powell Mason and why ten Jackson lines. The mayor at the time was Roger lap, em and after the Market Street railway headed over all of its assets to the city, he had a photo op piloting, one of the cars that was formerly owned by market street all through the town, but Lapham's relationship to the cable cars turned out to be fraught and campaigned on. The idea of running the city in a business like way modernizing and approving efficiency. As a nation came out of World WAR Ii in nineteen, forty six, the city raised rates on the cable cars from zero dollars and seven cents to zero dollars and ten cents hoping to make the system self sustaining on top of
steep increase. The hype went into effect, while the operators were all on strike, and this contributed to a call for a recall election with lab himself signed petition that called for it, although the city did hold a vote, the measure failed. Fifty nine percent of voters rejected the recall, zero dollars and seven cents to zero dollars, and ten cents probably doesn't sound like that giant of an increase to a modern ear. But, like that's a huge percentage yeah I mean that's, you know almost fifty per in Greece. Tat, if you, if you amp, that up to bigger numbers they give you are paying. For example, this is a real number. Seventy dollars a month for parking, and then it was suddenly a hundred the next You would be alarmed at the huge job, then a nineteen, forty six.
after all, that has happened as part of a city wide effort to modernize that improve efficiency. Lapham started talking about shutting the cable cars down completely and replacing them with buses. By that point, the city was operating only the Powell Street Cable, Caroline California, street cable railroad, which had been formed, some wealthy businessmen to get to their mansions on Knob Hill had another three lines and those are the only cable cars that were left in the city. So what the city was talking about, shutting down was theirs city owned Powell Street lines on January, twenty seven one forty seven hundred and said this in his annual message to the Board of supervisors, which is the city's governing body quote. I know there are strong.
sentimental reasons for keeping this old, ingenious and novel mode of transportation. The fact remains that the sentimentalists do not have to pay the bills and do not have to run the risk of being charged with criminal negligence. In the very possible event, a cable breaks and a car gets loose on one of our steep hills, supposedly very possible event of cable break was really not all that likely, though, although there had been accidents on the cable cars, as is the case with any mode of transportation, and these accidents had not been caused by cable breaks. Fraying sections of the cable were repaired or replaced before total breaks could happen and totally snapped cables are extremely rare news, spread immediately above the mayor's plan to replace the cable cars with buses, the front page of the San Francisco, chrome on January twenty eight said junk. The cable cars Lap M says the antiquated system endangers lives.
another headline, the next day, red cable cars. On way out. City orders super buses days of the rip. Men are nearly over officials, tired of opera being at a loss. But the move from City Hall became a little disjointed from there On January thirtieth, James H, Turner. He was the utilities manager made a statement that totally contradicted what the mayor had just said. He claimed that the ten buses that the city had ordered weren't supposed to replace the cable cars entirely. They were just supposed to pick up a few difficult and highly roots. He said quote the fact that someone in his office said that the new buses would be used on Powell. Street was just sort of a rumour, and then public works director, hair, even Samuel, so that there was no way that the coming buses could safely climbed the hills in question in wet weather, contradicting both the utilities manager and the mayor's previous statements here.
The only way to make those hills safer. Buses was a twenty fourth thousand dollar refurbishment job to resurface, those hilly streets and no money had been earmarked for such a project, an editorial in the San Francisco, Chronicle and February. Third, red quote bus lines would be a good deal less expensive, but against this savings should be weighted first passenger comfort, which has some money value, even if it cannot be demonstrated, and second, the market value of an institution. Helps make the city stand out among cities of the world later in February, report started to circulate the voters were going to get to choose the fate of the cable cars, but it turned out that news was not about the city own power lines. It was about those privately owned, cable cars, the belong, the caliph history table, railroad the voters we're going to get
decide whether the city bought the California Street lines, not whether it kept the power lines in the city did by the California lines. The plan was to operate those but shut down Powell Street, because the Powell Straight lines were the more expensive ones in the midst of all this case,. ass to organizations came together and held a meeting on March forth that to host organizations. Were the San Francisco Federation of the arts and the California Spring Blossom and Wild Flower Association also in attendance at this meeting, where the leaders of twenty seven different women, civic groups from San Francisco and the result of this meeting was the formation of the citizens
committee to save the cable cars, also known as the save the cable cars committee, its leader was for Dell clues men of the federation of the arts. Clues man was a long time resident of the Telegraph Hill neighbourhood. She was an artist who had studied at the California School of fine arts, which is now San Francisco ART Institute. In addition to her civic involvement, she'd been a member of the San Francisco women artists and the San Francisco Artists Association, even though she was a fairly private person by nature, she threw herself into the public effort to save the cable cars. What followed with a series of doing reports from City Hall and the committee, the city, claimed that the cars were unsafe, but the committee claimed the opposite with transit authorities actually backing them up on the idea that, especially when it came to their extreme hills, the cable cars were a safe way to travel, and other issue was traffic congestion, the cable cars
on the same roadways that cars used use and the mayor's office argued that having cars and street cars and cable cars all using the same space with causing too many traffic jams. The mayor's office correctly pointed out that the cable cars, Jim, was operating at a daily loss and claims that the proposed bus replacement would be profitable. The cable cars committee countered that the year before, Tourism had generated more than thirty four million dollars and revenues for the city and getting rid of the cable cars would be a blow to that industry. The committee also noted that the bus system as Who was not profitable at all with the cable cars while much more limited service also lose.
