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King Philip’s War

2020-02-19 | 🔗

King Philip’s War was an armed conflict primarily between English colonists and Indigenous nations in what’s now New England, although there were some Indigenous peoples who were allied with the colonists. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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If you want to fund goofy adventure, you must bring style podcast. We will watch and recap every episode of bravoes below deck and all of its spin off and we're gonna release an episode of day, so you can watch along with us and listen to our silly daily, recapture, listen decades when it drops on February twenty. For me, I heard radio up apple podcast forever. You get your pockets. Welcome to stuff you missed in history class. The production of I hurried use. How stuff works hello and look into the Comcast I'm crazy. Well, then, I'm Holly frying pan. Our recent episode about Paul coffee- we mentioned just really briefly, that after King Phillips or indigenous man in New England were enslaved and sent to the Caribbean? That felt like a pretty big thing that drop into an episode without explaining it more.
Finally, since we have only really mentioned King Philips WAR in passing on the show, it came up as part of the contacts that our episodes on beacons rebellion also way back in twenty fifteen. It was part of the context for Are our show on the sham battle and echo he go massacre which we're gonna have as the Saturday classic soon for folks, you haven't heard that King lives were- was an armed conflict primarily between english colonists and indeed this nations, and what's now New England, although there were also some indigenous peoples who were allied with the colonists- and it took place primarily but One thousand six hundred and seventy five in one thousand six hundred and seventy six in terms of per capita deaths. It's been described as the deadliest war. And U S history, and it had a massive ongoing collection of ramifications for indigenous people and for the colony in and around New England. Sometimes it's called the first
indian war, but that name and King Philips WAR are both misnomer errors, and we will be talking about that as we go along. It is set up some contexts. Plymouth colony was the first. Permanent british settlement in New England established After about one hundred people arrived aboard the Mayflower in sixteen twenty about forty, the people aboard the Mayflower were Puritans. These were members of religious reform movement. The believed that of England was corrupt and retain too many catholic influences after the protestant reformation other. Was colonies followed that when this included the Massachusetts Bay Colony established in sixteen twenty nine and named, are the indigenous Massachusetts nation living in that area? Roger William sounded Rhode Island colony in sixteen thirty six. After being banished from Massachusetts, the can
kit colony was established the same year with its name coming from an Algonquin word, meaning beside the long title river throughout this whole time between sixteen thirty in sixteen for thousands more people migrated to North America from Britain, many of them Puritans, who believed that this so called new world was theirs by divine decree, the region where english colonists were establishing settlements was home to numerous indigenous tribes and nations. Many of them Algonquin speaking, peoples. The an nation alone included sixty nine different tribes, and these aside, these were highly interconnected through economics and through kinship, including in extent of trading network that spam threw out New England, the colony became part of em influenced this network as they brought different trade goods include. Firearms to this whole system, English. innovation of North Amerika, required colonists to get laid
or at least the rights to use the land from the local, indigenous people, and especially the earlier decades of colonization. A lot of these land deeds read a lot more like treaties, then straightforward purchase agreements and a lot of cases, the column It was given the right to use the land, but the deed also included some kind of provisions for it. Digital, family or community to keep a living on or using that land in some way deeds. also often included some kind of lifetime. Payment on the part of the colonists something along the lines of a bushel of corn. This was similar to what indigenous families were expected to contribute to their own communities. So, from the indigenous point of view, english colonists were becoming part of their interconnected community. There was already made up of lots of different nations and peoples, the colonists for gaining access to the land, but also country owing to the community with the goods that the land produced, but from the english point
you it was more like they were buying the land outright and continuing to have some kind of payment long term, with this a bushel of corn or something similar every year and this spare Eddie on how each side understood this was complicated by the fact that very few people in the colonies were fluent in both English and an Algonquin language and most kind The negotiating parties might speak sum of one another's language but not fluently. This gives me a brief flash back to Thomas Harriet and his visit to the IMF. because under Sir Walter Holly, and how he put some of these ideas in motion that led to all of these problems going forward on top of having fundamentally different ways of understanding these transactions angle. colonists also wanted access to more and more land as their population group, and as the generation of english children born in North America reached adulthood. It was expect
