« Stuff You Missed in History Class


2015-06-15 | 🔗

Hokusai lived during a time when there wasn't a lot of contact between Japan and the West. But even so, he drew influence form Western art, and Western art was greatly influenced by his own work.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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I have a particular space in my sewing room that I like to just take a few minutes. Every day I sit there. I think about things, it's kind of like meditation and munching at the same time being it that yummy, beautiful cookie flavour makes it luxurious and delightful, and I always feel recharge. Mulatto cookies are truly a treat worthy of your me time, their delicate and crispy, with luxuriously rich chocolate in the middle. You really want to keep these just for you, so remember to save something for yourself with peppered farm Olano. I am Bobby Brown Welcome type high task beyond the meeting so from my heart, radio, I'm here to be sitting down different people heatwave that I think we can all learn from. I hurt radio is number one purpose, but don't take our word for pleasant,
beauty and the Iheart Radio, app apple podcast or ever you get your podcast, because we all have something to learn about the real me. Don't you missed, industry have struck, works and welcomed me, I'm hotly frank, that's how I, to the museum of Finer Boston and saw that time, capsule that have been pulled out from the cornerstone of the old State house. I have three things on my to do list on natural. There was that time capsule there. Gustaf Glimpse Adam and Eve, which was alone from a museum in Vienna, and there was huge exhibition of artwork by the japanese artist, best known as Katyusha Hokosa. I
and in addition to that, to do as they won't have also seeing lots of Leonardo Da Vinci, sketches and thumb world were one propaganda poster, a whole series of voters inspired by the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan and twenty eleven. So just give you a sense of how many amazing things there are at the Museum of Modern ART in Boston. If you ve never heard of hopeless thy, you we'll problem we still recognise his most famous work, which is under the wave off kind of Gaza, which is better known, as the great wave list the one that says three little boats in the shadow of an m, an enormous menacing. thing way with Mount Fuji soon. In the background Hokosa lives. During a time when there was not a lot of contact between Japan and the West, but even so he drew some influence from western art and then western
was later greatly influenced by his own work and from others from the time period when he lived. His career was also extremely long and diverse, and his work was this prolific. This collection of work at the empathy and Boston is huge, and the temporary exhibition of it is so big that we actually had to take a break from looking at it and go eat and come back because its enormous, but have actually describes its collection of japanese art as the largest and finest outside of Japan so poker size who we are going to talk about today, Hokosa I was born in at all, which is now Tokyo in seventeen sixty and he lived during Japan's at a period also called the took it. Our period, the auto period lasted for about two hundred fifty you're starting in the early. Sixteen hundreds hocus eyes were grew directly from a number of social changes that took place in Japan during this period. The period before the Togo Guy came.
power was known as the single coup period, and it was also Nixon, To the warring states period because it was marked with war, unrest and strife, the Tokyo Gower took several steps to try to secure their power and prevent returned to this state of perpetual conflict once they were in our the first was that took a guy, was shoguns band Christianity and expelled all european Japan, except for the Dutch were exempt because they haven't tried to convert the Japanese, but even Dutch contact with Japan was limited, as was Japan's contact with its new neighbours of China and Korea. The second was that the Togo Gower required the futile, words. He were known as the daimio who ruled Japan's provinces in their stead, to maintain too This is one was an echo and the other was back in their home province,
The daimio were expected to travel back and forth between these residences, while their families state an echo full time there. sentences of the time you were expected to be lavish and opulence and when they travel back in four between their home provinces and echo. They were expected to do so eight luxury and with a large retinue of mostly unmarried samurai. That ulterior motive to all this but Google, it and at o always had an eye on the damn use families which basically function as a tacit threat to their safety, to keep the damn you in love, and in addition to all of that they had to spend. How much money on these multiple residences and the travel back and forth that the Daimio could never afford raise an army to challenge the token got was power. So what sort of a way to keep everybody in line and as a sign of this plan was not entirely successful in sixteen fifty one
