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L.L. Zamenhof and the Hope of Esperanto

2021-03-29 | 🔗

Esperanto was developed by a Jewish man living in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It’s a story linked to both persecution and profound hope. Zamenhof hoped to bring the world together through a shared second language.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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and now more than a year later, we have come to that sometime. I know it was from a twenty eighteen, because we were in a restaurant in Philadelphia, which means that was not during the damn it and twenty easy was the last time I was there anyway. I really. did not know all that much about Esperanto. When I got into this aside from the fact that its language that was intentionally created to be easy to learn, and somehow I associated with a nineteen sixties, and although that was one of its peaks and popularity, but they will weigh older language than that. The other big thing that I associated with Esperanto was the scene and twin peaks where Gordon Cole goes to talk to Shelly at the double our diner and says he's going to engage in some counter esperanto, and that was just my whole from home, loads of Esperanto that right, they're mine was largely from Vienna Maniacs area. yeah,
he's that's how it's it's. Usually reference dislike a casual side mention in pop culture, yeah yeah, so having. I mean we're we're talking about this in a fine context in this moment, but parts of this episode are really really tragic, because we're talking about a language that was developed by a jewish man living in the russian empire in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and then the speakers of that language were persecuted and even killed under fascist and totalitarian regimes ensue and after World WAR two. But at the same time this is also a profoundly hopeful and idealistic story, because it's one that's about trying to bring the whole world together through a shared second language, most of the languages that people on earth used today are categorized as natural languages, meaning that they evolved over time as people used them off. bringing in influences from other similarly evolving languages as they went.
Full generally learn to communicate through those languages before formalizing all of the rules associated with them. We have talks. The show before about how grammar came to be a thing and people started applying rules and how you look at older texts. You'll see things leg completely style choice based spellings and grammatical usage, and the use of various punctuation. So A language does not me by the way, to be spoken to be considered a natural language, for example. Most sign languages are classified as natural languages. Constructively. Judges or COM Lange's can also evolve over time and many of them do. But they start with someone in finally planning out the languages rules, including things
like grammar, syntax vocabulary and pronunciation? Sometimes this creation is to develop a language for a fictional world like cling on order, rocky or talking's Elvis languages, but constructed languages can also serve more practical purpose. Is, for example, constructed international auxiliary languages. Try to give speakers of multiple natural languages a common language to communicate with Esperanto is one of these auxiliary languages. Also. There are whole linguistics discussions about the interplay between natural and constructed languages and whether these labels are even accurate This is just the broadest of overviews. Philosophers around the world have proposed ideas about constructed languages for millennia, one of the earth, is surviving examples of a constructed language was created by previous podcast subjects, Hilda Guard from being in who started constructing. Language that she called lingua, ignore tat or hidden language in the twelfth century. Although her f,
it's an the surviving records of that language are both incomplete the after we did that episode on her. We got several notes saying the folks for surprise. We had. I mentioned that so now we have, there have been naturally arising lingua franca and creams and pigeons and other shared ways of communicating. That's also been going on for millennia, but by the nineteenth century. People were also trying to end handsomely create languages that would make it easier for people who didn't share a common language to communicate with each other before the development of Esperanto. The most popular such language was voted cook which was developed in the early eighteen eightys by german priest. Johan Martine slide Volor Book drew from English am from romance languages, but with changes that those origins were all that recognisable to the people. Trying to learn in Vila Puke also had a complex
it set of grammar rule so overall it was not considered to be easy to learn, but hundreds of Allah, puke clubs and more than three hundred text books written in twenty five different languages during the peak of its popularity. That peak was in the late eighteen eighties and one of the big reasons for its decline. After that, point was the introduction of Esperanto in eighteen, eighty seven Esperanto creator with a jewish ophthalmologist known as laser Ludovic examined. Half he went by the initials l l a snowy. Zaman half was born in Vienna stock on December fifteenth eighteen. Fifty nine his name from birth was Ellie Aser the name. He went by morphed a few times over the years before becoming those initials that he uses an adult and you no see those names, trains liberated with a number of different spellings, also that date of his birth, is in the gregorian calendar at the time,
