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Julio Tello, Peru’s Archaeological Trail Blazer

2021-02-01 | 🔗

Tello is often called some variation of the father of Peruvian archaeology or the first indigenous Peruvian archaeologist. And his work was playing out across a backdrop of constant unrest and conflict, both for his country and his profession. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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your grandmother, what's the matter with your well and it is applied, cast about the relationship between grandmothers and grandchildren as led by the would have said TAT, I would have wanted a jewish girl other. Sometimes she, accidentally by streams, were like who's. Gonna. Tell our abject hearing about the style. Listen to call your grandmother. They I hopped radio apple pie, TAT, although Eddie you get your five gets. Welcome to stuff you missed in history glass abroad, of Iheart radio hello investment that I guess, I'm Polly fry bad, I'm Tracy Welfare, Tracy. I've been wanting to do and archaeology topic for awhile yeah
I mean I always liked them, but it can be difficult to pick and choose, but then, through a little bit of coincidence, Coolio Tail came up three different times and completely random places. For me I took this: is us I'm like one was in relation literally to the Disney movie, first new crew, with presently anniversary this year, which is set and proves that make sense. One was like. I was well. you're completely. Different documentary like, as my background stuff, while I was working in the sewing room- and it was about, kind of a more general survey of archaeology and and came up, and then I was like looking through things in the great courses, and then there is the whole discussion of one of Tito's biggest and most significant. Objects and size like ok, I get a universe it's time earlier today, If you ve, never heard of him is often old, some variation of the father of peruvian
Geology or the first indigenous proof, An archaeologist are sometimes the first indigenous American archaeologist we are well earned names, but, as I started researching him because I didn't really know a lot about him, what really struck me was His work was playing out across this backdrop of constant unrest in conflict both for his country and his profession, because the two were pretty tightly wound together and so today we're gonna talk about Tito in his work, but to level set we're not going super deep on the actual archaeology. That is their literal books and books and books about any given sight. He worked on all of which, have their own incredibly complex layers of nuance in discovery from when TIA worked on them too. Now
forcing them into a show alongside his life story, is really outside the scope of this episode, because I promise you excavating his story is plenty challenging. On its own say. It was born on April 11th, one thousand eight hundred and eighty, Full name was who Ios desire. Tail role has, and he was born in Cairo cheery, which is a mountainous province in peruse. Lemme region Actually, the mayor of wire cheery. We don't really have a whole lot of specific about his early life but we do know that his family recognised barrier. Beyond that he was really smart. Yes smart that when hullo is twelve, his father took him on horseback to lemme so that he could be it all that the color he dilemma to begin formal schooling. This actually took three days to make journey and his father was not staying, so it
then, who I was gonna, be living away from his family for the first time his father got him set up, he arranged for a place for him to live, got him enrolled in school and many headed home and for context. Helio turned thirteen just ten days after he got to lemme all by himself. This move had actually been. see aided by his aunt Maria who works in lemme at the presidential palace as a maid. She had made the case to folios parents that a kid like Coolio should really get a good education and she convince them of that. And then started out pretty okay amiss arrangement, but not long after things got started with his education who LEO's father died, and that was a fairly sudden and unexpected death in aside from going with the grief of losing a parent. This meant that Julio also lost his financial support. As a consequence, his armory up did step in to cover the cost of his education, but she couldn't afford to also pay for his living at
says so, who LEO, who literally see really just a kid still at this time a young teenager- wanted to stay and lemme and continue his schooling did so by supporting himself and in all kinds of our jobs to pay for his room and bored. So he would the train station carrying people's baggage, he sold papers on the streets and even worked in a doctor's office as an assistance. He was also hired to deliver mail to peruvian scholar and Politician Ricardo, Palma hullo had become friends with parmesan at school and I have seen in who yo just a lot of potential so much so that he became invested in seeing that this young man was able to stay afloat. The story goes that the mail delivery job he hired tail for had the second purpose had Coolio deliver his mail every day at noon, so that the timing would work out so that hullo was always offered lunch when he made the delivery
