Every carried out what’s been described as the most profitable and brutal pirate raid in history. It became a massive international incident, and Britain tried to repair its relationship with the Mughal Empire through a highly publicized series of trials.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Why couldn't you step you missed in history? Class from housetop works, tat, come hello and welcome to the pod cast I'm trade leaving Wilson Holly brine. We, I don't think we ve talked about pirates pancakes now, while we spend a little bit near, we play they had passing mention in maybe unearthed episodes are other random stuff, but we have not had an actual whole episode about. Pirates
and more than a year and a half which is a long time I mean, I feel it give you look hard enough and issue could recover butterfly professor at thirty day we're going to talk about Henry every. He was also known as Henry Avery and as binge
Bridgman and has long been Avery, and
been on my short list for awhile, and they just say
Henry Every and then in parentheses. Pirate and I did not write any other indication of what prompted me to put it on their so the mystery. Why why it caught my attention? In the first place,
it was not uncharted for because I have not delay lagging up, but I do know that he figures into their game and encase folks are thinking of writing. Is this
using chart uncharted war. That was not where he,
They carry out what's been described as the most profitable pirate rate in history, and it was also to be clear. I particularly brutal and horrified
raid in its treatment of the women and men aboard the rated ship butts
I did not know until I got into the research for this, but it also became a massive international incident with Britain
later trying to repair its relationship with the mobile empire. The target of this raid in a hurry
We publicized sized kind of weird series of trials.
So we know very little about Henry every early life, except that he was probably english. He was born sometime in the sixteenth Fifty's.
He might have spent some time in the royal navy, but sources conflicting,
they're, not that's actually the case, but he did start working.
The slave trade in the early, sixteen nine bees under a commission from the british royal governor of Bermuda after at least
couple of years of a slave trader, every was hired as first mate aboard the english vessel, Charles the second and sixteen. Ninety three, the Charles. The second was
privateering vessel, and it had been commissioned to attack french ships and colonies in the Caribbean if needed
sure am privateering river, basically pirates, but pirates operating with
government authority. To do this practical work,
By May of sixteen ninety four there, the Charles, the second still had not left the coast of Europe and the crew had not been paid for any of their work so far natural
The crew was happy about this situation and when the ship stopped for supplies at the spanish port of La Karuna, every
let a mutiny afterward.
the remaining crew elected him, their captain
every renamed, the Charles, the second as the fancy, which is often spelled with a p h, and sometimes with an I e and documents from the time they set a course for Madagascar
following a sailing route that was known as the pirate round, which was popular among english pirate, starting in the sixteen nineties, most pirates
into the pie around from the caribbean and headed southeast, so they were kind of joining in with it from the coast of Europe. Instead, once it approached Africa,
reach shifted south to pass the cape of good hope and then it turn north again toward Madagascar before turning east to cross
indian Ocean, the fancies First Parada
encounter was with three english ships, which they caught near the Cape Verde Islands off the coast of West Africa. The fancy
can you down the african coast from their capturing
and plundering ships from France and Denmark. It was sixteen.
Be five by the time. Every and the fancy reached Madagascar and by then the fancy had a crew of about a hundred and fifty men a whole
collection of other, mostly english, pirates were in the area when they got there. They were looking for a fleet that was reported to be near by this fleet. Below
and to the Middle empire. Now the Middle empire ruled parts of the Indian Sub continent from the early sixteenth century into the mid eighteenth century. Sometimes the
and point is marked a little later than that by sixteen
ninety five, its territory.
covered most of what's now: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal. The Mugabe
Misty was wealthy and its emperor in sixteen. Ninety five was our example, also known as Muti Alden Mohammed or is
poorer along gear,
It was during our exams rain that the legal empire reached its peak in terms of size and power. Our accepts rule of the empire and the role he played in its history is its own complicated story that we're not gonna get into here, but in
where'd. He had a reputation for ruthlessness and for religious persecution of non Muslims in the latter part of his reign, the fleet that the pirates
Looking for it was a large one. Men included twenty five ships and among them were merchant vessels and escort vessels. Several of the ships were
during muslim pilgrims who are returning from the highs and some of the ships in the fleet
armed to the emperor himself? The flea was far too.