that first born sons when inherent land from their fathers. These first born son, thought of this inheritance as their birth rate and something that was exe elusively, there's not something that they shared with their indigenous neighbours, so because of this need to get more and more land. The ghost agents for the land and the deeds that came out of those negotiations became increasingly exploitive an absolute in terms of the rights that the english people are getting more and more of the deeds were signed under duress. This included things like English, taking someone captive and refusing to release them until they had signed their land over a lot of these deeds. colluded no more provisions about the indigenous peoples, continued use of the land and then that lead to disputes with in indigenous communities as people. especially women, realised that the land that they had been cultivating or living on had been sold without their involvement and with no provision made for them
It also wasn't just people who were encroaching onto indigenous land as this situation progressed colonists. produced a lot of domesticated livestock to North America, including cattle and pigs, colonist fence there. Crops and then allowed their livestock to Rome and Greece freely much. the plant life and grazing land back in Britain was well adapted to being eaten and stamped on by greasing livestock, and then the seeds of those plants propagated, threw down the plants and are miracle were not adapted in the same way as the com, animals encroached on to indigenous land. They tore up that land and they were incredibly destructive to cultivated crops with wasn't restricted to just you know, planted cry that someone was cultivating which the animals did tremble and eat a lot of the colonists domestic animals. so destroyed, things like clam beds and woodland bury bushes that people gathered from
and when indigenous people complained about this destruction of their crops and their other food sources for the most part, the colonists just told them to build. Fences is, rather than doing anything, to contain their own animals among on economic and other Algonquin speaking peoples? Women were generally the people who cultivated and manage this crop land producing food for their families and their whole communities and for trade with the car this and other indigenous nations a colonial records are full of indigenous women's efforts to resolve this and to protect and fairly distribute what remained of their communities food stores, weather something was about a land, deed or animal encroachment or some other dispute. The english colonists expected indeed, people to follow english colonial law and to seek restitution through colonial courts. One justification for this on the part of the colonists was
our belief that the indigenous people were primitive and heathens, who needed to be converted to Christianity and taught the ways of english society and others the vacation was good in a lot of cases and indigenous leader or someone else. Speaking for a tribe had made some kind of allegiance to the colony which the car regarded as the commitment to follow colonial law, but in general these courts were skewed in favour of the colonists, so the colonists or forcing indigenous people to resolve disputes in illegal system that was stacked against them. Court decision could be particularly egregious like enforcing the terms of a land need only if digital family surrendered all its weapons when those were needed for both hunting and defence and, where necessary, to the family survival. All of this is also happening in the context of an indigenous population that had been reduced dramatically due to introduced diseases, especially smallpox. A smallpox epidemic in one thousand. Six hundred and thirty three and
in thirty four killed an estimated seventy percent of the indigenous, population of the Northeast King Phillips or was it the first time that all of this FED into a violent conflict, which is why it's not really accurate call. It quote the in the warm as it is so I've known you read that in various places, although there had been violent conflict on a smaller scale, going back to the beginning of a european presence in what is now New England, the first sustained flaked. These english colonies was the peak what war mainly in what is now Connecticut in one thousand six hundred and thirty six and one thousand six hundred and thirty seven In addition to all these things that we have just discussed, another in we welcome the peak what war was trading relationships with the dutch and the peak. What nations existing relationships with its indigenous neighbours He quite nation had extended its influence throughout the region through military conquest and intermarriage and diplomacy, and it had become the most powerful indigenous nation in the area. At the end,
of the war, though most of the peak. What fighting force had been killed? The sir having women and children are mostly captured and enslaved and sent to two tribes that had sided with the English in this conflict. After that he quite war relationships between the indigenous people and the colonists we're right what's heavily free from violence for the next few decades, get to how that changed. After we have a quick sponsor break Brazil has is brought to you by mu com. Moody com is an online print and design company specializing in custom premium print product mood. passionate about great design and the difference. It can make customers in the world comes remarkably premium. Quality is what sets it apart and allows customers to set themselves in their businesses apart to truly leave a lasting impact, while this Cards are the core product. They also offer other marketing materials, including postcards greeting cards, invitation, stickers, letterhead and no,