in that way, Pomum knew that Coolio is getting a good meal. Every day this was the only way that Ricardo Palma would prove to be who LEO's benefactor just after TAT Had enrolled at the University of Sand Marcos, the family help that he had been received, was no longer available. Those funds just ride up in his family at this point really kind of thought. Things were over him and lemme, and they urged him to return to flatter cheery, but it appears that Palma once again stepped in, although should note that the story is apocryphal. It's not really documented that this was pumas doing but who LEO was, according to some accounts, hired on Palmer's insistence to work, library, the Bibliotech, unless you now Ricardo Palma, was director at this time and he may have actually just created a job for who LEO. But the important thing was that he was able to continue his education so whether
is really what enabled him to stay and lemme and continue. His studies is not clear, but we know he did stay enrolled at the university and he was working at the bibliotech. Add also turned out His early life in the peruvian mountains meant that Coolio tale had a skill that was really valuable to one of his college professors, and that's that he spoke Catch were catches which is called Rooney. See me in the catalan language is sometimes described as the most spoken indigenous language in the Americas, and it's really a group of languages. There are several different varieties spoken today by an estimated eight million people, MRS ah, all different varieties of this language, indifferent geographical locations like Bolivia, Colombia, an germane to hullo story in Peru, but these different varieties of catch, were all trace, their roots back to the Inca Empire and even before yeah, when when we were mean handing,
how far are outlines Tracy asked me, would you say, he's kitchen or catch her and the is he never identified by way, at least not in his his life. As we know it, that's documented. He always said that he was and I'm quoting a mountain indian. This isn't it thing saying that I have seen some fear is come on, but not really. I know there are some papers written about it, but I did not dig into those super deep that some of this may have been effort on his part to sidestep some of the racism that would have inherently happened. Had he identified that way, because keep in mind. This is a kid from a mountain village. Who is it school mostly with very, very privileged kids, so He was really leg, doing the identity of yes, I'm catching it may have caused some strife and even later in his career, that could have been problematic. As well so for his purposes, he always just visit when asked that he was a mountain indian. But what's interesting is
his knowledge of catch. You was really valuable. It led one of his professors to ask him to assist with some of his linguistics work, and this consequently gave Teo his first taste of field studies, because he was traveling to various locations to study specific dialects in one thousand nine hundred and two entered medical school, and he was also promoted at the Bibliotech. A national in that promotion was into a conservative position. One of his projects in this new job was cataloguing the anthropological collection and while he was doing this, he came across a book that had been published in the United States and it included a section on trepidation. He recognized one of the sculls that was speeches in that section as one that his brother had found.
Years before, the skull had been sent to lemme as part of a programme in which the Lemme government had asked the people of wire cheery to gather these kinds of things. They had not known the purpose of the programme, but now hullo tail saw that there was interest in the study of peruse culture through history, on a go global scale. Here he of they had no thought that, like this gonna get shipped off to the United States for some researcher there to work with, they would just doing what they were asked to do. And he came away from his regulatory discovery wanting to steady cultural history himself, and he also resolved to learn English, while he had regular traveled home on school breaks to visit his family. Those vacations took on a completely different purpose, once Tito had become interested in studying the sculls of his ancestral home,
He started exploring hotter cheating on these vacations with this focus, and sometimes he visited archaeological sites and then he began collecting sky for his own study of trepidation in historical context, he gave his first presentation of his work in this field at the Lemme Jake, ethical society in May of nineteen o six tears timing, and all of this was for two. It is. He became interested in studying peruse cultural history at the same time that a lot of the western world outside of Peru was also turning its attention to the area in nineteen o five, the Historical Institute of Peru had been founded, and just a few months later, the National Historical Museum was founded to operate under the historical institutes umbrella
Is presentation on trepidation took place less than two months before this new museum opened and he was still doing his medical school coursework during all of this, and he did this kind of creative thing where he had actually found ways to blend his research in cultural history, with his medical schooling, they weren't necessarily separate disciplines. His thesis, for example, was about syphilis in Peru and the areas ancient history and ass. He had prepared this. These in which he had collected skulls to examine them for evidence of the disease he had. Ass, a really significant collection, because by the time he he was ready to present. He had gathered during his research. Roughly fifty thousand skulls and mummies. There's work got a lot of positive attention. Part of this was because his mentors really champion that, for example, after he presented his thesis members of the faculty committee who heard it
