A funny thing happened to the Dutch during the 17th century: They went nuts for tulips, paying exorbitant amounts for a single bulb. But what exactly triggered this commodity bubble? And what do revisionist historians have to say? Tune in and find out.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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welcome to stuff. You missed in history class from house works dot com.
Welcome to the podcast, I'm fair, daddy and I'm going to talk about it and start off. Today, too, little story a legend and it's about a merchant and seventeenth century HOLLAND and he'd green one of his ships just arrived
from abroad, and he gives the sailor on.
A hearing for lunch, very generous of him and the sailor is looking for a little something to eat. With his herring a little side dash looking around the chef any find some route like vegetables on board and he thinks there on it, and so he cuts map any rise them with
oil and vinegar, some sort of condiments too to make them tasting and he eats them with his fish and through this sailors, innocent lives,
the merchant end up losing more on the meal
he would have if he had bought the prince himself, the fight
space and the land so you'll,
I heard this story before and you'll find it rehashed and retired and tons of sources and articles that you might read in your favorite business journal today, and it really upset him either. As the financial bubble that shook the seventeenth Century Dutch Republic, of which, as the story goes rich and poor people like speculated on tulip bulbs and they were
droid. When, ultimately, the market draw before the Bob said even bloomed and almost sense, then this little
hey not just the story of the bulbs mistaken as onions, better
greater story, has been an anecdote for business riders to use as
cautionary tale is something too to watch out for don't get too
the about, get rich quick scheme for he might find yourselves like the Dutch yeah. I know what you're eating you haven't had assumed to have is another London alarmed and one reason you'll find that this herring exotic onion side, this story in print so frequently as because it really makes a nice historical
counterpart to current events. Articles about the dark,
bubbled housing bubble, even
I need a bubble of beanie babies that happened in the late nineties, so I'm proud. I was not part of that bubble
nine it was. I even I was polio- really address the population to be part of it, but I have waited it and yet it just to give you an example of how often the story is used by business writers. I found this particular version in the economist, though I mean there, you go kind of one of the ultimate there, but we're gonna be
talking about the tulip bubble or
look mania, it's called lots of different things and
but figure out why the bottom fell out and also
for to throw a ranch in the MAC. Fear and talk about. The revision is history
that's really changed.
story align the past year or least got a lot of people thinking, but before we we go,
and the trade as a whole. We ve gotta discuss the history of the commodity itself, tulips which have a pretty
history in my favor for a flower
Sheila. That looks like an
and potentially yes-
do and writer Anna Pavlovna, who wrote just one of the surprisingly large number of books on two of that have come out since ninety. Ninety nine said that the two of is a flower:
has carried more political, social, economic, religious, intellectual and cross cultural baggage than any other on earth, so
put that near me. I know I never knew you think of it, but the tool
you suggest be another, while flower of course said it didn't start with this history,
it was one that grew in Turkey in Central Asia, and there
still more than one hundred theses there. Today. I look them up online there really pretty. They don't look back
like I mean you, can tell the related, but they dont look that much like the tulips that you might grow in your garden today. There
sort of points here and a little more open, my flight come buttercup, there's something rather than HOLLAND grown tulip. Some very nice
with the ottomans. They brought these balls into their courtyards and domesticated them, and they were just obsessed, as the Dutch would become with these flowers there they are,
the long, narrow flowers that with the pointy paddles and they
them as a decorative motif and things like embroidery in tiles, they even had a special vase for one blossom. But by the mid
teen hundreds tulips were brought to Europe by Oji Asia's learn to boost back the ambassador for Ferdinand, the first of Austria too silly man, the magnificent
Finally, on this ambassador year
We mentioned in the earlier episode on Cinderella, a harem that fully man sort of started. This tradition of not speak
to ambassador is presented at his cord, and so we can imagine that Oji she's land
I saw a man at
point actually he'd be more than suffered at one point, the sum placed him under house arrest. He
eventually freed, and when he does come back to Austria, he brought not only tulip thieves, not tulip bulbs tulip seed,
take a really really long time to turn them into tulips, but he didn't just there.
