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Heaven on Earth: the Brook Farm Community

2013-05-27 | 🔗

In the 1840s, Boston's West Roxbury suburb -- which was completely rural at the time -- was home to an experiment in transcendentalist utopian living: the Brook Farm community. The idea was to create an environment of balance and equality.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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I just realized that the first letter of every line of this revenue spells help me. It seems, like everyone's critic, these days blessing the world with our slightest opinions on our own many platforms, I'm scotch benefits, and I break on this February. Tenth guns, citizen critic, a new podcast, where we predict the critics and review the reviews of your favorite movies, music television, toasters, toiletries in paint, colors, listen, do citizen critic on the eye, heart, radio, an apple pie, guests or wherever you get your bike, assets, we're continue stuff. You missed history class from how dot com hello and went into the park cast I'm Hollingford and I'm tracing being Wilson and today, talk about an experiment in utopian living
You like this, has been tried many times it has an even while this was going on. There were many many others going on so too. you, some clues. What we're talking about from eighteen, forty one eighteen, forty six by things works West, Roxbury Suburb, which at the time was completely rural, and it is not so much now with home, too fishermen in transcendentalists utopian living, called the Brook farm community and I've read at the time that there were approximate eighty other similar experimental communities going on in the? U S, Erasmus. They were there I'll in New England. There were they all over think they were highly concentrated in New England, but there were a few in other parts of the country, but it is a fascinating concept to think about, like a bunch of light, minded people, all kind of throwing in their lot together and train we live in a community where you know they all work.
together to sort of attempt to achieve a blissful happiness. I see the appeal You know on paper it's on paper. I am a and then, in reality, missile see in practice. Sustaining a harder to make that work. Canter one sustaining yourself as a community they're, pretty difficult and the founder of this experiment- was a man named George Ripley In brief, firm was really unusual because it was the first community of its time that was secular, there were many utopian societies wanting, as I said, but the rest were all pretty aligned with religious ideals and we'll talk a little bit more about the religion element later, but Ripley was a youth unitarian minister, and he actually the community with the idea that the residents could pursue their scientific and literary studies there, while also working. So he wanted liquor
working thinking balance. He has If Willard Dana Ripley were heavily influenced by the Transcendentalists movement which emphasizes a more intuitive spirituality. And being highly connected to nature and living outside the trappings of societal rules. The famous writers associated with Transcendental ISM rough Oh Emerson, and also fuller and Louisa may alcott anything no Hawthorne who plays into the story a bit me so Ripley envision the place of balance. quality, where people can live very closely with the land and on time that class gender and AIDS would not play any part. in how valuable a person was viewed in terms of the rest of the community average. That's a big The big thing they tied down variety so how this all got started is that George Ripley and his friend Theodore Pucker, attended the Christian
convention in eighteen, forty and its at that. That Ripley had the idea for broke farm This convention was organised in part by a group called quote matters and they were religious protestors who had left their churches to speak out against. All sects like they didn't want the separate elements of religion, they didn't see why we couldn't all does come together and spirituality and other delegates of the conference also went on to form their own utopian society. So Ripley was not fly so low in getting this idea there that it must have been talked about because several societies grew out of the These people had, while they were at that particular convention. I mean many of the attendees were seeing the potential of establishing communities where people could really simplify their lives and shift to em intuitive relationship with spirituality and so After that, Ripley resigned from his ministry to pursue his dream of creating
heaven on earth that was his his full time. Work at that point was to figure out a way. Make this idea reality. So here a letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson and which described his ideals for what brook form would be like, and he wrote, are checked, as you know, are to ensure a more natural union between intellectual and manual labor than now exists to combine think or in the worker as far as possible in the same individual, together, see the highest mental freedom by providing all with labour adapted to their tastes and talents and secure to them the fruits of their industry. to do away with the necessity of menial services by opening the benefits of education and the profits of labour. To all thus to prepare a society of liberal, intelligent, uncultivated persons. Whose relations with each other would permit a more simple and wholesome life.
they can be led amidst the pressures of our competitive institutions. Again, I see the appeal pretty good ideal and while Emerson and also saw the appeal he was a proponent of transcendentalists em. He actually climb the invitation to join Ripley Group. He felt like this. idle changes that Ripley was hoping to capitalize of Brook Farm would actually be better served by individuals. Instead of then he wrote of it all failed that the reform of reforms must be accomplished without means. I E. He didn't really want this big organised group to try to change society. He thought you better one on one just talking with people and I think what what he is trying to do. You sort of sea threads of this today the whole idea that people should followed passion and make their career based on their passion. It sort of a similar idea of like uniting people's work with, what's gonna be meaningful to them.