seeing a lot less money than the buses did. A statement of retention of the Powell Street system, which was released by the Cable cars committee. Put it this way quote. No one suggests the discontinuance of buses because they are losing money. Any present monetary loss and the operation of the cable cars is more than compensated for by the wide publicity they give San Francisco throughout the world. Lapham kept hammering on the idea that the cable cars were outdated and obsolete, including having one drawn through the city by a horse just to make a point. Clues men can't pointing to the uniqueness of
cable cars and the cities fondness for them and the character that they brought to San Francisco, as well as their importance to the tourism industry. Meanwhile, women across the city were gathering signatures on a petition to put this matter to a vote. This dispute between the city, government and a cable cars can eighty became national news. It was covered in publications like time life and the Saturday evening, Post Glyn Hurlbird, with Gregg Mc Richie and his orchestra release a song called the cable car. Concerto celebrities started announcing that they wouldn't come to San Francisco if there were no more cable cars. I read a whole collection of reports in the New York Times, but had this just delighted tone so the whole spectacle with one of them calling the cable cars system quote anachronistic, but eminently likeable
I'll, be a grave epitaph. Richard Gump, who was head of the retail enterprise gulps, put an ad in time magazine asking for the opinions of people outside of Saint Francis,
in all, but one of the sacks and sacks of letters that came in said to keep those cars and, as a side note dumps, was founded during the gold rush and it was still in business. As of this recording, although there are some news reports from August of this year, which is two thousand and eighteen say it may be out of business by the end of this year due to financial problems. Ultimately, it started to look like all of that signature gathering and knocking on doors and making calls and speaking the crismon and the committee were doing, was going to pay off a headline in the March sixth, one thousand nine hundred and forty seven edition of a San Francisco Chronicle Red cable cars, get a boost. San Francisco women, they forced city to let voters decide. On March 13th Eleanor Roosevelt wrote about the dispute in her mind a column during a stay in San.
She said that she understood why people were so passionate about it, because the cars or one of the first things that people thought of when it came to San Francisco. But it also went on to say that she thought the bay in the bridges really offered the most charm. After months of effort, Classmen and the cable car committee were successful, they gathered forty thousand sick pictures of their petition, and it was announced that San Francisco voters would get to weigh in on proposition ten and November of nineteen. Forty seven has proposition would amend the city's charter to make the San Francisco Municipal Railway and the public utilities commission responsible for maintaining the cable car lines on election day more than one hundred and sixty six thousand people voted yes on proposition ten, just a little more than fifty one thousand voted. No, this wasn't the end of the struggle over the street.
Down we'll get to that after another quick sponsor break. I dont think America has ever gone back to the way that it was before nine eleven of anthrax attacks. The fear was really that there would be a second wave of attacks and then along comes the DC steeper and all of the countries. Worst fears are realised. The gunman most likely a skilled marksmen fired six times in the course of sixteen hours and then, as the DC sniper case, unfolded that terror boldly group she found out about this terror hard in this message to police the police say they have never had a crime, quite like this. Quite a mystery. I do believe he was brainwash the lack of a better terms. It was scary to go to the grocery store, fill up your car with gas, it was actually brilliant, say mother would be to leave the house
This was the most intense man Hunt in american law enforcement, history, listen to monster decent her on the eye, hard radio, app Apple podcast or wherever you get your podcast Providence hen was something of a temporary reprieve. When it came to San Francisco cable cars, there was trouble of one kind or another for about four decades, everything from budgets to maintenance problems to city officials, trying again so winnowed down how many cable car lines the city had in nineteen. Fifty two, the city finally took over the caliph Cornea street cable, railroads after Lloyds of London cancelled its insurance policy following an accident at first. The city continue to operate all of the California Street lines, but it turned out that, contrary to what
been thinking back in nineteen forty seven. These lines were even more expensive than the Powell Street lines and nineteen fifty four the issue was a and put to a vote with two competing propositions on the ballot proposition J, which would have kept all of the lines running at full capacity, was defeated. Proposition II, which include the two Powell straight lines and one California line one by a very narrow margin. This had involved another spirited campaign with clues man once again, returning to the public eye and as one example, the Playhouse Theatre group riding in cars in costume, carrying signs protesting, the idea of shutting any of the cable cars down in the end, the three lines that remained after the passage of proposition e were the ones that still exist the Powell high line, the Powell Mason Line and the California line. Also in the nineteen fifty rice around the San Francisco treat, was introduced.