Large and powerful for any one pirate ship to take on alone, which is why this
section of mostly english pirates was working together. One of the other
parties involved was Thomas too. Who is from a prominent Newport, Rhode, island, family
two, is often described as a pioneer of the pirate round and like Henry every he had turned pirate
Some time is a privateer. He Hitler,
currently bought. A share of a ship called the amity in sixteen ninety one, and when it was tasked with taking of
factory in West Africa. He proposed to the crew that it would be a lot more profitable to turn
piracy than to attack a factory that had no booty
wonder. There was really
a simple he was like. You know what this whole thing we're supposed to be attacking this factor is not going to be starting to make so much money, but we can make a lot more money. We attacked other ships instead list
working for the man was very much like by Miss whole. Let's stop working and for the man really gonna come up later,
It was one of the reasons why people have a lot of sympathy for pirates, not necessarily people being attacked by them, but other people at a lot of sympathy for pirates, so to stir
piracy did not stop officials from working with him, though, when this raid on the movie fleet took place, he was sailing under a letter of mark from the governor of Bermuda when the pirates fight
the spotted a ship for them, Google Fleet. They learned that the rest of the world
was farther away than they had thought. The first ship they took turned out to be
of the rear guard, so the fastest pirate ship switch
looted every and the fancy raced ahead ever
encountered the fat mammography, which was part of the fleets escort, and this
surrendered. After a brief fire fight and fancy came away with about fifty thousand british pounds worth of gold and silver. This didn't seem,
that great of a whole, once it was divided up among the fancies entire crew. So every
decided to keep going and to try to find a bigger prize among the rest of the fleet. He
two other pirate ships, spotted
God you so why, on September, seventh they'll sometimes see
gosh the. Why angle sized as the guns way in documents from the time and all
so an uncharted for better than a bad historical. I don't expect
thirty four to be historically accurate by the way. So, when I make that joke, I am not criticizing. Now it was
the largest ship in the fleet. It was possibly the largest ship in the entire without empire, and it was owned by the emperor himself, the emperor
also had at least one relative aboard. Other sources disagree about whether his it was his daughter or his granddaughter. These were all relatives who were travelling back from MECCA and we're going to die
everything counter with this ship after we first pause for little sponsor break this up
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Monopolies, the. Why was well crude and well armed with about four hundred riflemen several cannons. It had me
soldiers and armaments than the three pirate ship that were after it, possibly even more than the entire pirate fleet did before every and the fastest ships out distance, the rest of them. But
we got lucky the fancy,
heard on the Ganges, so I and at the very start of the battle, destroyed its main mast when the guy,
you. So I tried to return fire one of its artillery pieces exploded
the resulting fire and chaos gave the fancy time to move in and board the God you so I, which was captured after some intense.
The hand combat so that, just just this
have been enough to draw two ire of emperor are exempt and the rest of them
after taking the ship, the crew of the fancy also brutalized. The people on board I cannot exaggerate was- is horrifying. They stayed with the ship for about a week as they searched for as much plunder as they could possibly Holloway. During that weak
pirate torture torture to the men aboard to try to get information about whether valuables were they also assault
and raped many of the women aboard a british court.
Neil agent for the movie emperor, reported that several women aboard the ship took their own lives rather than be raped once the crew of the face
we finally left the Ganges why they had
Hagen on an immense hall of gold, silver and jewels. It had an
estimated worth of three hundred twenty five.
in two six hundred thousand british pounds at the time, which would be well into the millions today and then they fall.
the pirate round back to the Caribbean, where they headed for New Providence Island in the Bahamas, which is home to the bahamian capital of Nassau. They'd heard.