Those he brought back lilacs and in Gaza, goats to which is the way he didn't bring the bomb. The goat,
I take a lottery. Someone could be pretty tough to transport hollow
we had to wait a few more years for tulips, but in fifteen
the three careless clues. Yes, who was the prefect of the imperial herb, Gardens and Vienna? He brought symbol,
with him when he emigrated and headed up to a new botanical gardens in Leyden. So basically he was taking a new position and brought them along inclusive, see bread these
Europe's mostly fur medicinal purposes, but he considered them too,
the forty or so dual purpose there
I have one more thing to add about limiting services. I'm not sure what these medicinal purposes were, because I
into an tulips, especially their bulbs, are filled with Gleich asides, which are extra.
Toxic and according to the Nova Scotia Museum during world,
to some starving. Dutch cattle and people had to resort eating bulbs, and they would get quite thick format vote. Yes, it actually,
active Lena through egging me go look up. Why closely? Is
who is using these for medicinal purposes before I, like accidently, recommended that tulips made good marathon and everybody eight the bulbs that they had just brought from pike. There's something stick to your pharmacy
as an artificial recommendation, but
Luckily, Clytius here, as I said, he he also live
whilst for their ability and many other people to tell he really had a heart and preventing the boats were being stolen out of his garden. So the iter,
until that emerges and the traders are called. It blew Miss Stearne, which means tulip traders
ball within others, hopefully purchase legitimately that a trade in
Let's emerges and the traders are called it blew Miss Stearne, which means
traders, it also Canna means tulip fanfares or tulip enthusiasm, which is something that you
keep in mind when we get into this speculative.
Sure of this later story, but yeah
Basically, the point is that these first traders love tulips too
not just in it for the money there collectors and
This is a time when collecting thing for your curio is really really,
popular when you add you'd, add up
We shall then- and things like that. Interesting rock than men are all in display them in. It would show that you were an educated, cultured person,
So you had to have a love for him, and you also
some good faith to deal in tulips tail and here's lie traditionally. The trade
the tool of trade was done in the summer flower
bloomed in May or June, and after
the ball was dug up and it was kept to dry endorse the bulbs
had to be inspected and they were sold just before they were replanted and September, so the seller
deliver the bald and the buyer would pay up.
So the issue here is pretty apparent. It's that if you're, the buyer, you don't know exactly what you're gonna you don't know if it's the same law that one that you contracted for you don't know. If it's the ball, that you
bloom and look so pretty last spring, and you don't know if it's above it's gonna perform as well as the one you thought I mean, there's already gonna be a little unfair.
tea in any kind of quarter cultural pursued, but there is the potential for deception. Here
t o, which made people pretty nervous and to make me
is worth bulbs bought
didn't always bloom. Is people expected them to, even if they were the same? Even if there was some sort of fraud happening and that's partly because the most popular tulips at the time were called broken, tulips and
if you, if you look at an old water collar or painting of tulips, you're, probably look
broken to its. They have these feather flame
also on a light background.
There's something like red or purple stripe, going up the middle of each puddle and the tulip
with bloom, like a normal, solid color tulip one year and then the next year
bloom, splotched and broken and food flower. The time people in total surprise the fat
it seemed and its descendants any any descended from that. Bob would also bloom, splotched and broken, and
at the time people in no, why the fat and it seemed like pure chance that these were the tulip they wanted to Haiti. We know that, ironically, its cause,
a virus which is delivered by E Fed and
has the broken tulips were.
I mean, I don't wanna, say thick they're not dare not unable to to thrive in a certain sense, but
little bit weaker because their weaker the bulbs reproduced they didn't reproduces fast as a good unaffected, healthy bulbs, shed
though it drove up the price it made. These broken flowers even more valuable in more desirable, and were you saying that without the blocking of the sort
no son pedal. You couldn't tell how it would be
yeah you're earlier chance to use their? Maybe it with them ugly fly she didn't like, or maybe it with these perfect flame, going up the middle of the paddle
You don't know what you're gonna get even fewer dealing with someone who's trustworthy, so the
most expensive too, about the time was Simper Augustus, which was a red and white striped variety and it went for a thousand florins, which was six
the annual income of an average person at that time now, but even as early as sixteen ten, according to the infected Peter Britannica, a single
rare, bulb, made an acceptable dowry and an entire brewery, and I, like, I think, the
computer mention specifically a thriving brewery in France was sold
I'm Bob one highly
It involves, though, we see these examples of people getting pretty obsessed with.