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the king fell out of King Philips Bore with medical though known as met a comment or paramedic com, these kinds of name changes were really common among the wapanachki. He was the sacred or leader of the Poconos Wapanachki and the name. King Philip came from the this colonists, they basically gave him a name after of Macedon Medical. Father was also Miquelon, also known as the masses, so I say to him or great sage: him you'll, often him called Massa sweet as though that was his name, but that is really a title here was the intertribal leader of the woman on nation. When the Mayflower arrived in sixteen twenty he saw, the treaty with the colonists and maintained relative we peaceful relations with them. He was present at the
he'll, but has become commemorated as the first Thanksgiving get that colonists basically survived with the help of Osso Miquelon and the rest of the world, but on ozone, Equant died in sixteen sixty one and his son. pseudo became sage him, english colonists, called whims. Alexander after Alexander the great, but he died suddenly in sixteen sixty two the English had arrested him under suspicion that he was planning some kind of uprising with the Narragansett people, There was not actually in any evidence for, and he had said we become very ill. While he was imprisoned a lot worse vicious about this angle, authorities also maintain that one city had been ordered to appear in court over this suspicion, but then haven't shown up and authorities had to go, bring him in, but there is slily no court documentation to back them up
Many of the wampum Oggie, including medical, believed that website I had been poisoned, and then medical was also summoned before the court, also on suspicion of plodding against the English, and this case what the colony interpreted as signs of an uprising was probably just a traditional spring Festival combined with everything that we talked about before the break. This really eroded the last of the good will that also Miquelon had maintained with the colony. Although The people that we have just mentioned were men. Women were also a critical part of the woman leadership. Andean diplomatic relationships with the colony, in particular, medical sister in law we'd, who was heavily involved in the leading up to and during King Philips WAR. She was asleep squaw or a squad nature, which was a rule english colonists, often described the queen. It was That was an equal footing with a sage him and held by a woman, but this wasn't a position that she had because of her maid
to worm Suda it pre day, that marriage and they continued after his death in one thousand six hundred and sixty two, the other. The colonists refer to the sachems in the Squaw sachems is like kings and queens. But the leadership structure was really a lot more about leading and about diplomas. When it was about being a ruler with like authoritative ordering right over people right, they were trying to fit it into the european model of monarchy, which it was not yeah. So all actors that we talked about before the break led to the start of King Philips. War but its immediate precursor was the death of a man known as John Salmon that's a man was an indigenous man whose parents had died in an epidemic and he was raised in a praying town. These communities that were established by puritans for the purpose of converting indigenous people to Christianity and encouraging them to live under english law and following english customs, so that ended
People were living in these praying towns where people who converted to Christianity and were adopting like an english colonial lifestyle Fatima also tended Harvard for a time before the indian College. There was formerly established so Ozma had worked as an interpreter for the English before becoming one of medical secretaries and his innovations and actions in all of this really are not clear there is some suggestion that the English sent him to spy on medical and in late sixties. Seventy four he reportedly told authorities and Plymouth that Medical planning an uprising a colonial government doesn't seem to have taken this warning seriously and then sometime in early sixteen, seventy five cents amongst friends, reported that he was missing after a search. His body was found under the ice and ass a wants a pawn in. What's now, South eastern man Two sets forensics was really not and establish discipline. At this point, but apart,
there wasn't much of an examination of specimens body at all. A witness came forward and said that he had seen three of medical councillors, murders, Ass, a man and throw his body into the lake authorities included that it had been because medical really was planning an uprising and that he'd ordered sesame to be killed. Four betraying him to the English However, there really was not any evidence for any of this, and are also a couple of complicating factors, the witness that testified. This also owed a gambling debt to one of the counsellors that he implicated in the crime and also upset pond. Was the heart of a lion dispute involving many of these same people, so it's possible that he was killed and bit like was thing that was ordered because of this whole warning that there was an uprising being planned, is also possible that he was killed and it was something related to this land dispute or he might have just drowned like
totally unclear. Colonial authorities brought the three councillors involved to trial, to create The appearance of fairness, they assembled a jury that included six indigenous men and twelve colonists. The trail itself was still pretty shoddy. This witnesses. Testimony was really the only thing connecting medical counselors to sassy months, death, may or may not have even been a murder, as Tracy said, could have been an accident. The evidence presented it included, a report that, when SAS amongst body was brought to medical counselor, Tobias that the orb, started bleeding and that that was evidence of two biases guilt. The three councillors were, found guilty and sentenced to be hanged on June, eighth of one thousand six hundred and seventy five to of them were executed on that day, third was given a reprieve after the rope broke, and then he said that he had seen the other two men commit this crime, but hadn't participated in it or intervened by the