A group of Ronan or masterless samurai trying to orchestra, two against the took a gower, even though, the damn you were employed in quite a lot of samurai. There were many others who were effectively out of work once the warring states period was over. However, these requirements we're placed on dying YO affected life for other people in Japan as well number one people were travelling a lot. Even their Japan having much contact with the rest of the world travel. Within its own, borders really became its own industry, five Your highways connected echo to the rest of Japan, and these were lined with places to rest, eat, arrange transportation by things and make religious observances. The most famous of these was the Tokyo road also called the Eastern See road, and this connected editing, Otto before going on to Osaka and the daimio travelled these roads at great expense, ordinary people
also using them society. the under the Turco Gallo became divided into four classes. There were warriors farmers, artisans and merchants, and even though the merchants were technically at the bottom of the pile, since they just sold the work of other people rather than creating work of their own, a lot of the merchants became quite rich. Japan became huh. To a thriving middle class thanks to all of these different industries and the increased commerce, but was coming with people travelling everywhere and maintaining multiple residences. In Edinburgh Vision damn you and their large retinues a samurai tipped the gender balance within the city spawning another industry. One of pleasure entertainment to cater to their interests this whole world of fashion luxury and amusement became known as the floating world or Keogh the
really wealthy merchants and artisans had access to the floating world as well, but also respond a whole school of art called you keep away or pictures of a floating world, and these are basically pictures paintings and would black prince of things like pleasure, districts, core designs, geisha tea houses, kabuki actors, that sort of thing and they were hugely popular among the growing middle class. It was in this school of art that Hokosa trained as an artist and we're going to talk about how that training came about after April. If word for I'm a sponsor. This episode of stepping has been history glasses, brought to you by love book. If you ve ever wanted to share a love story with somebody, but you weren't really sure how to start that is where love book comes in. These are totally customizable books that you can give, as gives to the people that you loving care about. Most people use them to list out the reasons why they love someone. You can create character
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Specifically, we know a lot more about his professional life and about his personal life. There's a fair amount of contradiction when it comes to the details of his biography, thanks to it AIDS and the fact that a lot of knowledge of it that survives today is kind of from a wide range of sources like introductions, he wrote to his own books and notes from other artists that were compiled well after his death, he was born column. Laura, took Toto, uncle the Knocker Jima, you say who was a mirror polisher. This is actually a prestigious position because mirror The time were mainly made from bronze rather than silvered. Glass mirror polishing require special inexact set of skills and hook Assize uncle had no heir to train to take over this position. So His eyes uncle, adopted him and later on. Reflections, reflections, lenses and optical effects would become a huge part of Hokosa work.
Hope, as I started, writing and drawing up eighty six, and these are two skills that are really connected quite closely and japanese culture thanks to the use of country and written language later. focused. I would also say that anyone who could write could also draw- and he would create these paintings that were basically built up from a series of written words, is unclear whether Hokosa I just didn't, want to be a mirror polisher or whether he didn't get along with his uncle or whether he correctly concluded that mirrors we're going to go out of fashion. but regardless as a team, he did not pursue his uncles line of work York instead. Publisher and lending library, and he work is a block car, making blocks for wedlock, prints,
though he demonstrated a talent for art at a very young age, and his uncles position meant he could get access to the Shoguns official painters. Hocus as formal education in art didn't actually start until he was nineteen. He joined the studio of cats who cow essential, a UK away artist in seventeen. Seventy nine Hezekiah some shows specialty Would black prince of Kabuki actors, while working in Kosovo is studio. Hokosa signed his prince Shun rule, which is a combination of a character from just name plus an additional character. those traditionally how art students would find their work with like a character from their teachers, name plus another character of their own choosing hocus. I work with the consequent school until seventeen. Ninety four and these years are known, as Hokosa should row period during this period.