just to government officials that his skull and mummy collection should be purchased to establish a pathological anatomy museum. The government did not follow through with this plan due to financial limitations. They'll. Additionally, Ricardo Palma continued to assist his career trajectory by introducing Coolio in his work to pee, who were in positions of power and influence you ever daily. When people came to visit from outside of Peru and if Ricardo Palma met with them, he would be ok. Do you know about this kid in orchestrating? It's quite amazing, and this was a period when, of course who the auto star was on the rise, but at the same time the Local climate of Peru was extremely volatile in the late spring Nineteen o nine. There was a coup attempt in the ongoing conflict in its aftermath, made tail very happy to take advantage of a scholarship that he was awarded. That was intended to support him in study abroad after he had finished his medical degree Harvard
offered him free tuition, and so he made the decision that he would head to Massachusetts for two years, starting in the fall of nineteen o nine tat time at Harvard with spent studying anthropology with some of the fields best teachers. He was also tutored an English by one of those academics. He was Roland Bridge Dixon, tear use this time to conduct a study of the South American Airlines, language visited remains of Pueblo villages in Arizona and also became a member of the American Anthropological Association after two years of work tale had earned a masters degree in Anthropology from Harvard and that collection of skulls that the peruvian government had passed on at least some of it ended up at Harvard yeah. He mentioned it later on in a paper that only these are in this museum and that's kind of the evidence that we, that during facts into place? But you didn't return home to Peru after his time in Massachusetts, he was granted permission
once again through the influence of his high powered friends back home to continue working abroad. His next stop was England, through all his life he had maintained. His friendship. the Son of Ricardo Palma, who confusingly a little bit, was also named regard. Obama and the two young men had been part of a lot of the same, steady efforts and projects and when tailing, the London, the younger Ricardo Palma, who had also received a scholarship for study abroad, travelled with him and London tail presented a paper at the eighteenth International Congress of American lists of an academic conference. That's focused on the study of the Americas that started in eighteen. Seventy five and continues today that presentation, which once again covered the subject of trepidation and the sculls from dig sites in Peru,
who was given on May twenty eighth of nineteen twelve and the time and he spent in London leading up to it. He worked with english anthropologists. He took classes from and with them and shared his knowledge of South America after London Tail continued. His travels around Europe, stopping first at the University of Berlin and then expanding his studies at the University of Paris. The end of nineteen twelve was a really exciting time for hullo Tito. He read to London once again, this time for his wedding, he had met a student of and in university during his time they are named Olive Mabel Cheeseman and on November twenty two nineteen twelve, the two were married Coolio, also establish
the new relationship with Harvard during the final months of nineteen twelve, he would be paid a stipend to continue the work he had been doing before leaving Peru. But this time you would be sending specimens that he found back to Harvard for the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and ethnology. So one thousand nine hundred and thirteen with a new wife and a new direction for his work and we'll talk about hullo tales returned to his home country and how his career blossomed from there. But first we will pause for a sponsor break. Hey I'm Andy! If you no me it's probably because I'm not famous, but I did start and screaming company called Harry's. The idea for her We came out of a frustrating experience. I had buying razor blades, most brains were overpriced. over designed and out of touch at Harry's our approaches, simple, here's our secret. We make sure durable, blades and sell them at honest prices. For as long as two dollars, each we care quality so much that we do some crazy things like by our work.
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the historian ass. You now had closed after its head, who was german, was dismissed in a scandal that accused him of sending artifacts to museums in other countries for personal gain the museum was eventually reopened this time with historian rather than an archaeologist as its director. This will become a thing hatless, but as the who YO story, please out, additionally, Ricardo Palma had retired from his job at the Bibliotech Nasser now. So one of tales strongest advocates just did not have the same Paul that he had once had and as we mentioned Peru was still in this period of political upheaval. Tail, though, immediately got to work once he arrived back in his home country. He arrived there in January of nineteen thirteen and he travelled with an existing expedition to cover a lot of ground initially visit.