let's early on, but it was in
sixteen thirty, four sixteen thirty five, depending on which source you look out, that prices
really really high, and at that point business started to change and though, instead
of the system to Billina described a minute ago where the bulbs were sold in late summer when they were dug up, the bulbs were now sold by weight while they were still in the ground, though this fund
finally changing the process of the tulip trade. Yet you may wonder how they could even pull this off. Well, you what
happen as you'd get the details of the bald. What its way
as at planting its expected wait. Come September,
said there was no bald, so it was actual paper
descriptions of the bulbs that were sold instead of the bulbs themselves say you imagined like getting this piece of paper for something that you paid money for,
no, I mean imagine if you're buying tulips now for your garden and now is the deal you reply will be very happy with it and to deal with this new system. This sum
selling by weight system till above even got their own unit of measure called the often I think, also called aces where
one of this unit equalled about their open.
Zero zero one eight hour, so super super tiny
the measure as it would have to be
blue understand there is money to be made even if the price per
thousand didn't change. As long as your bulbs grew in the ground, your profits we're gonna climb, so
the man continued to grow. For these the offsets,
SL as well as mature, a which means offsets were basically
work all bad. Now they re little ball. That's they took three to five years to produce flowers of their own, so pretty
more so than getting the pieces of paper. Instead of your actual bob look you're no longer even buying a ball, but that well yeah. I saw that ball bloom in May this year. It's maybe fingers crossed little blue
men three to five years, though view
risky business and by sixteen thirty six there's a futures market to whereby
its word contract
by an inn, ground ball at that price.
gambling that it would eventually, when it was finally dug up, it would be worth more than the expected value and contracts themselves were
bought and sold, and I think,
and he would pay up when those Bob's came out of the ground. That was where they were all gambling on to make matters. Worse, buyers start buying,
ultimately had to hope that there would.
someone at the end, he would pay up when those bulbs came out of the ground. That was where they were all gambling on to make
It is worth buyers, start
without the money
their buying on credit and
fellers, except that, because there,
gambling on the fact that the buyer himself will probably be able to sell at a higher price benchley as well again, all counting on that one person
the end of the chain is willing to pay out and the fact that the bold action
turns out away and yeah law,
What's going on here, so how high
it is actually go. How much where people actually spending on these bulbs? Well, there's some information
from sixteen thirty seven floating around a nursery catalogue actually from a Harlem florists and
the name, weight and price of a tulip viceroy. For example, there are lots of other tulips as well, but for this too
I saw a lightweight, bald sold for three thousand guilders. A heavy bulbs
for four thousand.
Hundred so the low price here was
when times the annual salary of skilled craftsman,
and I mean again- we need to point out a few things. Even with this. We don't know if, if this tulip Bob Viceroy thought for this amount, our or if this is all part of the speculation, but was the offering price,
and if it really is covered
with a unique but arrears statistic from this time of of,
two Bob's name and its price in its way all being put out there. We don't have that much infamy.
in about it of in this whole area.
sort of filled with these legends. There's another really great went from this time, which might even
better known than that herring, onion
the old beginning that we took on pet the legend of the black tulip, which ultimately inspired adventure Dumas a novel author called the black tulip this when it
This one is starting to show that there is bad feel
In the traveller trade, it goes like this. There is a group of Harlem Florists
and they hear that a cobbler at the Hague has produced a black tulip, a rare, coveted black tulip and they go to him and they have a with him for a while, and they final,
work out a deal. They buy it for one thousand, five hundred florins and as soon as its theirs. They take it,
throw it on the ground in they stamp it Tibet and they tell him that he the fool to have produced this black to Europe and to have sold it to them, for that
they would have given him ten thousand florins if he and they turn
he'll, never ever be so lucky again to breed this black tulip and
The story goes he so distraught that he takes too bad and he dies. Of course, that has to be the end
moreover, fairytale kind of legal story yeah, but there's theirs
of bitterness, even if we, even if we step away from the lake, obviously polemical story-
yeah, it was bitterness about people who quite didn't understand the tulip thing or didn't. Thought is given to carry out their problems
a lot of people now do for exam.