You would do better one on one is talking with people and I think what what he is trying to do. You sort of sea threads of this today the whole idea that people should Margaret fuller who we mentioned earlier is another writer. That's often connected to this movement was also invited to participate. in brief farm, but she decline for the same. Ideological reasons is Emerson. She didn't see or didn't feel like this structured group to do it was really the best way to affect social change, so the Brick farm institute for agriculture and education was established in eighteen. Forty one Ripley had figured out what he was going to mean thirty thousand dollars for the land in the buildings and to support the community for its first year, so he found, monsters vision by selling fears of the farm for five hundred dollars. Each wave later prove to be a very bad bad plan. An he took contributions from like minded philanthropists here,
the two hundred acres dairy farm in West Roxbury, adjacent to the Charles River. For ten thousand five, dollars on October, Eleventh eighteen, forty one He didn't have any knowledge of farming, and so he started to study agriculture as he planned the farm and mostly four also say: there's a reason. It was a dairy farm which is that it had really awful soil for actually growing crops. Yesterday focus on the dairy part, but it may be have been the purchase that a more season farmer would it made no and the fact that some you have. No knowledge of agriculture is trying to. a community, that's going to sustain itself by farming, sort of senseless Yeah They really got to the point where they have the land and they had to figure out the actual logistics of how this farm was work. So you know they had the ideals of transcendentalists I'm, but the ripples really like had to figure out how is performed gonna function when they had
decided that the main farmhouse on the property which is going to be called the hive, would serve the primary dorm, and it also has a lot of the social spaces. it was a community school which eventually moved into a building carbon nests and it was run by Sophia Ripley and her sister in law. Marianne and it was designed to educate future citizens, absolutely range based on affinity, so people can choose their work. As he said in his his letter, tat Emerson, they were gonna. Try to people are able to do the jobs that most appealed to them, so they would be most fulfilling their work week. I'd sixty hours from the month of may talk and then forty, eight, November two April, there change jobs, frequently to keep people from getting bored, and do lots of stuff to try to make the tasks, intellectually, stimulating and There is actually to her. He please
because other about them attaching little reading stands to like ironing boards, people can be doing. They are sort of menial ironing tasks that had to get Dunham the laundry the same time they could be broadening their minds and reading things that are of interest to them. The resort of imagining a nineteenth century game, suffocation of milking everything, mostly lots of reading. That's cool but all the laborer, regardless of who was doing it, got the same innovation and for people who working. The rent was four dollars a week, so you could go. Oh and be at birth, was a border and not work that you'd have to be paying fear. Your room on board, and there's a really unique thing about Brook Farm in that it almost entirely broke. The role of women is housekeepers whisky to mine, eighteen, forty services,
really pretty revolutionary in terms of how the older women and men are defined, but cameras, who is scholar who is waiting for the Unitarian Universalism history inherent Society made an note about this particular element in the east. there really wasn't a household to keep their word at least at the start of brick farm. Family units, so the majority of the participants were young and unmarried and without children, so internally keeping house and heritage society. The same as if someone had moved in with like their three children, you know they had to make sure were clothed in toys are picked up and
the little bit easier when it's all young singles to kind of have everybody do in their own tidying and not have to really have a housekeeper per se. This episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, brought to you by Norton three sixty with lifelong, what they your shopping online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going up places. In fact, whenever you shop, bank or browse online, your personal invoking get out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats demand more protection. That's why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton three
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Twenty five percent, or more of your first year, go to Norton dot com, slash history, that's Norton, Dotcom, slash history for twenty five percent off, so there were twenty go to start, but that number quickly got a lot. Bigger yeah waxed and weighing the little bit as preferment on, but I dont think it went down to that smaller but until the end, The interesting thing that happened is that once the initial enthusiastic optimism of life in a new utopia wore off at sea, the members of Brook Farm kind of separated into two categories- one the people they were happy there and kind of found. This simple, I very fulfilling and people you realize that farming is hard and they, really enjoy this whole toil thing they they were like life of the mind that sounds great weight. Shoveling manure yeah well