Multiple archaeological sites along the way and writing up a report of this endeavour in March of that year, and he also use this report to make the case and this report was published in the papers in lean over the public that anthropological science should be used to examine and interpret all archaeological finds. This sort away for Tito to establish his own unique expertise in the area. There was no one sympathy with the level of experience or education that he had an anthropology, and so he was sort of saying, hey You really want to understand our historical record. We should make an official project of that nature and then give that project to an expert, and that expert is me sorry that got me tick. I really really was the only person at this level of schooling, certainly by this point in Peru and really worldwide,
and I would say he had more education and anthropologists at that point, and even most other interposed jests. So he followed that publication up with direct action in the matter less than two weeks after is article was published. He reached out to gear. Will billing hers too had become peruse. President in September of nineteen twelve, as proposal was that the museum is thoroughly ass, you now should establish an anthropologist section and that he should be one to run it. Billing Hearst agreed that was in June, of nineteen thirteen, but by November of nineteen thirteen, the museum was shut down and this was due to feuding between tale, who wanted to reestablish the museum with a focus on archaeology and anthropology and museum director Emilio Gutierrez who wanted to focus on history as the museums primary mission. This sort of those Women's rights, like you kind of all, want the same thing just from different angles is really about Europe. But it really was so much of a fight and she'll see in December
www Tito was named director of a newly established museum by the peruvian government, that was the Museum of Archaeology and anthropology. So the National History Museum opened, which we sometimes referred to by its it spanish name, museum to historian ass. You now meteors was still running that museum, so they kind of had been separate like given their own projects at this point, but even so, These two adversaries were not really free of one another, because both of those entities were still housed in the same building violate they put tape down the floor, a hundred percent how it can be fills like you'd work on your part. You were God, you boys, play nice, so, in addition to all this sort of in fighting at the museum peruse governments all conflict continued during this time and in early nineteen fourteen president Gear Mo Billing, Hearst was ousted in a coup and replaced as head of government
by colonel. Ask our Benavides that in and of itself put to you in kind of an unstable position, he had been appointed by the ousted prison and the new government did not seem particularly interested in the museum, archaeology or anthropology at all. To make matters worse. Tail then got into a public debate in the press about whether history or the Science of Anthropology was the better background from which to study archaeological fines. When tales argument was chow,
as being disrespectful to the work of innumerable peruvian scholars on the subject. He really double down talked about his education outside the country. That only hurt his case. The historian that tale had been having a back and forth in the press with was Horatio or tioga, and he very quickly seized on tales work outside of Peru to characterize him is out of touch with peruvian scholarship and snooty, and not really as well educated, as he believed himself to be tears. Reputation suffered significant and by the end of March, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen. He had resigned from his position in the museum was still doing work with Harvard during this time. So once he and closed out his duties at the museum and secured some additional funding, he planned an expedition south to Nazca in search of artifacts that he could send back to Cambridge.
Tail visited a number of spots along the way, kind of taking an indirect route to NASA, and while he may have intended this to be sort of get away from the stresses of his conflicts in the capital city of Lemme, he just ended up with more problems ass. He had been working at some dig sites in NASA. Questions had arisen about whether hullo tale had the permits to do so and the possibility that tales excavations were happening without proper paperwork really started to hit the press, it turned out that he had not got in the proper permits and tears. Expedition was cut short by the end of July. He was back and lemme. The government ruled that he could bring his excavated artifacts back to the capital for exhibition, but they could not be shipped out of the country. It seems that tape
I did try to make arrangements to send some of the pieces to Harvard, but his primary contacted the Puberty museum died before those arrangements could be finalized. Yet this is a time when, as we discuss a little I will go. There is more and more interests from outside of Peru happening regarding their dig sites. There was also a lot of grave or having happening and they were trying to crack down on it. So, even though people knew TAT, they were like you don't have a permit to do. This brass were scared, you're, sending our stuff away, which he was it. He knew was yet this all, unsurprisingly, continued to her tears reputation, which was our kind of limping along, but he was by no means a pariah. We should say he had plenty of supporters remaining and he was as a consequence, able to get his proper permits arranged and by October of nineteen fifteen, he was back at NASA returning to the excavations that he had started.