also illustrated about fifty books, and he made would block prince of a lot of subjects that were common in the UK a school. Although little of his work survives from this period, its clear that he studied painting the catacombs school as well oversight. started, experimenting with western style, vanishing point perspectives in his work during this time, and that's a theme that would we Rufus later on, I will find them visual resources to look at and link them from our share nuts about western style, banishing quaint, respected sources. The way that perspective has traditionally worked in various even art because hard to explain with words from shore died in seventeen. Ninety two and two years later, for reasons that aren't completely clear: Hokosa left the school and stop using the name shun row he found another position, though the Tower Riah family
I him to train their son, whose father an artist had died. Hokosa was allowed to use the name soul re, which was the name of the deceased father until his son was ready, assume his role as air and leader of the family school, the town, I am family, apparently had quite a bit of wealth and status, so while he was with them because I had access to the best paints, inks and other materials and for. for years, produced a large number of privately commission. Prince known Sorry mono, as well as a number of paintings, working with privately commissioned Prince gave hope is thy some artistic freedoms he didn't have before,
you didn't need to worry about sticking with less expensive printing inks, because the plant runs themselves were much smaller and everything was being paid whereby patrons alot of these works were commissioned by poetry, clubs, as a company meant for playful works of poetry. Because of this work in private commissions, Hokosa developed friendships with many prominent poets and other well known figures, and he seems to have been quite financially prosperous during sorry period as well. It was in the spring of seventeen. Ninety eight, when the Tower Riah AIR seemed control of the family school. That Hokosa gave up on the sorry name and began working under the name Hokosa Turkey, Martha here continued a change of name from time to time after this point, which is a pretty common practice among artists in the meadow period, but the name Hokosa is one that here really became recognised for he,
so well known under that name that, even as he used other names, he would often add sacking of Hokosa or the former Hokosa to his works for the artist formerly known as after leaving the Tower Riah family. He also experimented with a lot of forms of art. Besides the standard prince paintings and book illustrations that had made up a large portion of his work before he made boardgame depicting journey from ETA to several pilgrimage sites and back again he also created puzzles and a deck a playing cards based on the tale of Genji. He pretty books of his own, including manuals on how to draw any publish, sketchbooks known, as Manga also made lots and lots of dire honours. These were intricate illustration that were printed on one flat. She or maybe do you really needed a lot of them and they were meant to be carefully cut.
and then assembled with the cut piece of standing up vertically, which create a three dimensional seen. Many of these were extremely complex and detailed. One of the prince and the innovative exhibition is one of these unkind and working from a copy of a curators tried to create and assembled version too kind of a company. It's you could see the flat one as it was printed and the assembled one it took them simple tries to get it to do. We mentioned before that. We don't know a great deal about hooker size, personal life, about what we do know is that he experienced a series of tragedy starting around eighteen, twenty, his old Daughter had married one of his students and they divorced in eighteen, twenty six Hokosa came very, very ill, and a year later, his wife died his grandson son, daughter, who had divorce did something the details of what exactly was are unclear. But whatever it was led Hokosa into some really huge financial problems.
Their daughter, on the other hand, was named cats who she got oil and became a wonderful artist on her own and its possible that she helped her father with some of his work. I actually originally. Today the episode on her because she seems to have been quite a character who loved Saki quite a lot and she would sometimes substitute one of the characters and her name for one meaning drunk instead, when she saw her artwork Firstly, we know even worse about her and have way less of a body of work to drop round to talk about cancer. She got way than we do about her father it's possible that all these tragedies in the lack of money that followed were what spurn Hokosa into making his most famous work of art. Thirty six views about Fuji. As suggest there are thirty, six prince each featuring mouth Fuji in some way, and the great wave is one of those. The theories
well with a trend that was rushing through depend at that point, which was set up full sized landscape prince that worked together at the series, another of these serious that you may have heard of is Hiroshi Gaze. Fifty three stations of the Tokyo road Hokosa himself also did a series on the stations of the talks a road that here she gave became more famous than than Hokosa eyes. Did sixty use amount. Fuji was also inspired by pressure blue ink, which was newly available in Japan and known as Berlin Blue there. It led to a huge demand for artwork that use the color blue and white public clamored for azure or prince done entirely and shades of blue hocus. I started using the blueprint for the outlines on his landscapes. traditionally been black and he also use them for prints of birds and flowers. Hope, as I also use
It's a blue in his work and general during this craze for blue and some of the prince and the thirty six views about Fiji in their first edition printing, your honor entirely blue, as people became less enamoured with the color blew the same blocks would then be to prevent new editions of these works, but with more colors in them that they were, quite so over willingly, blue. After the success of the thirty six views about Fuji, Hokosa created just an enormous number of landscape prince but around eighty before eighteen, thirty five. He ran into some trouble with his publisher and the details. As is often the case. His story are unclear, although it seems as though a publisher that he'd been working with on several the volume books of Prince suddenly went bankrupt, and consequently, later books that were supposed to come out went unpublished with this problem with his publisher, hooker size, commercial output really dropped from end.