Other pirates that its governor Cadwalader Jones would be sympathetic. When I got
New Providence Island in March of sixteen ninety six, though Jones was no longer the governor anew
of was Nicholas, trot and like its predecessor. Fortunately, for these pirates he was very willing to look the other way if the price was right, so
every bribes try to make them welcome on the island, and otherwise they didn't really advertise who they were or what they had done. They masqueraded is,
slave traders. Them made traded the fancy for a load of ivory Trot
You have been a little less willing to deal with every if he had known what the pirates had done.
If he had any idea that he was now caught up in an international incident, but he also
certainly didn't word reach
the legal empire long before it reached Britain or any of its colonies. What had happened? The gods
so I struggled into harbour at Sir it without most of its cargo and several of its former passengers about a week after the pirate attacks.
So people an empire were outraged when they learned what every and the other pirates had done. Riots spread throughout the city of syrup
Many of these riots targeted the offices of the east any accompany their a mob
tried to break in and killed forty or so ye icy agents who were working inside but the governor. It's him a con intervened and stopped them. Although
EAST India, company employees, wives were spared con had them all arrested. He also
did at least three captains from EAST India, company ships and all the other british subjects that he could find and sir. It is possible that he thought that the attack
on the Ganges, so why was a conspiracy and that the icy was somehow behind it?
He would not be the only person to think this, which we will talk about. Unemployment were in a bit
imprison the british captives wrote to Sir John Gayer gayer with the representative of the EAST, India Company and the governor of Bombay, which is now known as Mumbai,
Bombay was south of sir it and had been captured by Portugal and fifteen thirty four it came.
british control in sixteen sixty two, when Charles the Second of England married portuguese princess Catherine of began via the east,
the company was ranting it from the monarch and had built its indian headquarters there. That came up in our t episode.
Why did you do
oh Van Diagram of the overlapping stuff of this episode in that one gayer
wrote to the lords of trade, saying that british subjects had been cleft in irons and were being imprisoned in rooms with boarded up windows. He also
did that one english man had died of injuries. He sustained in the initial Malay, so they took a long time for
it is to get anywhere at this point in history, and it would be months before he Communication,
get to London and the
shut down for EAST India, company factories. He ordered an attack,
In Bombay note,
If he had done is an attack, probably would have been disastrous, were Bombay and for the EAST, India Company as a whole, the icy and the move out empire had been at war. Just a few years before in a conflict known as childs were enduring
time Bombay had been under siege and partly destroyed fortune
wait. For the e I see an official named Samuel Annesley was able to negotiate a ceasefire, but
obvious that the emperor would be more than happy to force the British completely out of India, which would have been
this traffic for british colonies and trading relationships in Asia and the Pacific. So
As we made the emperor several promises, he promised that Britain would come
said the emperor for all his lost property and that the east in the accompany, would begin providing escorts for all
indian ships, headed toward MECCA for the harsh and most import
He promised that Henry every would be brought to justice, so this is enough,
the emperor to agree not to attack Bombay, but he all.
he said that he would not allow trade with Britain abide Google Empire to resume until every was captured, which is a series
the economic situation is extremely surgeon.
here's letter detailing Henry every attack on the movie fleets, the riots and the arrests of british subjects in sir. It finally
London in December of sixteen ninety five other
there's from Gayer, Annesley and others arrived even later in January and May of sixteen. Ninety six by
Those last letters arrived every had already gotten to New Providence Island and unloaded the fancy the lords of
Aid had also been succeeded by the Lord's commissioners of trade and plantations, also known as the Board of trade. They were faced with what to do,
every in the situation with the Mughal empire at their very first meeting in May of one thousand six hundred and ninety six. So I'll probably just said, this was a serious problem,
It was more than just the fact that Henry every had attacked a ship belonging to the middle emperor or that he and his men had plundered the ship and brutalized as passengers and crew
also, that emperor are exempt was well convinced that England, with a nation of pirates and histories,
in the reflect that belief in our
eighteenth century. Persian historian, coffee, Con wrote that that you
any accompanies holdings in Bombay were insignificant, and that quote this,
worse of the remaining unstable income of the English is the plunder and capture of the ships going to the House of God at intervals of war.
to two years. They attack these ships, not
the time when loaded with grains, they proceed to MECCA and Jeddah, but when they return
bringing gold silver Ibrahim ease and reality.