the russian Empire, was still using the Julian calendar and that put his date of birth is December. Third, one thousand eight hundred and fifty nine today Bialystok is in Poland, but at the time it was part of the russian pale settlement, which was the region of czarist Russia in which jewish people were allowed to live. Consequently, its population was about seventy percent, jewish, but other thirty percent primarily included Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians, who were ethnically polish, russian, german and better, seeing people from these different groups didn't necessarily share a common language and in his childhood Zammit off a lot of tension and strife among these disparate groups of people that were all living in be Alice Doc. Some of this came religious divisions but Zammit half thought that a major factor was that lack of a car. language people just couldn't
understand, each other vermin, hops, Father Marcus was a language teacher and in eighteen seventy three when laser was about thirteen, the family moved to Warsaw. So that he could take a job teaching at the Warsaw Gymnasium, he was actually one of only three jewish instructors. Their Marcus's position also meant that Laser could attend school tuition free by this point. Laser was following in his father's footsteps in terms of studying languages. The zone Our family spoke modish, am russian at home and in their day to day lives, and they knew hebrew as a religious and scholarly language in a dish, Laser learnt polish, german, italian, french and English. He also started to learn aromatic latin and Greek. He had taught himself last two because they were required for admission at the Warsaw Gymnasium, but they had not been taught
At his school and be our stock markets, salmon half seems to have wanted the family to assimilate with russian society as much possible, and in eighteen ninety eight he started working as a sensor for the czarist regime. He was censoring Yiddish in Hebrew, publications that fame year. Laser started working on a way to bridge the divisions that he saw in the world around him. He had this idea for a universal language that would be easy enough learn that people could pick it up as a second language without too much trouble. He and some of his friends from school started working on this project in the number of eighteen. Seventy eight, even though he was a language instructor lasers, father did not seem to have approved of this work. In summer Someone told markets that lasers focus on a universal language was a sign of though illness in other The fear is that this project would distract laser from his studies.
but either way laser decided to study medicine rather than languages. At the University of Moscow, and when he left for university in eighteen, seventy nine, his father made him, leave his note books with his language notes behind and later burn them. We need to set up a little bit. contacts before we move on to the next part of the story of Esperanto, and we will do that after a quick sponsor break support for stuff. You missed in history class comes from Lord Jones makers of the world's finest see he products. If, like pretty much everybody here, really honing yourself care routine, do yourself a favor, and let Lord Jones show you just how good it feels to bring see beady into the mix. This is the absolute gold standard and see what he products a war. Jones is really the only name you need to know. You can boost your evening, wind down with a relaxing soak using their best in class, see beauty, infused, basalt or tree yourself with a head to toe
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I usually hey female colleagues. Were your guy and ethics original documentary, socialize, not to say the things that we want to say about stand up, companies most boundary breaking. Women still have messages like women aren't boner booth and your and my thanks. Mom you have the money. you can draw once you stand up against power. The narrative changes at its core. We all want to fill acknowledge everybody wants to be her. That's feminist, hysterical, there's April, second, at nine, eight central another next day, ethics on Hulu Oh, I'm in love, was born during the reign of Tsar Alexander the second and as the emperor Russia, Alexander, had instituted a series of reforms. This included emancipating Russia's serfs. Some of these reforms had also affected the russian empires
jewish population, as we noted earlier, juice could live only in the pale of settlement, but Alexander had loosened, there's restrictions at least some why he had also repealed assimilation program that forced jewish man into compulsory military service. None of this erased Anderson it is not by any stretch of the imagination, but at least in some ways there had been a little bit of progress, but then eighteen. Eighty one Alexander was assassinated and rumours spread that his assassination had been part of a jewish plot. This lead to widen, had pogroms and other violence against jewish communities. Zander Successor, Alexander. The third was deeply anti semitic and blamed his predecessors. Relative. liberality toward the empires jewish population, for both these Ass, a nation and the violence that followed them and have returned to Warsaw from Moscow. During this wave of anti semitic violence
He might have been motivated out of concern for his family safety and his father's finances in the wake of the pogroms he didn't go back to Moscow after this point he enrolled in the University of Warsaw and he finished his medical degree in eighteen. Eighty, four, the violence the salmon have witnessed in the early eighteen eighties, including in Warsaw, led him to advocate for the estate. man of a jewish homeland but unlike most other Zionists, he didn't think this homeland necessarily needed to be irrelevant. He Jews, Christians and Muslims also sites within that region, as sacred As a result, he thought that trying to establish a jewish nation Leir could lead to further strife instead, We first started writing about this. He wrote about the possibility of buying a tract of unoccupied land alive, the Mississippi River in the United States and settling there. So this is a little