Harlem priest, Yadda cats wrote to his nephew on February. Fifth, sixteen thirty, seven that, like the plague that had been bad since sixteen thirty five now quote,
another sickness had risen. It is the sickness of the blue mountain,
historian, Theodora sure, VS wrote
Much later in sixteen forty eight, he wrote a letter that
What kind of angry Spirit was called it from Hell, but our descendants doubtless will laugh as this at the human
Vanity of our age, but in our times it
flowers have been so revered
We are a lot of self criticism, even at the time. Like me,
we doing spending all of this money and obsessing over tulips, so surprise, surprise by February
in thirty seven, the market collapses, supposedly as be traditional story, goes its because an expected.
higher, fails to show up and the homer
at least this confidence, but more likely it's just that people
to realize around this time that the
labour chain of,
buying in trading these these little descriptions of tulips that are
would only work and they would only make their profit if there was a buyer. The end, as we mentioned before they Alec
I bought a tulip from you to Billina and
I was trying to make money off of it. I wouldn't
that I had to get like, are pretty sir Jerry to buy the bulb ultimately, because, if she didn't buy it, then I'd be left with the Tulip Baldwin
and inside. If I even wanted to pay for, though it might Ireland up on your lap nowhere crack and skulls about plant, so
others want their money, but there's really no way to enforce these oral agreements.
mentioned they probably weren't as well.
Does. I was
by March or so as suggested that all trade since the previous September be nullified at that. At that point, the high court stepson they
say basically deal.
We don't want to deal with that. What they say as all transactions remain in force, but deal with it yourself. Don't come to us about it essentially, and so
just one example of how people try to deal with it. There is the south established, commissioner,
tradesmen set up in Harlem and they decided that the contracts there would be settled for three point: five percent of the purchase price and, of course nobody is happy with this solution.
Www situation for everyone. If you are left with the bald you,
expecting a lot more for that, and you know, presumably you making some bats yourself if you're stuck paying three point. Five percent of the purchase price
just throwing away money. Essentially, though, at this point, the story gets,
kind of again and collect the black tulip. Those opposed them
the bubble bust, dressed, shakes.
Ouch economy to a tremendous extent, because the investment is so widespread, their speculators across classes, so bankruptcy is common in
people lose their houses and their businesses for tulip and it becomes the classic
cautionary tale of being a little work
for with your money inserted the poster boy for it is beyond me
Goin, who was an artist and supposedly
died in Dat because of tool at all, we'll find out
little bit more about diet lily. He later he did die in debt, but not necessarily because of his tulip speculation.
So, needless to say it painted
die dire situation, and it's easy to
how is used as a cautionary town. Recently, though, there's been a
but of a shift in how some people look at the two above all for exam,
the writer and gold girl suggested in two thousand seven's to mania money, honour and knowledge and the dutch Golden age, but the idea
The two mania was economically devastating to HOLLAND. Is the result of a few contemporary polemical pamphlets,
were written to basically make peace
a prudent in their own business affairs. These
turn she suggests were taken up by historians and gradually filtered into fact so yeah and inserted. To add to that, because they cause this story, has
so frequently been used as an anecdote, it sort it took on a sheen of current bubble, comparison,
So if you're, if you're writing about the South Sea Babble or you're right,
in passing today daily. It takes on a little bit of whatever your comparing it to an end.
view for reviews in history, J, Leslie Price wrote. The book was quick
terminally revisionist though I mean it, I really think this this, but can shook up
Philip store Ebay
add to that.
Only a lot of economists have debated whether it was the
let all in- and there are precise economic definitions, fur
what that means that we're not gonna get into bed it. It seems to be like maybe a fun
eyes for economists herb or perhaps the serious study
you figure out if there was above all and then too
They either for or against it. Yes, there was a bubble know there were mark.