Domenico family knows San Francisco and the famous jingle complete with the sound of a cable car bell, followed in nineteen sixty one. The product packaging still features a silhouette of a cable car, and the product itself has been advertised on the sides of cable cars and, as an underside note, every year, since one thousand nine hundred and fifty five cable car operators have had a bell ringing competition. Now I want rice, a Roni is delish. In nineteen sixty one a plaque was unveiled includes honour at the cable car powerhouse on Mason stream. The inscription is long, but we're gonna read the whole thing, because it's quite charming and reads the morning of January twenty Eightth nineteen, forty seven same franciscans read the news that a fleet of buses would replace the cable cars operating on Powell stream. miss is almost casual manner, same franciscans, who have a feeling and and
action for their cable, cars were informed that the most colorful transportation line in their city was to perish. Indeed, the Powell Street Line star get a turntable on market street, slipping past union square. increasing. The knob and russian hills on its meandering way to the Bay might well be the most colorful street. Real in the world now it was announced, the cable cars would be scrapped and their tracks torn up A rumble of indignation was heard throughout San Francisco at first. This anger remained directionless for want of a leader with energy sentiment, dedication and an intelligent sense of history. It was not long, however, before the embodiment of these qualities came forward in the person of Fidel close one same franciscans had found their general. Mrs clues men organise the Citizens Committee to save the cable cars and the campaign against indifference and short. Sightedness was on MRS Clues Man and her forces maintained that a life
Death decision about the cable cars should be made by the people and not by administrative order against odds and disappointments, which would have discouraged unless determined person. Mrs clues months, efforts secured a place for the Powell Street line on the ballot, and, while the nation fascinated by this sentimental and stout exe Michael looked on San Francisco went to the polls and, by an overwhelming majority, said, save the cable cars this in future patients are in debt to the king, look our lady as MRS Clues man is affectionately known and to the timely forces which she organised. She not only preserved away of transportation that continued to serve and delight, but also saved the city's trademark and nineteen sixty four San Francisco cable cars became a national historic landmark, there's actually won.
There are street car designated as a national, historic landmark in the United States. That is the New Orleans Saint Charles Street car line, which has an electric street car. We try to take strict Karl, you were in New Orleans and we failed because ever they were all full we are, we were. We were trying to do allegedly look around ride and it kind of became apparent that people who actually lived in the city needed it because it was already crowded with people. Doing allegedly looker happened did not Graham on so that one was made it as a landmark in twenty fourteen and is the oldest continually operating street car in the world by nineteen sixty four power Keep so well aware that messing with the cable cars was likely to be a hugely unpopular move as one oh cable cars system. Anyone deteriorated through everything from normal, wear and tear to earthquakes. The result was a massive restoration project in the early nineteen abies
but while it was taken for granted that trying to shut down the cable cars would be deeply unpopular. Move voters We all had enthusiastic about approving funding to keep them well maintained. This is like the trial of public transportation, everywhere being designated a national historic landmark had protected the cable cars existence, but it hadn't really protected them from a lack of maintenance and upkeep. So by the nineteen seventeen. The cable cars system was facing very, very serious problems. Everything about the whole cable our system has deteriorated through everything from normal, wear and tear to earthquakes. The result was a massive restoration project in the early nineteen abies, spearheaded I then mayor, Diane Feinstein, the total renovation took twenty one months during which the cars were shut down. It about sixty million dollars, the system finally, open on June, twenty first nineteen. Eighty four: that system is also
currently undergoing a gearbox renovation that has involved a few multi day shutdowns, Fidel clues men died October, twenty second nineteen, eighty six and her home on telegraph hell at the age of nine, be Diane Feinstein com. her quote one of San Francisco truly modern heroines and ninety nine. Seven. The turn around at the end of the power high line fishermen's wharf was named. The fridge L Classmen memorial turnaround clues men's effort to save the cable cars in nineteen. Forty seven also led to the establishment of San Francisco beautiful that year she became its first president and remained so until her death. That organization still exist today and advocates for civic beauty. Neighbourhood and the line it is runs in the other direction. On the way. Back with the flip of a switch, the cars on the two power lines run in one direction. Only so when they get to the end of the line they are manually turned around on a turn table the powerhouse that