And there was some truth to the emperor's belief that England was a nation of pirates
Although the british empire wasn't plundering the bugle empire ships in an official capacity, a lot of the pirate
there were plundering in the Caribbean and along the pirate round, were English and for the most part, those pirates left english ships alone. On top of that
the british colonial governors, had made a habit of either tat
reading pirates orb actively working with them, so authorities
Britain needed to figure out not only how to repair their relationship with the removal empire, but also how to
the signal to the rest of the world that the nation would not tolerate piracy.
and then all of this was
together and the dire economic consequence of the.
Emperor not allowing the EAST India Company to operate and whose territory anymore, so
Britain can do anything as dramatic as, for example, summarily executing people suspected of piracy. That probably would have
Despite some of the criticisms
but that would also violate british law, so they started with April
nation issued by the Lord Justices of England on July. Seventeenth. Sixteen ninety six. This proclamation stated that they
had received information that Henry every quote under english colors acted as a common pirate and robber upon the high seas and hath.
resumed under such color colors to commit several acts of piracy upon the sea
of India or Persia, which may a case
great damage to the emergence of England trading into these parts. That's the end of the quote this prize
formation went on to say that every had stolen
ship known as the Charles from the port in Spain and that in the past
the commanded Admirals captains, governors and the like to capture him, offering a reward of five hundred pounds. Another problem
nation, followed on August tenth, which included a lot of the same information and all
said that every may now be going under the name: Henry Bridgman, the second pillar,
location named a number of other alleged pirates as well, and it said that the men may have left the Caribbean and come to Ireland yeah.
Another proclamation followed on August eighteen. Sixteen ninety six, this one from the monarch, William, the third, also known as William of Orange. It was a proclamation quote for
apprehending Henry every Alias, Bridgman and sundry other pirates. It call
every and those sundry other pirates quote
and business transgressors, and it ordered essentially every
sort of law enforcement and military in existence to seek out and apprehend them the best.
he offered for every was still five hundred pounds sterling and for the
their pirates named. It was fifty pounds this proclamation
also indemnified all royal subjects for many quote: hazard of slaughter mutilation or other acts of violence that they might commit against a tree and his accomplices, and it advised that anyone sheltering or assisting any of the pirates was doing so upon their highest peril. These proclamations made it
point of naming colonial governors among the people compelled to seek out and capture every because, although it was well known among pirates that a number of colonial governors could be bribed or would otherwise work with them, authorities in London were only starting to become fully aware of how extensive this problem was the broccoli.
We did not, however, named Thomas too as one of the wanted pirates
from the amity being too slow to keep up with the ships that assaulted the Ganges. Why meaning? He was not about that
He had been shot and killed while trying to take a different ship in that same Google convoy a hand
of men from every crew were captured in Ireland, and even though every wasn't among them, this at least gave the crown some one to put on trial, we're gonna talk,
the trial after we pause for a sponsor break this episode of stuff. You missed in history glasses, brought to you by blinking blinkers. Does my favorite new app on my phone
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about blinkers to dot com, slash history, glass, hammering away Catherine crew members were tried at the central criminal court, a k, a the old Bailey and October of sixteen ninety six, and this trial was weird
number one? Even though it was being tried at the old Bailey which place that has come up with
We ve been talking about criminal activity in Britain during this point,
It wasn't being tried under english common law. It was being true
under the jurisdiction of the admiralty, and this is because
The common law didn't really cover nautical piracy number two
the recently decided to hold a trial under the jurisdiction of the admiralty at the old Bailey rather than through the admiral.
the cord was so that the
their citizenry would have the same access to the proceedings as they would for any other criminal matter, since part of the pact
was to send the message that the british Empire would not tolerate piracy. They meet
public proceedings and public interest not a closed door session of the Admiralty court. They also
did the Lugal emperor to hear all the details of the conviction and execution of the pirates II
and with the admiralty involvement they'll, everything was operating, allow like any other trial at the old Bailey. The prosecutors we're all legal professionals, but the defendants were all on their own in terms of representation in the trial
open, not October nineteenth and Henry Every was named in the indictment, even though he was still at large two witnesses.