Reasons behind it. It is created a whole
all new topic of discussion for these tulips
yeah and similarly I think looking at
workers. Argument is kind of a fun exercise for historians as well, because she's just sort of searching
source that this tale came from
the first place. Definitely always I always like. When I get us the prize like this,
and upset. I mean I'm always relieved that I found this up.
To this end. It terrifies me that I won't some day, but it's it's fun for us for sure yeah, so
just a little bit on cultures, argument most of her revision, so to speak, come at the sake of traditional tulip sources or the cannon, you might say
and a lot of our traditional sources on tulip mania come from China.
my eyes extraordinary popular delusions and the madness of crowds which was published in
ten, forty one, it's a pretty popular book- is
please still imprint. I looked it up, you could you could order it ends, it paints a lot of these.
Really exciting stories about the babble like the mistaken onions and things like
thin cheese and clothes being traded for one viceroy bob. The really
picturesque accounts of the story, but as gold Golkar uncovered
it turned out. Charles Matthias main source was Johan Back men who wrote a history of inventions, discoveries and origins in seventeen. Ninety seven and back minute,
Interesting character has. He seems to be one of the first major people who projected his contempt
it concerns onto the dutch bubble, so economic concerns for his time and
He may have also been the guy who gave
the idea that the bubble burst because the bloomiest and became purist speculators
you weren't just collectors anymore, and he seemed to view this almost is as expected.
It will surely you wouldn't be tulip fanfares and spend these huge amounts of money, but he wrote quote how ridiculous would it have been to purchase useless routes with their weight in gold if the possession of the flower had been the only object?
said it was an editorial currently. My so here
His argument kind of relies on Abraham Munting of botanical writer from the seventeenth century, whose father lost money on tulips, but sentiment
was too young to be their first hand. His sources also came from somewhere else, so his sources came from a chronic or named Lula DA night Sima in sixteen sixty nine and also a propaganda,
he spy Adrian Roman from sixteen thirty seven, so I'd Sima was
the drawing from sources from pamphlets and order left at this point with the pamphlets as lake,
Basis, the main source for all of the star, and when we felt her at all down, you filter it all down to the bottom up again, and so of course, the pamphlets are gonna be
and high speculation, they're gonna be encouraging people to not go out and blow all their money on tulip, but it's interesting.
culture, also take a closer look at a few of the most fame
mania, anecdotes and assumptions. For instance, the artist
and earlier who died and Dat, for example, he did die in that, but it was
Much later in sixteen, fifty six, perhaps in debt,
get another speculative scheme, but not tulips.
Other issue that Gallagher addresses is the idea that the bubble has
a tremendously broad effect on the economy, because so many people were involved, rich people, poor people, people in between
instead she argues that the bloom of stones were this really tight. Knit group of people who worked together for years and years and years, most of them loved, collecting tulips,
as well as trading them
they wouldn't meet an in depth and dispute to mean I have to
talk with each other and dispute in exchange and trade, and so certain members of the
almost ten were obviously severely shaken by the crash, but there now
we're smaller than often thought and, of course, even if your respect.
What're, you didn't get into too much trouble if you are in the middle of that chain, because hope waiting for cancel can, for other things out other debts and credit, though
just sort of suggesting that maybe there was a smaller pool of people affected by this crisis.
Yeah. The entirety of HOLLAND wasn't devastated because of this. The tulip bubble yeah but vulgar also said
said. The bubble was indeed a social and cultural crisis, so she doesn't deny that in her back at all,
our real value shock for for the people of the country and in the six
Thirdly, the Dutch Republic was in bed
times it was really
Tourism was started taking off but didn't quite fit right with everybody here and the bubble. Scared people for a few reasons,
Apparently enough to make them right some of these very
Angry concerned pamphlets, though a few others scary,
we back the skin is interesting than men, a night
see the hat. That's that's a bad sign for business, and then there was the fact that the sellers basically had no recourse to get their money back. This one is in
sing than men, and I
this is. One of the reasons is that the many knights who refused
swear oaths and were considered very trustworthy. They were also
and to trade, and that active, broken gloom and stung him, and so it was sort of like if you can't trust the matter needs. Who can you trust yeah with his unsouling, for your average person and
if we go into the product itself, it was disturbing to people that
value no longer had seen at least roughly on par with its market, where, if you have a ball, but that somebody can we.