of June, though he had also been executed by firing squad regardless of whether medical really had been planning some kind of action against the colonists. Violence begin shortly after these hangings in early June, in several english farms were burned. Apparently Palliation Then, on June, twenty third, a colonists, solvency faithfully fatally shot a watchdog man, while defending his farm from but our grade the next day in retaliation for that death. A whopping party killed, Sir colonists and Swan, see generally marked as the start of King Phillips WAR. So if you go read articles about this, you'll often see it described as the series of events that started with the death of John sat with the trial and the execution leading to this escalating back and forth that tipped into an all out war. But at the same time, a few weeks before the trial, even
Ben, which was a month before these seven colonists, were killed in twenty. We move had been talking to colonial authorities about her fears that the Warp Managua going to face persecution by the English, so tensions had clearly Ben increasing. Before this trial even began, there was fighting in what is now Massachusetts, Rhode, Island, Connecticut and main over the next six months me the areas indigenous nations formed an alliance with the watchdog the Mohegans allied with the colonists, as did many of the indigenous people who had converted Christianity and we're living in praying towns, so including the Narragansett tried to stay neutral at first colonial force, has fared really poorly. In the fighting. A lot of them were new recruits to the militia. They really did not have a lot of training and the training that they did have was really geared towards the style of fighting that was used in Europe,
Meanwhile, the indigenous forces tactics were more like what we might describe as guerrilla warfare. Today, there were very highly mobile fighting force with marksman and snipers and justice here your knowledge of the terrain as this one, happening english authorities viewed indigenous people in general, with increasing suspicion. This polluted people who had converted to Christianity and were living in praying towns. One Mabel was James Printer, who was nip muck but had been raised at an english household and educated, at Harvard Indian College, in of sixteen seventy five, he was captured and accused of participating in a raid when actually been in church. At that time, similar Between thirty and forty indigenous people were arrested and imprisoned. In Cambridge for burning down a haystack that belong to a man named AMOS Richardson, even though should send himself insisted that none of them were the culprits on September, eight
an indigenous force ambushed, an english convoy that was trying to remove what was left of the harvest from the town of deer field. Dear field been abandoned and in the wake of the fighting at least sixty people from the convoy work. killed in what came to be known as the battle of Bloody Brook or the bloody brick massacre in October of seen. Seventy five, the Narragansett signed a treaty of neutrality with the Massachusetts Bay, colony ones, It signed colonial authorities demanded that they surrender Wapanachki and other refugees who were being sheltered in Narragansett a Tory, the narrow, set refused to this. They considered the refugees to be their kin and under their protection, the English took this is a sign of duplicity on the Narragansett part and a suggestion that they might abandon this treaty and join with medical. There had also over time, been in, it all and arrogance that people who had participated in raids and things like that
colonies, mustard, a militia of about a thousand people along with about a hundred and fifty indigenous allies, and they march to Narragansett territory burning the indigenous settlements they passed along the way on December nineteenth fighter. Began in the swamp, now West Kingston Rhode Island, became known as the great swab fight or the great swamp massacre, with the violent stretching into December. Twenty is at first the narrative, set were able to drive the English forced back for the English regrouped in reinforcements arrived, they took the main Narragansett Fort burning it down with Bull mostly elders, women and children, still inside at least seven People were killed among the colonial force with the indigenous has told much harder to estimate it. At least two hundred and fifty people, but it may have been hundreds more. This is really a turn point in the war, so we're gonna take a quick sponsor break before we move on Alex. We have some exciting new
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after the great swap massacre. Laneric information, unsurprisingly, went to war against the colonies. Narragansett sage him cannot yet, formed a coalition with other indigenous tribes. The nations which muster to fighting force of about two thousand and what's not Rhode Island, moved into Central Massachusetts and organised another force of about fifteen hundred people. I cannot yet was forming this coalition. The weather was hampering the colonists efforts in the warm late December. Sixteen seventy five was very snowy. With militia commanders reporting depths between two and three feet of snow, it wasn't at all conducive to the militias movements, especially since they didn't know exactly where the indigenous forces were at any point. Indigenous forces were affected as well, but they continued to be a lot more mobile than the colonial forces were thanks. Having more experience dealing