Play Japan was also hit with an enormous economic depression from eighteen. Thirty, three, eight. Thirty. Seven and that three of demand for hooker size work and his studio in its contents were destroyed in a fire in eighteen, thirty, nine. In spite of all this and of the changes in the market for our work. Hokosa continued to be tremendously, creative rights through the end of his life. He experimented with paintings and festival floats and he designed a sculpture. He died in eighteen, forty, nine at the age of ninety by the japanese method of counting and eighty nine by the western method. He said, he'd be a truly skilled painter if you live to be a hundred and at that point, it out just at enormous body of work. A lot of it is extremely playful. He expects
pointed with new ways of approaching artwork Eve made all of these creative strides. But he was like it if just live to be a hundred, but I'd be a really scalping. Just ten more years and get me they so he'd, be drew and painted so many things. But so much of his work was in the form of wood black plants and we're gonna talk but more about how these prints were made and also about how Hokosa later influenced western art. After another brief word from a sponsor this episode of stuff, you missed in history classes brought to you by Norton three sixty with life. Luck with your shopping online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going
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a new might be to be programme as their most groundbreaking and customize programme. Ever I joined Debbie W because I was really looking for something that was going to help encourage me to make healthier eating choices. They have really done that when you joined them W W program, you will take a personal assessment. It asking questions you're eating habits in your behaviors minute, scientifically matches you up with which plan is going to be the best for you. I'm a blue plan and it has made such a big difference or me in terms of encouraging Meis eat. Healthy foods join W W, formerly wait. Watchers unlock your customer. weight loss plan that can make losing weight easier for you had on over to Debbie Debbie dot com. That's w w dot com to joint Debbie Debbie. Today, with the limited time offer fell, often when we about visual artists. Gonna show we're talking about people who made each piece of our as one thing, though painters and sculptors, and potter's and textile artists. They make it work
art? And while you can see pictures of that work of art or may make prince of it, there's only one original like you go to a museum, and you see the Mona LISA there's one of it. That's not the case for one of her size, primary media. The would block print Hokosa would block prince include all the typical subjects of the UK. School, as well as waterfalls, birds and flowers, dragons ghosts and monsters, fish lantern it goes on and on and a huge range of subjects, printmaking isn't unique to japanese but in the meadow period in particular, with black prints were a very popular form of art in Japan. First, the artist would create the picture than a black cutter would put that picture face down onto the wooden block, secure it there and vat Very very carefully cut out the block along the lines of the artwork. A black and white work can use just one block,
but for a color work, the black carver would take an impression about original carving to make a different block for each layer of color to make the actual prince Prince me, print makers, inked the block lay paper over it and they rubbed the back to transfer the ink onto the paper. This made printmaking a collaborative collective form of art and says Hokosa himself had worked as a block carver. He had perspectives that came from all parts of this process and there is no press involved, but a lot of people think I've. When making prince with these blocks. Print makers could make lots and lots of copies of the same work of art, which is why you can find copies of the great wave and other at o period prince