who were former members of every crew, provided extensive detail about the incident, but the questioning
They went well beyond just what had happened with the movable fleet. This trial-
was an opportunity for authorities to learn more about the practice of piracy and a lot of
testimony was more about Van than about the Ganges. So why was basically like they said? Ok, you know it would be great if we could get a better
and along what s going on with these pirates. So, let's try to assess,
but a whole narrative of the pirate situation, rather than just investigating this one thing.
So this testimony demonstrated unequivocally that the man on trial had all committed piracy.
But when the jury returned, a verdict today equated all of them that didn't go, how they were, who
No doubt at all that there was a problem, and that was the complete shock to the various authorities involved. On top of
failing to deliver a guilty verdict to try to satisfy them. Google emperor the proceedings. Also,
publicly aired a lot of evidence that multiple british colonial governors were actively working with and harbouring pirates. So this whole care,
Billy choreograph trial at the old Bailey to something
The pr move had done the
percent of what it was opposed to do. It did not send the message:
that Britain wouldn't tolerate pirates agree.
They public record- that in fact they did
also a good example of how the people responsible for this proceeding were pretty out of touch with the ordinary british citizen re. Basically, people really liked pirates. Some of this was because of prey.
The tears like Sir Francis Drake and Sir Henry Morgan, who had official and unofficial support of the crown in their harassment and plundering of spanish ships and colonies. Spain,
that both of these men to be pirates, but in Britain both of them had been knighted Drake by Queen Elizabeth Burst and Morgan by King, Charles, the second and the public,
I they had set an example of pirates of noble patriots who only targeted Britain's enemies, but it wasn't just about people like
and Morgan Henry
every himself had also become a full hero, not long
We commandeered the Charles, the second someone had written a broadside ballot about it first published by the awful as Louis in sixteen ninety four. The ballot was
aimed as something that every had written himself and then sent back to shore with
the mutineers. That is certainly a fanciful fabrication, but the details
in the ballad or close enough to the historical record that it
I agree that whoever wrote the ballad heard about the mute me from someone who was actually there of ballot was not obscure from
wives of sailors aboard the Charles. The second had found a complaints against James Holborn.
the merchant who own this was way back before it was turned into a pirate ship. They
claimed that he was Traitorously enslaving, their husbands and in the case that came up before
the Privy council on August, sixteenth of sixteen ninety four. Hopefully
submitted a copy of this broadside valid as part of the documents in his defence like this was not a thing. Nobody
ever heard of people working in the sun alive, it was also a pretty
clear sign of how popular opinion viewed Henry every in sixteen ninety four.
Printing its titled, a copy of verses composed by Captain Henry every lately gone too.
to seek his fortune and it starts come
You brave boys, whose courage is bold. Will you venture with me a glut you with gold make haste
the corona, a ship you will find that's called the fancy.
We'll pleasure your mind.
In every is in her and calls or his own. He will box her about boys before he is done. Friends
spaniard and Portuguese, the heathen likewise
made a war with them until that he dies after
ten, more verses of very high spirited promises of all the far off places that every plans to see and plunder if necessary. It end quote
Now this is the course I intend for to steer my false hearted nation to you. I declare I have done me. No wrong. Thou must me forgive the sword
shall maintain me as long as I live
So, with all that in mind in hindsight, it is not really all that surprising that the jury acquitted every crew members they were pirates and
public I pirates were somewhere on a spectrum between full Cairo and noble patriot. This also so
medicine in the whole thing. The jury also was not particularly sympathetic to the movable emperor who was a muslim foreigner on the other side of the world
so the admiralty, the British EAST, India Company and the british government Ral terrified that the emperor was going to learn about the pirates acquittal and then it would just confirm his suspicion that England was a nation of pirates. So they turned to Sir Charles Hedges, chief justice of the high
court of the admiralty to arrange another trial on a second set of charges that
time relating to the mutiny aboard the Charles, the second, rather than the attack on the move, a fleet. This was great.