it is an onion, although with that toxic substance, I don't know
we are not mistaken as an onion, and you have something that seems
value suddenly going for huge amounts and
curious of all, though, is that people could get rich through luck rather than work, which
potentially upset the social order for the very deep
This thing indeed makes a lot of scary new, modern things kind of all jumbled up together there and we
talked about this earlier. How we like to both versions of the story, both the revisionist history, on how the valid trade failed and kind of the hysterical tale of Viceroy
population. That makes such a code.
then I guess, enter
sing and trout a stories on modern booms and bus. I like the story about a cow going for a two bob and it's obviously quite likely that economists
continue to debate whether this was really a bubble at all, if seen all sorts of back and forth. Yes, it is, above all,
No, it isn't. They were market explanations. Yes, how could
I think it was a bubble. Everybody has an opinion and I guess if they work at all out, eventually, though, and it turns out to not be a bubble- business writer
gonna, be out of a really tasty anecdote
yeah I mean it does make a good hook. First story still use that maybe like I would still I would still read it definitely, and we just thought it would be appropriate to clothes with some current state
the about the Netherlands too pretty,
and maybe a note on the Dutch Republic to act. I didn't have
straightened out honestly and I had to look into it- thumb the difference between
at your public, HOLLAND and the Netherlands. Why we have mentioned HOLLAND, so much rather than the Dutch Republic is because at the time the tulip trade took place
mostly within HOLLAND, and it's that he's like Amsterdam in the Hague and law
in Harlem today
though the kingdom,
The Netherlands makes up three parts: there's the Netherlands in Europe, which of course includes HOLLAND
and the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba through all over the world, but geography.
before you pop geography question and a little economics lesson to top hat off. Today.
The netherlands- still produces three billion dollars a year, so it didn't completely wiped out the tulip trade. Even though a story
bubble is true fields cover half the country and the dutch flower industry actually has seventy percent of international production of flowers and nine.
Percent of the trade. So people take vacations distance to see the flowers gloomy. They look lovely. I was looking at that tourists website. While I was doing
research on the pretty nice very nice. Well, I guess about wraps it up for the tulip.
or to mania? Maybe there will be some new economic research that comes out theatre, something and weaken, or food or medicinal research will finally figured out Carolus with cultures to about slowness. Now, as some of you probably do now, I would actually be interested in whether medicinal purposes for tourists are. They know. People is toxic for medicinal says or they have in the past, but yeah I get that
good point as any to bring us to listener mail. This message from lower end, she wrote gears therein,
Billina hello, lady in December, I visited a friend of mine in Chicago before heading home, to my parents found them with content for Christmas, and while I was there, she took me to the Chris Kindle market
father the market runs from thanks getting to Christmas inconsistent, mostly german benders. He fell all sorts items, food beverages Cetera the good place to go for a unique or unusual guy. Anyway,
at one of the matters that full german glass ornament in its place had an ornament shaped like every object, animal or thimble imaginable. Well, imagine my surprise life the basket with king, let a vague ornaments in it, a media. They remembered your pica makin, led big dines alone and the comments about how he is still to this day. Well, revered! Well enough.
I'll ornaments in lebanon- and she also said
the photo, which is really funny, I mean I thought the bus
king led vague. It made him glass
Fischer how accurate the likeness
But still I really liked idea trimming my tree next year with mad king.
I think I might have to make a trip
Chicago and check out this Christine did I don't know,
we'll have to we'll have to email and after three of our earlier, you ve bought a couple but anyways. If you have any suggestions or common or even just fine tips about where to get caught Christmas ornaments, let us know you can email. I said
strip. I cast at how stuff works, dot com. You can ask the finest on Twitter
Mr History, and were on Facebook
If you want to learn a little bit more about economic bubbles in general, you can look it up on our home page by typing in the title, which is which economic bubble will be next to burst. At d visa
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