came from those original blocks in museums all over the world rather than what museum, and it also meant that a lot of people living at the time were able to afford to buy his work and have artwork on their walls. Hokosa work was actually at one point, even printed on papers for rice, snacks, almost like collectible cereal boxes, like that the snack manufacturer was with hoping that people would want to buy their snacks more, so they could have more hokosa art from the wrappers I wish we could get works of art with our snacks. Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan on July, eighteen of eighteen, fifty three just a few years after Hokosa S, death and acting on behalf of the. U S govern He demanded that Japan Open trade to the West, although Parrys flee, Small Japan had no navy with which to defend itself, and so it was forced to negotiate, Japan and the United States signed a trading agreement in eighteen. Fifty four further
these followed most of them unequal and benefiting the other trading partners more than Japan. Naturally, this affected Japan as a nation dramatically, for example, the token Gala shogunate fell and was replaced by an emperor, but our focus here is really going to stay on the artwork while Hokosa work had begun to fall out of imperial favor newly opens trade with the west sparked. The craze for japanese art and culture fans, kimonos, screens and porcelain were in huge demand in the West diplomats, tourist and officials who visited Japan also came home with the artwork that they bought while living there. A big part of the USA is japanese. Our collection is actually a donation from Doktor, William Stewardess Bigelow, who lived in Japan from eighteen, eighty to eighteen, eighty nine and then donated the collection of art that he acquired while there to the museum of nineteen eleven for those who
an acquired, their japanese art and artifacts by visiting Japan. All this Is he hasn't for japanese culture? Had the unfortunate effect of giving westerners are rather warped and stereotypical view of Japan? However, what black and other Japanese aren't wound that being hugely influential to artists in the west as well, and this our this influence became known as despotism. Felix Breck woman, who was a french impressionist painter, found a set of Hokosa monger in pay. As an eighteen. Fifty six, you started sharing hooker size work with his artist friends and soon other impressionist artists were really seeking out and learning from Hocus eyes are as well as the other, as well as the work of other artists from the. U S, school impressionist painters started to imitate the use of color lines and perspectives along with poker size, often very playful treatment of visual subjects.
Claude Monet acquired about two hundred and fifty japanese prince twenty three of them by Hokosa Eye and then like Hokosa. He made a practice of painting the same thing in many angles and for many settings you can see this clear Jim he's influence, for example, already the Toulouse, where tax device Rene and Vincent Van Gogh's luck, partisan and a series of etchings by America sought the. If you You sort of line up lots of hope of Cyprus and other work from the. U S school next, to laugh of impressionist imposed impressionist work, it's pretty easy in a lot of cases, even for a lay person he's not like deeply enmeshed in the world of art and art history to see, I am to see their progression from the japanese art style into western art spray. Fascinating.
I love it. I do this well, so I did not know how enormous this exhibition was. When I went in there, I thought it was about half the size that it was not. I came around a quarter and there was basically that entire size of what I have just seen, doubled again that's a lot of it is really incredible. Some of it in a there's a whole, a whole japanese artwork section of the museum that you can see at any time, even when this exhibition is not part of it anymore. But I do really like that that this artwork was printed on mass, improper and popularly consumed, and so you know what's the folks just bought prince as a matter of course, and you have all these prints letter.