the lines, cars are larger and their open on both ends with the open spaces. Having a platform where people can stand and hold on to power lines have smaller car that have this open area only on one and there are also a few restored cars from other models that come out on special occasions. For the most part, these two types of cars run the same way. Although the cars California line can go and either direction. So when one gets to the end of the line, it is runs and other direction on the way back with the flip of a switch the cars on the two power lines and in one direction only so when they get to the end of the line they are manually. turned around on a turn table the powerhouse that runs all of these at Washington and masons It is also now home to the cable car museum, which was established a nineteen seventy four,
can go in there and see the machinery that runs the underground cables, plus lots of retired cable car models, lots of other information about San Francisco history. In the history of the cable cars. I happened to walks directly, pass it after having climbed an incredible steep hill and then gone down the other side, and I would have gone in their anyway. But it was particularly appealing, so be it a flat place for a few minutes. Do you have a little but a listener? Mail for us do. This is a correction. It is from Tereza an traces of deer, Tracy and Holly. I absolutely adore your show, but as a Czech I couldn't not notice a mistake in your statement. Quote the vial started in Germany, then spread into Austria as well as Tibet, Land, which Germany had recently annexed from the Austria hungarian Empire. That is, from our episode on Kristallnacht, so deadline was annexed by the Munich diktat from
before back here, not from the Austro hungarian Empire, which fell apart and nineteen eighteen at the end of world war, one, the establishment of Czechoslovakia was formerly announced on October, twenty eight nineteen eighteen, the Munich diktat, our as we often call it. The Munich betrayal is still a very painful part of czech history. Czechoslovakia was Paqui informed by Great Britain and France that we could either fight Germany alone or submit to giving up our border reasons to Germany. Our officials knew how hopeless and tragic a war against Germany would be for us and they reluctantly capitulated on September 30th, one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight. Now, when I am thinking about it, this is a great episode suggestion the Munich thanks for all the wonderful work you do. I listen to your show on my commute to work when I do chores or some
boreas and boring stuff in the lab. I'm a scientist, knowing that your episode is waiting for me, makes me look forward to boring activities even to washing dishes, have a wonderful day to raise it to raise a thank you for this note, a piece This, not only did I know, but we have done this day in history class episode about the establishment of Czechoslovakia. What I did was when I saw Sudan land. I was like ok, I gotta refresh my memory. About where exactly that was because I did not immediately recall and the piece of infamy In that my mind, just sort of latched onto was its earlier history, not what was actually current by the time we were leading up to world were to you. So that was just my failure to follow through one piece of information to its logical conclusion. We have all gotten several emails from people living in Germany about how, in Germany, Kristallnacht does not really
All that anymore, it is called Reich's programme knocked, which means exactly what it sounds like red, the Rex pogrom night and the term kristallnacht is still basically ubiquitous in english language publications, including from like jewish history centres,
and the World Holocaust Museum in an all of that, so in Germany it is no longer widely used because it was basically a term that was coined by Nazis as a euphemism and sewed in Germany, it's not typically used any more. For that reason, outside of Germany, I don't think I found any source that did not use it, so there is a little disparity there. So thank you again to raise for sending your note and to the folks they have written to us about rags programme knocked. If you would like to write to us about this or any other pike, aspirate history, podcast Housetop works dot com. We are also on social media, missed in history that three or find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and instruments are website is missed in history. Dot com, where you ll, find share, notes on all the episode Polly and I have done together and a surgical archive of
we emphasise ever you can subscribe to our show on Apple pie, casts Google. Plaid casts the eye heart radio up anywhere else. Your package for more on this and thousands of other topics visit, has to work. Stockholm situated on the beautiful cable beach humbler is a spectacular new resort, does nation in the Bahamas, with your choice of three ocean front hotels, the grand high it s so and rosewood. This is the place to find Perfect London luxury relaxation and a lot of fun, whatever you're looking for You can find it. I Baja MAR the Bahamas most exciting Larry destination. The resort is home to over four restaurant bars in judges ranging from casual work.
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