Because he would allow them to try the men again. But it was not ideal because
emperor, definitely wasn't going to be satisfied with a conviction for mere mute me of which he was not the victim so
the second trial, the prosecution again in a very carefully choreographed preceding tried to escape
What's the legal idea that move me with theft and that theft on the high seas was piracy, so therefore
you'd me was piracy, but that the
and were being tried for mutiny, not piracy. So this was not an issue of double jeopardy, thus lose them.
It'll gymnastics. Never even are reflected in the official court record from this second trial, which ends
summation of the previous trial, with quote the jury, contrary to the expectation of the court brought in
prisoners not guilty, whereupon the session was adjourned to Saturday, the thirty first of October and the prisoners were committed
upon a new warrant for several other piracies illness,
M trial. The prosecution talk to
Mary, a lot about how bad piracy was and how Britain looked
the rest of the world. In that moment, chief justice Hedges also described what would happen if the pirates were acquitted once again
Both the barbarous nations will reproach us as being a harbor receptacle and a nest of pirates and our food.
And will wonder to hear that the enemies of merchants and of mankind should find us
sanctuary in this ancient place of trade
Nay, we ourselves cannot but confess that all kingdoms in countries who have suffered by english pirates may
Want of redress in the ordinary course have the pretence of justice
and the color of the laws of nations to justify their making reprisals upon.
they shall meet them upon the seas. Thanking you, MR the chief justice, just cause
moving empire, a barbarous nation in court.
Even after this whole speech that was clearly designed to sway the jury. He went on to say
he was in fact not trying to sway the jury.
this time, the jury convicted all of them and they were all hanged on November 15th, one thousand six hundred and ninety six, and with that done, and with a lot of reparations, paid the emperor of the Mughal empire.
We allowed the EAST India Company to resume its activities in his territory the procedure
so the trials were collected and printed at seven stars of Ludgate Street, which was owned by one of London's largest printers and booksellers the average incomes. There are still
piece of it in more than forty libraries,
although it was very widely distributed and widely read, it did not really shift public opinion on Henry every or in fact of pirates in general,
this thing printed and widely distributed was part of the plan from the beginning. There here can have its trials, can be very public trial, they're gonna, totally condemn all of these pirates and then we're going to grant all of the stuff. From that
I'll so that everyone can read it whenever they want it. Didn't we didn't really go quite as planned
instead of everybody deciding that Henry every was a terrible, notorious pirate that head. You know brutalized
people on a ship that he had waited
I continue to be the hero in a number of works of fiction. There was,
the life and adventures of Captain John Avery by a pseudonymous captain Adrian VON broke and seventeen o nine. Seventeen thirty
I saw the play the successful pirate written by Charles Johnson and performed in London for several years, the king of Pirates b
an account of famous enterprises of Captain Avery, the mock king of Madagascar, with his rambles and piracies, wherein all the sham accounts formerly published of him are detected, was written in
one nineteen. It's often attributed to Daniel the foe snappy title.
Every is also, unsurprisingly, a prominent feature in a general history of pirates which came out and seventeen
twenty four under the name Captain Charles Johnson, but is
so often attributed to either Daniel the foe or
Daniel, missed this colossal people,
killer book on pirates
cited in many biographies and histories, but it is definitely not an authoritative work of nonfiction. We talk a little
more about it. In our past episode on an Bonnie and Mary read, Henry Avery is the first pirate, that's discussed in it
and that ballad there we talked
in an red parts of earlier survive through oral folks
Looking for more than two hundred years, I mean there were print copies of it. Still, you can still find very old copies of the original broadside, but the way that people were passing it was by singing for two hundred years,
in spite of an international man Hunt Henry every was never seen again.