In the year- and he was also again this reflects that he was not really lake in the bad guy status. You might think he was sent by the government to the Nineteenth International Congress of American nests in Washington DC in December of that year, and while he was there, he presented a paper about NASA burial practices. If you recall our twenty thirteen episode and the ask aligns that particular aspect of the area's history wouldn't be identified
until the nineteen twenty so more than a decade after he was given this paper and while he was in the United States, hullo also arranged to take part in an expedition in northern Peru. That was being sponsored by Harvard the late nineteenth teams also saw LEO Tail, make a move in the politics and January nineteen seventeen he announced his run for a seat in the chamber of deputies, representing laboratory the chamber of deputies of the lower house of the peruvian Congress, thereby camera legislature is similar to that of the. U S with a Senate as the upper house. He won this seat, although the election was contested. But when the dust had settled, he was a member of the chamber of deputies and he was immediately back in his old conflict, his former colleague Emilio Gutierrez. This is kind of a savvy move, I'm his heart because, as a politician, tail immediately propose legislation that would reach
guys peruse national History Museum and put the national unity. City of sand Marcos in charge of it because he was also working with the university. This would have essentially put Tito in charge of it I'm in charge of his rival Gutierrez, who we should note had plenty of his own supporters in the chair bird to argue about this. This ended up becoming a fee really embarrassing series of snipes at one another where Gutierrez claimed that, when tail resigned from the museum, they found a lot of suspicious discrepancies in his record's tail countered this by suggesting that some of the shipments Gutierrez was making from the museum were also suspicious. There were actually investigations initiated through these allegations, but they turned up nothing tale, moved on to other matters, but he would, however, take up this cause
again during his political career, he kind of would periodically introduce. This idea of, like Haley University should be running that one of the projects Teo Next focused on was an excavation at the water May valley. He asked the rector of the National University of San Marcos for funding, and while the university was interested, there was a problem. Taylor's affiliation with the school was through the College of medicine than to be part of an archaeological expedition that was funded by the school. He needed to be affiliated with the College of Science or the college of letters so Teo quickly. Remedy this whole situation by presenting a doctoral thesis at the college of letters on the use of mummies in ancient art is expedition. Plan was soon accepted and funded, and he started one thousand nine hundred and nineteen by traveling, with a group of students to the Y Valley,
various pieces that the group excavated help see the Universities Museum of Archaeology, which was founded in the autumn of that same year. Also in nineteen nineteen, there was more political upheaval in Peru August Bernardini Loggia ISA Saito, who had been exiled after he was overthrown in nineteen, o nine returned to the country, and he was elected president that's a very short version. There was, of course, a lot of conflict over it. Take was also reelected to his seat in the chamber of deputies, and once again those results were contested before his election was certified, as nineteen nineteen drew to enclose tear was
instrumental in setting up a new museum with Victor Larcom Herrera. This is actually different from the ruffian local Herrera Archaeological Museum that was founded several years later. Raphael and Victor were brothers and rough. Ales son, Raphia Largo Hoyle established the museum named after his father with advice from Victor. So if you were confused rather very similar names of what's up with that, but the relationship between tail and Victor Locker Herrera, Sir really quickly when Victor destroyed a set of tracings during an argument. Yet I would end it for an hour. I would think tail promptly resigned as museum director and he went back to focusing exclusively on his work at the university, although that, too was fraught due to conflict with President Libya, because a political protests on campus, the president had fired most of the faculty,
shut the school down it eventually reopened. But there were ongoing issues with the government for several years, but though tat seem to be perplexed, Willie, embroiled in drama, he was also producing some really important work during this time. In his life, he was the first in his field to argue that peruvian culture was not simply the result of an existing culture relocating to the area, but that it has developed. its own. It was also during this time that he founded the Peruvian Association for the progress of science and he used that platform to argue for university reform. He, museums to have better organisation and guidelines for doing so, and he also felt that the education system of the country was falling behind and not prioritizing science in that it needed also to be offering education to everyone, not just societies. A wheat families