A tangle land along the Mississippi would not really have been unoccupied. That was the idea was getting occupied land, but this idea also was not very well received within the jewish community, vermin half ultimately renounced Zionism but before he did his later. Publications on a subject focused more I'm. An idea of a jewish nation in the general region, where Israel is today during these same years salmon have also promoted the idea that this proposed Wish stay needed to have a modern language to bring together and unify its population in his mind the Yiddish already being spoken by many ashcombe, lousy Jews where he lived did not exactly fit the bill. He thought the Irish as a jargon rather than a fully developed language, and on top of that people spoke different forms of Yiddish d, on where they lived and Safari, Jews were more likely to speak. Judeo Spanish, also known ass Ladino rather than Yiddish, so as
studying medicine Zammit was also trying to work out a way to modernize Yiddish into what he said. as a more robust and functional language as a fine. Now at almost exactly this time another man, Ellie Aser, Benyon Huda, was also working on uniting the jewish people through a common language. In this case, this language was Hebrew which was mostly being used for religious texts and observances, rather than for daily conversation. point in eighteen. Eighty one Benyon Huda announced that he would speak only Hebrew among his friends and family and in eighteen. Eighty four, he established a hebrew language newspaper, he's efforts when from their famine half later said that he had supported Benyon Hooters early efforts with the revival of Hebrew. Although the specifics of that aren't really doc mounted anywhere. After finishing his medical degree, Zammit House some time working as a doctor,
before long, he decided to specialise. Men started an internship and ophthalmologists at Warsaw, jewish hospital. He asked then some time studying in Vienna. After it, full of years in which he moved from place to place. He went back to Warsaw and open and ophthalmologists office in his home. and he moved away from, the idea of modernizing Yiddish and back onto his project of developing a universal language that could unite all of humanity while living in Warsaw Zammit half met Clara, though burning and they fell in love. She encouraged his efforts to develop a universal language and the two of them used to write each other love letters, Clara spot was well off, and when she and laser got married, her dowry was ten thousand roubles. The internet was that this money would help salmon half establishes up the biology practice, but with his father and loves permission. Instead, he used some of it to publish a forty page booklet on his universal language
Eighteen, eighty seven, this first booklet was published in russian and additions in polish, french and german, followed soon after english and Swedish. Editions came out in eighteen. Eighty, nine, in English, its title red, Doktor S, Autos international language introduction, incomplete grammar Esperanto, came from the language itself, meaning hopeful one. Even we, the language, became known as Esperanto and in Esperanto this publication became known as the new early bro. Nor first book here is how salmon have described the world He imagined being possible in this first book. If everyone spoke, the shared language of Esperanto quote the impassable wall that separates literatures and people's would, at once, crumble into dust
and all that was written by another nation, would be as acceptable as if in our own mother tongue reading would prove common to all and it would advance education ideals, convictions tendencies the whole world would be. As one family. To that end, Zammit half drew from languages. They would already be familiar to people in much of the western world. It used. The Roma alphabet with the words themselves, mainly coming from latin and germanic and slavic languages. This actually so comes up in its criticism of Esperanto that it's not nearly as easy. If you don't already speak a romance germanic or slavic language Debbie. Do you can peace
together meanings of things relatively easily, but if you don't let her so beyond, these recognisable roots salmon have also tried to make the language itself really simple and easy to learn. It had only sixteen basic rules with no exceptions. Every letter had only one pronunciation and every sound was I presented by only one letter, so in Esperanto there's. None of this is that along a or a short, a nothing like our F, F and our oh, you h, being pronounced in the same way like there's not issues this. language had no silent letters or irregular verbs, endings and stress always when, on the next to last syllable of the word Esperanto, also had only one definite article law, which was used regardless of gender number or case words in Esperanto, also signalled, which part of speech
They were singular. Nouns ended, o plural mounds and O J additives ended in a and adverb than ie verbs and their basic form ended in I, with past tense ending, and I s present tense and s. Future tents in o S, rather than creating a vocabulary of tens or hundreds of thousands of words in this first. publication salmon have created nine hundred route- words that could be modified with prefixes and suffix is trickery. a vocabulary of between ten thousand and twelve thousand words. So, for example, the prefix MA all the mayo means opposite and the route bona means good So now bona means bad or do right. means hard, so Madura means soft. The idea It was that people would only need to learn a smaller number of routes and then modify them through these prefixes and suffix is to create a
much wider, more complete vocabulary. We view the past tense here because we're talking about seven hops first edition of the book, but Esperanto still exists. People still speak it today. The number of routes has grown from about nine hundred in that first book to as many as nine thousand or even more, we will talk more about how Esperanto grew and spread after another sponsor break the fabulous Katy Seagal is so good and everything she does right, but Thursday April eighth she's, taking on the role that she was born to play rebel on ABC inspired by air Brok of itches life. Today,