Sixty our work week colluded before we have a lot of people today would find a sixty our work week to be horrible, a lot and if, like sixty hours of sitting at a desk like we're talking sixty hours of, like you were saying, spreading manure and ploughing Anthea keeping a farm going is lot of man our yes, and it is hard labor and most a lot of these people were not accustomed to hard labor. Like I they came in, from the intellectual mindset of like oh, yes, we can live the land in the meantime reading, all the time and studying, but they didn't get that whole like we're. Gonna have to cultivate the lamb. yeah. We grew all of our vegetables. When I was growing up, I don't think we ever. vegetables at a store and it was really state work for the entire spring summer: rainfall yeah, I mean
I grow very small amounts of things and I have to, I feel, like they invited to take me an hour a day to stimulate check on plants and weed and that's my tiny, tiny, little container garden so, of course, on a farm where's lottery. Ours is actually probably a pretty reasonable yeah number yeah the people that fell into that second group of farming is hard, did not stick around the thing. And was one of them. I think he was he's reported we, then their six months those that remained referred to that disillusioned group, as quote idealistic tourists and they critic. their lack of commitment to the project in their lack of community spirit. So as a bigger they needed more buildings and financing them proved to be kind of problem here before The community found itself in fifteen thousand dollars worth of debt, which, again by one forty standards, is a lot to have to make up make
hoping. This would be a long term situation by In forty two, there were seventy people living at Brook Farm, and it was success and that it was drawing new people to live there, but the expanse of caring for the new people with beyond what they could financially handle especial because a lot of these newcomers didn't actually make good on the investment agreements that they had made to come there. So because many of the ideal is involved in the community also found money to be distasteful. There wasn't really somebody who was discussed take control of the finances and make people pay up. Yes, so that the thing that we mentioned earlier about it being like a five hundred dollar by him like you'd, buying your share, its noble actually giving you there five hundred dollars in it. It was it's more a problem with people. it came in later than the people that started out. But if nobody
doing their part too, you know bolster the finances, then you're really just hemorrhaging money at that point the mass which was operating as a boarding school and had an excellent reputation was really the source of most of the community's income. But even so it didn't provide enough related costs, let alone the expansion plans that they were going to need to house. The new people coming in so from eighteen Forty three is eighteen. Forty, four George Ripley. Became more and more interested in a new vision of the utopian society described by philosopher Charles Forty eight for four years, concept of communities where social and commercial competition could just be completely eradicated really, held directly and he thought could we organise Brook farm to be more in line with forty ism? He could solve them problems by attracting new members in new financial support, so that
Farm concepts had always been a little bit at odds with the individualism that was part of the transcendentalists movement and that recall, is why Emerson wasn't interested in being a member, but for it Utopia smoothed out that particular wrinkle and in He forty four Brook farm officially reorganized as a quote four year, forty eight failings, the concept that with a name, he used for his concept of these communities the remaining members who still value transcendentalists individualism left the community. This is actually not like a quickening transition. There was some fighting in arguing and end up some rift slit. You know cause people to weave Under this new structure, the organization became a lot more rigid Firstly, it were organised into groups under a larger series, divisions there three series, and they were the agricultural, mechanical and domestic industry, each
formed in any serious had to be arranged using called harmonic numbers, so a group had to have three five, seven or twelve members, but not for six or eight, in her history of brick, farm Linda Swift says this was of course, starkly messy huge, their rules upon rules about how the business of these serious in groups was supposed to be conducted. Was this huge departure from the really intuitive approach that the community had been founded on? Yeah really come We changed how the whole thing was working because it had been. You know so much of her a relaxed kind of atmosphere, and now suddenly there were, you know all of these guys about how business was gonna happen in how foreman of each group report to one another and report up to their supervisors, and it felt a lot less like the ideals that, Ripley had initially founded the community on animal.