No one knows exactly what happened to him most of these works of
I contend that he married the bugle, emperors daughter and established his own kingdom in Madagascar, its work
likely that he made his way back to England to try to hide himself from that international manhood and died there in poverty
and Britain's very public announcement of a crackdown on piracy? Didn't have that much of an effect on piracy either the golden age of piracy, which this incident happened, kind of in the middle of continued.
for more than thirty years, and this is all
a temporary blip in the east and the accompanying activities, and what's now, India, the icy when
deceive huge amounts of territory on the Indian Sub continent and it operated until eighteen. Seventy four
of those later, events have come up in other pod gassed on the show, most recently in our one about the east, in the accompany stealing t secrets from China,
to then grow the tea in India,
be company tat right in the middle of a lot of problems
a lot a lot of problems when I started this
bang. With idea of little do a pirate, we haven't talked about a pirate, and while I was not expecting
weird, convoluted legal p armies to be in that
Act of the show yeah, that's kind of the best part
story, I mean the whole its tragic, because I want to acknowledge the horrible things were done right eye
the idea that they cooked up this whole thing, not thinking for a minute that people would behave com
how they anticipate like. There was no plan b there. They were totally later with your gracefully, we're gonna convict these pirates and the jury was Lavie sooner, like you
publicity Mayo. I do. I have a listener mail from facts. You sent us a picture of something that they saw or dead end.
They are both very brief. The first
Emily and Emily's dear Holly and Tracy Fine home from a conference this weekend, I caught up on podcast episodes, including the two parties about Sadako societies thousand cranes. While listening to the.
Part. I noticed
the girl in the seat next to me, was playing with her napkin as their doubt for awhile, while started on another episode, and when I looked back, she could turn her napkin into a cute, origami crane, so appropriate and odd. I just had to share congratulations on the thousand plus episodes. I work is about
Historians will be starting a doktor or programme in american history. This fall, even though there are plenty of things that I missed in history class thinks we're all you do Emily. Thank you Emily. What, if
little oddity to just happen spontaneously, while on an airplane, and also thank you for going into public history as a field, it is very needed it is. Have I ever told you the brain and I was carry a cream with each of us. Only fly. Oh! No! Good luck! I did not know that when she first said that ethical, maybe someone else does it before I opened the email images saw Craig monoplane gap of decline as they meet. The others is different.
a great deal of other one is
fairer and movements, titled, pink butter and fairness of
They are sermon new listener and let me tell you: I've always had a love of history manager. Told me to check you guys out. I'm so glad
he did I've been working my way through the episodes- and I know this may be super late. However, your episode on butter, verses barter and with my absolute favorite unopposed say I love that one too you thank you
I recently held a party where we were discussing house tape, chemicals that our lives- and this episode inspired me to make pink better. I made it am. I stand mixture and died at pink with some beat juice, and while it is not super, vibrant and pink, I thought it was cute enough as a party hand out. Thank you so much for the inspiring
I cannot wait to hear future episodes. Sarah and Sarah sent a picture of her pink butter SARA. I have follow up question. Ok, because I love be, you have beat the lie
I super love beats. So I wonder if the butter had like a nice, beat subtle flavour
to it and tat Delicious.
a new way because that would be some good sought,
I think that my sweetness of being in a while in it reminded me of I have friends, you sometimes will make compounded butter reality, all full all kinds of amazing things into their butter and one time they made late
bloody Mary. It was not an alcoholic butter under this is not your thing. How is making the worst space because bloody marries or not, they are not doing anything.
Meda based is pretty far up it will it will spice the blend of spices that you raise in your in your Blaine. I disagree with that. Was folded and see it, and then
they may I'd. That's the one I remember that was the one that I put all over my toast every morning,
while we were on I've vacation together. So thank you both for sending ass these
than for sending us these pictures of things that you saw or did in life. That is awesome if you would like to write to
throughout history, podcast that how stuff works tat, calm and we are also all over social media missed in history. That is our name on Facebook and Twitter and Instagram an pinterest you.
Also come to our website, which is missed in history. Dot com, where you will find show notes, broadly out, all the episode Pauline I have worked on together. The show notes for this episode includes links to the full text of a lot
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