this kind of whether an being more familiar with the lot of the territory outside the colonial towns. It was also lot easier for a small like rating party in snow shoes to come in and had a place and leave than it was for, like a militia unit to March somewhere, In the early months of sixteen seventy six, these two indigenous France moved north. Third and eastwards through southern New England they verged, improvidence, Rhode, island, which the indigenous force burned down. In March of sixteen seventy six by the spring in the So these two advancing armies, the English abandoned at least eleven towns in Massachusetts, and the indigenous force had destroyed most of the colonial towns in Rhode, island. On the west side of arrogance at Bay. The weather, got warmer. In the spring, there was another shift, New England indigenous community had been on the move through the winter. Whether it was
the fighting force advancing through the colony or what children and elders who were trying to stay out of the way of the war. Fewer crops had been planted because people couldn't stay in one place to ten them and when he'd get planted was often destroyed by the colonial militia ample in May of sixteen. Seventy six and english force attacked a netbook camp that had been established specifically for fishing and planting the colonial militia massacred many of the people who were there, who were mostly again, women, children and elders. This is about two hundred people then, and indigenous force that was nearby regrouped and killed about forty of the militia continued into June the colonial militia, arranging raids to destroy the indigenous peoples crops and some away from their cultivated fields. Indeed, his forces and refugees alike simply started running out of food and on July Twentieth, Benjamin Church lit a force that attacked met, coms, encampment capturing his wife and child and sell
women to slavery. Medical was also captured and was assassinated on August twelfth of sixteen seventy six. His body, was drawn and quartered, and his head was placed on a pike and displayed outside of Plymouth same month, Ouida mood round while trying to cross the river ass she was fleeing from colonial forces cannot yet was also. Afterward and killed in sixteen seventy six men comes, Ass is often described as the end of King Phillips WAR. but in reality the indigenous forces had been losing ground for months and fighting continued equally and what's now main four months- a tree formerly ended the fighting along the northern front on April twelfth. Sixteen. Seventy eight, almost two years after mega death. The idea that the war was king, Philips and that it ended with his death, really came from Benjamin churches entertaining history of King Philips, war, which was published in seventeen. Sixteen that, Sir
recounted his own role in pursuing and killing medical through. The stories that he had told to his son churches account One of many written from the colonial perspective in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries colonists actually started writing books. this war before the war was even over increase. Mather published a brief here three of the war with the Indians in New England and sixteen seventy six and will Hubbard published a narrative of the trouble with the Indians in New England and sixteen seventy seven. We also Mary Robinsons a narrative of the captivity and restoration of Missus, Mary Robinson, which was published in sixteen eighty two. Robinson and her children were taken captive after a raid on Lancaster one of her children was injured and died shortly. Afterward and Roland in her surviving children spend almost three months as captives. They wound with a party led by we do as she tried to guide refugees to safety. Relish
since account has been described as North America's first best seller and law. the genre of the captivity narrative by the end of this war about six hundred colonists and british soldiers had been killed about seventeen english settlements were completely destroyed or abandoned, and at least fifty others were heavily damaged. The death toll on the indigenous side is harder to say precisely, but it was probably in the thousands, its estimated that about five percent of New England why population was killed as a result of the war with forty percent Of the indigenous population either being killed or fleeing, the region At least one thousand indigenous people were also enslaved and sent out of New England. This included people who surrendered with the hope that they would be treated leniently. The colonists, slaved indigenous people starting before the war, but they really expanded the practice during and afterward price
to the war colonists had enslaved indigenous people to make money to take their land to punish and remove any one who is viewed as a negative influence on other indigenous people. During and after can Phillips war, mostly and slave indigenous men were sent to bar Beethoven or to other british territory in the Caribbean, but a few or sent their places as well enslaved and the women and children were often forced to work in british households and businesses in North America, and in some cases, this enslaved became hereditary with children who were born to enslave indigenous women being claimed as the property of the households where these women were being forced to work, English, the tubes toward the indigenous people, became much harsher in the wake of the warm the colonies path. prohibitions on selling weapons to indigenous people and that was later expanded to selling anything to them. the colonies also organise patrols to police, indigenous communities and their movements.