Above the group, as you can imagine changed as well as a consequence. format of each group community report to one another and up to their supervisors, and it felt a People and working class people began to fill in the gaps that were left by those that had departed during reorganization really was very quick to point out that children from all walks of life were equally success in the farm school and let the disk among the adults was as robust and lively as ever. Despite the diversity of backgrounds that now lived there, so he was really trying to win out like now, ideas really do. Work were call here, that's all some, but at the same time he had lost a lot of the people that originally bought into his plan in eighteen. Forty, I've Brook farm began producing a periodical called the harbinger it was. located to forty eight zone, and philosophy of utopian society Ripley that this new project was gonna, bring them some money and by this
there were more than a hundred people living it broke farm, so it had grown pretty substantially and Ripley to construct a new building that would house all of them. At this point they still had the hive, but they had several other smaller houses and he was reviewing counting on a periodical to make some money. So began on the Greek Community House, which was to be called the full industry with me, increase and for reasons popularity farm and other utopian communities are starting to be viewed with more and more a suspicion by the outside world. Rumor spreading about sexual promiscuity depravity, and while these rumours we're not true of brick farm they were seated and for his writings in which he did advocate for sort of a free love mile, similar to what we think of with the nineteen sixties, in case. The gossip about this behaviour in West Roxbury was so devastating to the schools. Enrollment, an council,
we do Brook farms finances year when year, primary source of income, we know loses most of its it's. The checks that are coming in tv very quickly find yourself in a lot of trouble There was just more trouble to come at this point so as I've got leaner attentions, understandably, grew among the Brook farm residents, one resident started hosting an outdoor Sunday service each week, and this actually caused a big rifts between those who were really excited and welcome to this idea, and who had moved to Brook Farm because of its secular routes. we should mention that religion wasn't forbidden or even unusual. It broke farm but organise religion. Had not been a part of the farms foundation, people were We welcome to be spiritual and worship in whatever way they wanted, but the fact that this person was now hosting services Lee rankled from people
to make matters worse. Smallpox hit the community after one of the members caught it while visiting relatives in Boston and got back before, develop symptoms about thirty four of the group had to be quarantined and then the healthy people in the group weren't able to work on the farm because they are having to care for the sick. Several pupils were removed from the school by their families, which also reduce the little bit of income that broke farm. Had by this point, there were formed it has taken on the property They were in really bad financial streets. Bennet only got worse. He's just after the smallpox outbreak and Finally, I don't think they lost anybody during that they just lost productivity. They had very few deaths. It broke farm which is kind of a happy face in the midst of a sort of this bad stuff going on, but just after it not Fox outbreak, Nathaniel, Hawthorne,
who had left six months after it was founded, took legal action against Brook Farm to try to get his initial investment back since he didn't stay and there have been a provision in the original contracts of broke farm that people if they gave enough notice get there get their investment back if they stayed a certain a shorter period. I'm so he was within his rights. unfortunately, there were just no funds to repay him. Ripley actually agreed he's completely within his bounds. To one is money back You still have that money and it didn't help their brook farm had also lost its primary philanthropic supporters. people that were giving money to these utopian communities. Cited, they were going to give them to other communities that looked like they may have greater success in Alaska effort to breathe life back into the community Ripley, and
farm leadership pushed forward on completion of the full ancillary in eighteen. Forty six was yet another case of the characteristic and misguided optimism that had given brook farm such at the beginning, but was also its undoing. It's really any tale of the chronic failed dreamer, where you just thinking just one more thing will turn this around here. Here really? Did I mean everything that you look at it like? No organist publishing of paper people will buy. It now will be fine. The school we're going to keep us afloat, but then you know just one thing after another: he kept thinking would save them and I never did Then you kind of kick them. While they were down, they threw a party to celebrate what was going to be the completion of the new structure? It wasn't completed that they were kind of excited that they were moving forward and close to the end. this is our March third of eighteen, forty six enduring party, a fire broke out
consume the entire building. So the fully and three was completely the maid as they were, turned I will read it and it was an unfinished sure and it had not been ensured so as it burn so did the dream of brick farm Seven thousand dollars had been spent building the structure which had turned asses, and it was thought that they were gonna need. Another three thousand just finish it, but of course tat money never got spent because it wasn't there to finish so they are basically out on their investment of the building completely rightly so. having to spend that three thousand more dollars was not not an alarming to help them now. That was really the final nail in the community's financial coffin and it took its toll on the already lagging morale of the people that had stuck it out and we're trying to keep things going so In just a few months. There were only a few dozen people left. It broke farm and George Ripley, even though,
he was still living there on the property had kind of already turned his hook his to the New England Fournier society. He really stopped worrying about keeping going as he can have knew what was going to happen for the end eighteen, forty, six, the Brook Farm Library, collection was sold at auction and then an aid forty seven, the bankruptcy filing for Brook Farm wrapped up in August of eighteen, forty seven it was officially disbanded. So, he's. Transcendentalists utopia only lasted for six years and well broke farm, wasn't a sustainable long term. It really did have a pretty significant influence on many social movements going on at the time, including abolitionism in the women's rights movement according to lend a swift who we referenced earlier. fourteen marriages contract their roots back to the Fellowship Brook Farm, one of which actually too waste there and most of those appear to have been happy.