the attention that this movement got once again ignited the feud between Tito and Emilio Gutierrez, who felt that he had been personally attacked when his museum was by tail is problematic. Example in retaliation. Tito made again an issue out of the book they Gutierrez had written to defend himself. That book had been produced with government funding with the directive that it was supposed to be about the history of the now, shall History museum and not an opportunity to grind and acts against tobacco in this instance it. Good here is reputation. The really really suffered the nineteen. Twenty has continued to be busy for hullo tail. He started archaeology magazine through the university called Inca and also started actively teaching archaeology, something that just hadn't been possible before, given that, prior to him, the archaeologists in Peru Worth
illiteracy were therefore expeditions and not for teaching jobs. Yet this really lays like the Bedrock foundation for archaeologists in Peru, because they just work coming from the country before this, and he also worked to really trace the histories of provenance of various objects that had been discovered in Peru, some of which had left country, and his work in this area was a bit controversial, because it often meant that he was having meetings with people that had stolen items or had robbed graves and then sold pieces to private collectors. Obviously, that is problematic variety of ways bit. Tito really believed that learning the provenance and getting this information was important to peruvian history. So to him it was worth while to get that information. However, he could in nineteen. Twenty four tail became director of the Peruvian Museum of Archaeology was actually a rename of the museum that Victor Largo Herrera had once hired tale to run
Margo, had to sell it, and under the new management tail was reinstated. He had also just gotten a position of professor of Anthropology at the National University of Send Marco in the College of Sir It's really good time and his career, and it was also during this time that two Rubio may hear. Zesty became a student of tears and if that name is familiar, he was the first person to study the NASA lines in depth and he worked with tail for years. reading through like Tito's working in his career after this, it's like constantly like he sent me here, and then he sent me here here like he really relied on him for a lot of we talk about one of the most famous signs that associated with Julia Tahoe. We will pause here in him. A low sponsor break.
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who worked on the famed Paraca Mummy bundles. It was a Tito team that found them first and over I'm very us argue logical teams, would unearth hundreds of Mummy bundles from practice, including additional fines by tales teams. If you ve never seen photos or diagrams of the Mummy bundles, they are indeed fascinating. They date back to the Paraca culture. I think came up on earth to this most recent time. The sounds correct that existed, firm, roughly eight hundred BC, ie to one thousand c e and their call bundles, because that's exactly what they are. The body inside of
each is set inside of a basket in the feed opposition with various artifacts around them, and then there are layers of textiles that are wrapped around them from very finely embroidered pieces, but are the closest to the body to fairly rough plain cloth as the Exterior one of the interesting aspects of tears, treatments of the practice Mummy bundles is the way he characterized entreated them. He spoke of them as ancestors and when the pieces were prepared for display, they were each represented in a very humanised way. He always wanted it to be clear that the where people who lived rather than relics or artifacts, and these mummies were of revelation to the world's one of the cool about them. If you ever go looking is that because of the climate, the modification and preservation is amazing. Some of them literally just looked like a person that curled up and went to sleep, and there is very little degrading of the body. Several of them were
to various museums, they were kind of called ambassadors of goodwill. they always able to use the ongoing excavation of them as a means to ensure funding for the University Museum Programme, because they got a lot of attention. So this point everything in his life seemed to be going pretty idea. Early, however, Dale had over the years continued to have conflicts with various people over political and archaeological ideologies and in nineteen thirty things really reached a crescendo starting in August of that year, several articles were printed in the periodical Libert, dad liver, dad lasted the information that tale had aligned briefly with President Gusto gear, and this had according tail been a matter of the two men just agreeing on the importance of rights for peruse indigenous population. But the idea was deeply unpopular by this points.