still in pristine condition that date back to the eighteen fifty than before, in museums all over the world. I think that's pretty interesting fabulous then it has. It have less of the concern about where that art should white, rightfully be since the same prints are also available in many museums in Japan and other a question that comes up and handsome we're talking about art and and what is in museums around the world and where it came from you do you also have some interesting listener mail to share with us. In my view, it is about our recent super episode on Frankie Manning. I have been pleasantly surprised: fire email about Frankie Manning up based on past experience. I had expected our conversation about cultural appropriation, which you could say it applies to this episode to expect that back to make people really mad based on some previous
variants undefined gas, but most of the people who have written have been extremely sweet. I some of you may we ve gotten, has been a little misguided, but is mostly very nice. So this is a case where a like. Sometimes we read really angry email, that people have sent us to explain why? Why that's not the point of view that we were talking about, but like people who have just been so sweet that I don't really want to embarrass anyone who sent a sweet email instead, I'm going The sun from Stephen Seven says hello, Tracy and Holly he'd do a great show. I've been listening to the package for years now and it really got me interested in the other how stuff works, Pike S and beyond. This is truly given me great. Listening for Long Carter, I've been working around the house. Keep up the good work. You guys did a great job covering Frank, Frankie Man so about your question regarding whether it is appropriate or not to have lending off the your wedding. I started. They think back with
revival was at its height and ninety. Ninety seven I've enjoyed six count swing, countless hop and eventually blues dancing. In quotation marks another story there, I've listened to and taken lessons from Frankie Manning based on my experience correct. When you mentioned that Frankie was more than happy to teach. Anyone who wanted to learn he devoted most of the rest of his life to teaching after errand and Steve Mitchell Rich at reached out to him a nineteen. Eighty five, whenever I saw him, teach a class, he was having the time of his life. I have also attended, lecturers, flash sermons given by another wonderful person from that area. Don Hampton. As I understand it, though, I cannot confirm it from research. She was fourteen years old and on that trip to Rio with Frankie and danced true, in fact, that the outbreak of the war, she was the first person they sent back home since she was so yeah
She is of that era for New Frankie in a number of the original dancers intimately. So when she talks about dancing she's a person of authority he was around, and it was all beginning below- is a link to a very I've done Hampton talking, Frankie Meanings, ninety fifth birthday party in New York City. This echoes a talk. I heard her give at swing out New Hampshire in two thousand and five
CS her becoming aware of the swing revival that was occurring in the nineties and that a friend brought her to dance club where people were swing dancing. She was absolutely tickled that people had started up dancing again in one of her comments was, and most of them were white and her words shouldn't minded dance, wasn't as fully attended by African American. She was happy. Someone was continuing the tradition, even if they are of a different different, admittedly she's one of the swedish people you could ever meet and the always been a joy to hear her talk about dancing and its positive impact on our culture and how it can bridge human differences, and then he gives us a link on a stick that we can assure notes. The sound of that great but you'll get a great deal for which is like a person, pay particular attention to her talk at seven minute. Mark I've heard Frankie talk,
number of times and would be happy to share for the story of my life and dancing? If you want to hear them sorry about the length of this email, don't apologize. It's great stated that bit I'm sure you get plenty of mail which we definitely do and then he says I hope you have a good time at your wedding. I wanted to read this one. We ve gotten the several great emails, and I wanted to read this one because it sort of another perspective from survey. You was dancing at the time. I had. We ve gotten several that sort of echo the thing that I said, which is that when I was learning swing, dancing zero of this information about where Lindy Hop came from was really included in in the class like hence Frankie Manning would be mentioned above a lot about his history or where it came from or how the stance developed. We did even get an email from somebody who said this, like her experience was similar to that and she had just assumed that Frankie was white, because everyone else who was taking danced with her was also white, so seemed like a logical conclusion,
So I think there are that the trend in our email is that we have had lots of folks who started Lindy hop. They had think while Frankie meaning was still alive and had the opportunity to learn directly from and who all seem to have a very nuanced and thoughtful approach to the idea of cultural, appropriate I only hope and then a lot of people who came along after Frankie Manning had passed away and in he wasn't so personally present in Wendy Hop anymore, who had similar experiences to what I had, which is the battle was never mentioned. It was not something we thought about or knew about it out. So much later,. Oh I'll, that ties together in a big ongoing conversation that basically boiled down to you just think about what you're doing and listen to other people and and and don't take for granted that something is ok do without thinking about it.
You would like to write to us about this or any other body ass. We re history pod gap, but how stuff works: dot, COM Ruslan Facebook at Facebook that calm Flash missed in history and on twitter admission history, our tumblr is most in history, tat, tumblr com and are on pinterest dependence back on flash missed in history. If you would like to learn more about what we talked about today onto our parent companies website, which has therefore start com, but the word fractals in the search bar or the word oversight, and you will find how freckles work, which talks about how Hokosa used rattle like images in the great wave, you can also come to our website, where you will find the share notes that we ve been talking about an archive everything episode ever lots of others cool stuff seep into
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