In May of seventeen. Sixty six Massachusetts ordered that all indigenous people in the colonies territory huh to live in one of four praying towns, further laws passed in the early eighties century, often with laws targeting the indigenous population being duped into laws. They were related to enslaved Africans ass for the colonists, the british government, despite Edward Randolph to investigate the causes of the war and to assess the damage. He reported that the colonists generally believed that it had been divine punishment for their own sinfulness after he made this report, the english colonies in New England lost a lot of their autonomy. They became part of the dominion of New England, which was placed under the control of New York Governor Edmund Andrews of the Hut rid of indigenous tribes and nations in New England before and during King Philips, warm a few remain today, in terms of nations that have come up in today's episode. There's the mohican tribe of Indians of Connecticut than there again,
said indian Prime of Rhode, Island and in Massachusetts. it's the mash, be want banal, and the watchdog tribe of gay head a quiver of There are also tribes that still exist, but don't have federal recognition that Nation is recognised by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, but not by the federal government. Yet there also tribes that exist and are not recognised by any Or government body there are a lot of books about king, war, and they all offer their own interpretation of what happened, and why- and this includes a lot of books written within the last few decades and that You're standing is going to continue to evolve in terms of the want, but perspective in particular Lebanon, adopted reading and writing from the colonists in the seventeenth century. But the want banal language was nearly lost in the centuries that followed. That has changed recently, thanks to the work of Jesse, little dough bared, who was awarded a Mc Arthur Grant for her efforts to revive the lump language and twenty ten. So as more people become
fluid and want Bernard. That's going to open another avenue of research for historians. I read a lot of resources for this show, but the book that I read our Beloved Kin- a new history of King Philips WAR by lease. The bricks of that is not so much if you're thinking of a book a war in history. It's not a book. That's like this happened in this happen, and this happened. It is more looking at all the factors of the war from different angles, including my close readings of different land, deeds and letters and captivity narratives and all of that stuff. It is really interesting. And is a lot more about the Wapanachki perspective and other indigenous perspectives than some of the other books. They're out there folks and show them that often have a really fascinating companion website, that is full of maps and pictures and all kinds of other stuff. So I feel like the point about the revival of the weapon on language
that opening a new avenue of research is either something that was in that book or something and one other things that I read as I was researching. This Do you have a little bit a listener mail to review? If a correction? Sometimes we make mistakes? And it's like? Oh, I didn't know that that's an error I made. Sometimes we make mistakes, and I No, that amass extra embarrassing That's what happened this time. This is a letter from bark and mark as one of a few people that wrote to us about this footmarks as high Holly and Tracy Array. We discovered your pie cast and I'm so very glad. I did fascinating topics coupled with your fun inventing presentation styles of Meda, my favorite pod gasped for my early morning. Sixty minutes commute to work. I was listening to a recent that's impossible. Episode show You mentioned the impeachment of Nixon, I'm sure a lot of listeners have already reached out about this, but just reminder that Nixon was not impeached. He was threatened with impunity but resigned before suffering through what appeal
needs to be an inevitable, and I know you do like the accurate, so there it is the keep it coming. We are listening, cheers Mark, thank you mark and the others who have written to us or tweeted at us or Facebook commented at us about. The house to recap: the impeachment process, of Richard Nixon had started. There had been months of impeachment hearings and investigations and the house Judas Mary committee had approved articles of impeachment on You different charges that happened in late July of nineteen. Seventy four, but the house did not actually vote on those articles, because Nixon announced his resignation on August eighth of nineteen. Seventy four and he left the White House the next day, so There was no one left in office, I mean there was someone left office bit. Nixon was not an office to impeach anymore. So, instead the house it that a resolution that accepted that the house you two serious report on the whole matter. This all gets
court, handed to impeached alive big like it, had gone on for all of that time and included various impeachment proceedings. But like there was no actual vote on the impeachment articles, it really seemed in we likely that he was going to be impeded by the House, a big convicted by the Senate, but technically that vote never happen. So even though it gets glossed over with the word impeachment alot. Technically, not impeach impeached resigned from office to avoid that fate anyway, you I was that new, that from eighth grade or class or whatever, and that I just brilliant wrong. I wrote it wrong in the thing didn't catch it anyway. So thank you to the folks. You have brought up we have to say it the right way, if you like
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