another interesting point: is that the community hand what could be considered a prototype of the modern day care where the Parents among the group could leave their children with caregivers. For the day, while they set to their work, which had really never done before at least an organised level. Nathaniel Hawthorne probably never got back. His initial investment wrote a fictional eyes version of his time at work, farm com, blog they'll romance its clear from He did not enjoy this experiment. four ripley- he went on to become the literary critic for the New York Tribune and he a job until he died in eighteen, eighty after Rick Farm was abandoned. The former dairy farm found other uses. It was used poorhouse as a civil war training camp and as an orphanage in nineteenth, Wendy, seven Brook Farm was designated a Boston landmark. Same year the hive, which was still standing burned down in Eighty four arson:
the house on the property that had been named after Margaret Fuller, even though she had never lived there in nineteen. Eighty eight Massachusetts, department of Conservation and recreation acquired the Brook farms fight it lit Finland is a national historic landscape and the buildings are all gone in Nineteen hundred book entitled Brook Farm, its member scholars and visitors Linda swiftly referenced earlier, says the reform community like some ill Dr Play, the Brook farm failings lingered during one more act. After all, the essential dramatic elements were exhausted. even now it kind of sputtered out at, and it had a lot of problems it still kind of referred. When people talk about it as a sort of a success in terms of it being a successful experiment like you think oh, I was learned from it and from a sociological standpoint. I know people study it in kind of Turner examine what was right about it. What was wrong- and I did some some pretty
installing influences on society at the time. So in that regard you, Canada, success. There were societal reforms linked to succeed, so there and it's so fascinating and it was pretty revolutionary that everyone, regardless of their sex or their age or there, he's going to be treated the same way: yeah yeah. There was not really how a forty were too, and there are many many stories Emmi we get out. You could almost launch upon Castest about reform and talk about individual. stories people and events that happen there, There are many, many of them and most of the people that have lived there really slow. Pretty well aware, even though there have been problems so fascinating concept. To think about, I I have to wonder someone tried to similar thing today if it would work well. I know a couple of people that have lived essentially on communes at some point in their life. None
m for their entire life, it always seems to have been this freedom. obviously, and yet First, my early memories are the commune, and then my parents left yeah there are many cases of failed communes, but I think a lot of times they employed in a much more. Adequate this unkind of legacy, now ass, it was mostly money. I think, even though there were some ideological shifts throughout its life, Really the money was killed. It won't, even if you think your prepared for the work. The manual work like if you are If you are an intellectual person who most of your life has been relatively privileged, then the amount of manual labor required just a razor and food to shock crazy here. Other things in perspective. Yes, indeed, so that for farm, here's
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tat, levers and history bus? She says only be Aussi knowledge but Matthew, Flanders, the first man to circumnavigate Australia, has account trim who was born on board and sailed with him. Pretty well known in Australia, at least in his history and cats circles, and it's probably my favorite historical cap. I had never heard of him so that super cool Army and Kate also wrote us and Canada. same thing, said Turkey, and the show you mentioned that you did not know of any famous cats. I thought I'd shares them with you in the kingdom. The prime minister has an official chief mouser of the cabinet who lives it down street. This role is currently I'll buy, Larry and freer. The first of these cats was during the reign of Henry, the eighth and since nineteen twenty nine there has been a line in the budget for petty cash for the uptake and maintenance of the masters. I love that another famous which links nicely to a previous stuff. You missed in history. Pie cast is unfair, SAM one Sam or Oscar
was a german ships cat. Originally on the Bismarck who is found, among the wreckage of the ship of by british Navy vessels, he was cute and then serve on to british naval ships surviving the sinking of both of them as well. That is almost Ricky, nineteen, forty one after the sinking of his last ship. He lived in the Governors House in Gibraltar before being returned to the UK to live the rest of his life in a home for retired seamen in Belfast that is coming the research suggests that the story of SAM, maybe in urban legend, he still is one famous feline and some cat ended up in the safe and so the things tat. We do not know about how I could think of with some President Clinton's TAT, Fox and he's really famous, except for being bat like there, have never make stories about him. So thank you both of you for bringing it about Anybody else would like to write to us. They can do so if history podcast discovery dot com, you can also connected
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