Was ousted as liberal died was outing all of his allies. allegations against Tito regarding his association with Lydia grew with every subsequent article. He was accused of theft of having sold museum artifacts of helping Lydia build a fortune through this illicit work of having built a fortune for himself this way and of illegal exportation of important artifacts to the EU, it states. His previous run ends with both Largo and Gutierrez were also revisited. He had continued to have some conflict with his well and he was accused of use. his museum staff to plot with Lydia against detractors on October, ninth tail lost his job as a museum director as a consequence of all this bad press and his association with the overthrow Medea other he did remained director of the National Institute of Anthropology at the university, the entire
Museum staff resigned in solidarity. Louise me guess Sarah was the new president of Peru at this point in under his care The national museum system was overhauled, combining many of the disparate entities into one called the museum s you now in The real org, because Tito had retained his position, is institute director. He became director of the Institute of Anthropological investigation. in May of nineteen thirty two, the Paraca sight was looted by walk heroes which are tomb, raiders, The National University of San Marcos was closed because of ongoing civil unrest in the capital. Sanchez was assassinated in April 30th, one thousand nine hundred and thirty three and the university stayed closed for three years. During that time, tail was cut off from university, of an from his own work during the years of the National universities closure. He taught at the pontifical Catholic University of Peru, yet their early
and he thirtys we're just a mass for him. That looting was really problematic. Keep spoke out about it a lot and it became kind of issue that he tried to address on and on and on tee. O then asked for per to do archaeological research at shoving to haunt are one of the most important sites in Peru that sits in a high valley in the Andes at the time. Tail thought that it was the civilization from which South American sure had spread. But we know today that there are cultural sites that predate shoving. Hullo tail spent the mid nineteen thirties, conducting research at this site and others around Peru. He had been there before, but he had some very focused time their during this period, and then he took the United States in this Nineteen. Thirty, six giving lectures on archaeology and Peru and visiting museums to drum up financial support for his work. The end.
The tool of andean research was formed later that year in New York by Tito, alongside a number of U S based scholars, and it was formerly establish the following year, the American Museum of Natural history. Let them occupy office, space, free of charge and the staff of the Institute of Indian Research, we're gonna, volunteer basis to secure grants and funding for various research and projects, many of which were projects. The tail was undertaking in nineteen thirty, seven back in Peru, Taiyo made the acquaintance of Nelson Rockefeller, who was travelling on business. And the story goes that when he saw the sad under funded state of things at the institute for anthropological investigation, the wealthy American immediately offered to help fund their efforts. This resulted in a deal were five of the Paraca Mummy. Bundles were to be sent to New York specifically to the Metropolitan Museum of arts. Ultimately, though, they
ended up at the American Museum of Natural history because the men did not have any one on staff with the expertise that was needed for their preservation and their ongoing maintenance in nineteen. Thirty nine, the second session of the twenty seventh International Congress of American this took place in Lima, In addition to presenting a paper, trail also served as host to the delegates taking them out to various sites in the area, both during and after the convention. In this entire event, where really well in a reinvigorated the archaeology community of Peru, and so the decision was made to form a new entity, the peruvian art Ology Association, which would over all archaeological projects in Peru and nineteen. Forty one, the historic importance of the shovin, the one tar site lead to its being declared state property, and this was controversial
They are made the case that ravine and other historically and culturally significant sites should be established as protected national parks mottled after the whence he had seen while travelling in the. U S and now a lot of them. Parkes Shovin, incidentally, as a UNESCO World heritage site now, as well throughout the nineteen forties, tail remained busy directing and mentioning excavations and serving as an ambassador of peruvian archaeology on the international stage. He had by this point kind of Minos shuffle off the shadow of the various controversies he had been embroiled in and had become, the nations premier expert on its archaeological. His three, while always maintaining, that he was a mountain indian, something that it point he was kind of using two separate himself from the rest of the academic world. Tail was diagnosed with an illness in July of nineteen. Forty six dont have a lot of detail on it, but he travelled to the U S tomb
later for treatment. He didn't really improve, but he returned to Lima to work in November anyway, and then he died six months later on June. Third, one thousand nine hundred and forty seven than the english language information. I have access They never name what this issue was. So we're not sure I could be any number of things, but we know that he had basically just a really rough illness. At the end of his life and tails, death was reported in a lot of papers, cross, the United States, which speaks to how well known he was at the time, although these mentions were generally brief I look at a whole lot of different papers from around the country and they all ran a pretty close replica or some slight variation of quote Coolio Tito sixty seven archaeologist answer. I would just an author who was an authority on prehistoric. Peru died today, but at home
Peru. The nation really mourned a year after his death is remains, were moved to muzzle Liam at the National Museum of Anthropology and archaeology today, there is a museum named in his honour on Caracas Peninsula at the entrance to the practice National Reserve,
and I wanted to close out with an excerpt from one of tales, own writings, which he included at the beginning of a paper about the art of the slovene culture, and he wrote quote shoving, are characterized by its perfection of lines, its richness of fantasy, the symbolism of its representations, the proportion and harmony of the hole in the material used, which is almost always hearthstone, is the richest historical source and the best evidence of the high degree of civilization reached by the peruvian race. The significance of its sculptural and pictorial works and the mastery with which they were executed. All lead us to suppose that the culture of shoving illustrated in its art is the product of a long process of gestation and elaboration, which must have been intimately bound to the material, emotive and intellectual history of man. Perhaps since his appearance on this part of the continent, it was such a good summation of the way he
or trade ancient peruvian culture as being this really vital rich thing, which was very different from how it had been characterized before as like. No people moved here and they brought their stuff is no. No, they were developing. Lake ran along with everything which is really cool and is who the auto it's interesting. People still talk about him and his some of his controversies today, obviously because he so tied up in the ongoing shifting politics, which are very dramatic in Peru. It it can be problematic in some ways, but I always kind of perceive him as someone that was just
to get his archaeology done. However, he had did here. We want to note, as we wrapped this episode, that Harvard University, which was, as you ve heard, a significant part of tee o story and was the recipient of some of the skulls and mummies he collected issued a statement after we recorded this one, but before we published about the human remains in their collection, harboured estimates that between the Peabody Museum, Of archaeology and Ethnology Andy Warren anatomical Museum- there are remains of more than twenty two thousand individuals in the schools museum collections, many of which have no associated biographical information. To address this situation Harvard has created a steering committee on human remains in the collection which will complete quote a comprehensive survey of human remains present across all university museum collections.
Well as their use in current teaching and research. That steering committee will also develop quote a university wide policy on the collection display and ethical stewardship of human remains in the universities, museum collections and will propose quote principles and practices that address real. urge community consultation, Memorial, Zation, possible repatriation, burial, or reburial and other care considerations to have them I'll know. Mail for us. I do I do. This is from our listener. Mark who wrote to us after our discussion of waffles you're italian trace my partner, Emily and I are long time enjoy, or so the podcast it's our go too when we have long drives together. We were recently inspired by your episode in the history of waffles, where you mentioned that they were served alongside stews. As it happens, Emily had just come across a cornmeal scullion waffle recipe recently, and we thought it paired excess.
Were you with a vegetarian chile recipes without you might enjoy hearing about it? So I've attached a picture and mark also makes a suggestion for a possible episode which may or may not happen. but he mentioned that it. It might be. You know, difficult topic, so he also sent pictures of their adorable dog lily, so that it would comfort us, as we do any research on unfortunate things that dog is so cute. I would power of attorney maverick. Thank you so much for sharing this or does and also their risk. Amazing they also these beautiful slices of fresh avocado on top of a lover. Savory waffle If you would like to write to us, you can do so in history pie cast it. I hurt radio dot com. You can also find us on social media as missed in history, and if you would like the subscribers upon, cast and haven't yet I super easy. You can do that on the radio, app apple podcast or wherever you listen-
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Transcript generated on 2021-02-03.