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Three that could claim ownership of Esperanto no native speakers to look down on people who were as fluent. There are a few people who do speak Esperanto as their first language kind of scattered around the world. Today, though, famine have also saw this as facilitating all kinds of x. age among different cultures, rather than meeting to learn multiple languages to speak to people from different countries, you only need to learn Esperanto and rather than translating works of literature into numerous languages. They could all be translated into one language Esperanto. The first book contained this pledge at the end quote, I the Strieber promised to learn the international language invented by Doktor Esperanto. If it be shown that ten millions of persons have given publicly the same promise, reportedly only about one thousand people returned these pledge forms to salmon half but soon Esperanto clubs,
being established in western Russia and in other parts of Europe, Esperanto cos We became more popular than the constructed language of Allah, prove that we mentioned earlier, and we, no mention of Olaf, who had a reputation for being hard to learn and there's a acute nod to in that the Esperanto word for gibberish is Volta Bukavu, while Esperanto clubs are being established around Europe, salmon half was really struggling financially. He was trying to promote his universal language, while also trying maintain his up homology practice. Eventually, money got so tight that he sent his wife in their first child Adam to live with her father for a while, so he could look for a place where they could afford to live. They had a daughter, Thea in eighteen, eighty nine and, at that point clear, as father them some money under the condition that they come back to Warsaw. They did. Although eventually move to the smaller town of growed note, which had a lower cost of living in eighteen,
before Zammit half tried to reform his original rules for Esperanto, its alphabet use die. critical marks on some of the letters and most of the combinations of letters and accent marks didn't exist in any other languages, so this caused the problem of printers not have. in their type They were harder for people with low vision to read and they didn't exist in Braille at all. It would a few more years before they feel cart and around deal under would develop a Braille alphabet for Esperanto. The US Otto Community resisted these revisions, though, thinking that it would finally be like starting over the diet. Critical marks are as part of the alphabet and especially in old printed texts. There have been of eighty of workarounds for them. But I would say some of these workarounds are more successful than others like I was reading. Trying to
our wine or old printed thing, and it just worked like these letters were identical when really some of them were supposed to have accents over them and some of them were were not vermin off started. An Esperanto magazine called our expertise, do and you started translating literature in other languages into Esperanto. One such translation was an excerpt of LEO Tolstoy, is reason or faith, but then because of Tolstoy writing on civil disobedience. This translation led to La Esperanto still being banned in Russia and it ultimately folded. However, translating works of literature, including hamlet, really help Zammit ha flesh out the Esperanto vocabulary has it coined new route words to fit the needs of the text in eighteen? Ninety seven Zaman half in his family moved back to Warsaw. He raised listen up them ology practice once again in his home, and he maintained it for the rest of his life. Many
his patients were among more saws, poorest people who lived in the cities jewish ghetto. Even those salmon have had moved away from the idea of Zionism and from the idea of creating a common language specifically for the jewish people He hadn't at all lost sight of the ongoing anti Semitism and marginalization the jewish people were facing, He really recognize that Jews were not seen as russian and he thought that, no matter how many generations past that was always going to be the case. in nineteen o one he published parallelism a project in response to the jewish question, and that was four Rabbi Hillel the elder, who was born around a hundred and ten b c e many of whom else teachings were rooted in empathy with one of his most widely quoted being. Do not to your neighbour that which has hateful to you anyway. Hillel ISM rephrase jewish identity to focus on universal ethics rather than you
law with rituals having a cultural rather than a real. Just meaning. Basically it tribe create a religiously neutral bridge between jewish identity and russian life, Zammit I also saw Hillel ISM and Esperanto as connected with Esperanto being part of that religiously neutral bridge, also in nineteen o one north, America's first Esperanto Club, was established that happened in Montreal in nineteen o five or the language was exhibited at the Saint Louis Exposition and laser Clara welcomed. Another daughter named Lydia, a group of English and french Esperanto lists. That's people who are fluent in Esperanto also gathered soup. in their first international meeting that year as well. That meeting took is in Bologna, Sir Mare, France, in nineteen o five delegates of the nineteen o. Meeting ratified a document that came to be known as the declaration of Bologna, which specify that Esperanto was new
shrill, and then it belonged to no one and that the O the authority of the language was the book funding. Mendota Esperanto, which is a man, have published in one thousand. Nine hundred and five Esperanto had really taken off among french intellectuals, and this french popularity had actually created some issues. France was still reeling from the political scandal known as the Dreyfus affair. After jewish Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus was falsely convicted of treason in eighteen. Ninety four, this conviction had caused a massive schism in France with the Anti Draper start faction. Spreading all kinds of deeply anti semitic propaganda. This is actually on the list for a future episode at some point because of all the sure, many of the french intellectuals who had become fascinated with Esperanto, tried to distance themselves. from salmon half his Jewishness and the ideas of Hillel ISM that he was promoting
Even so is that my house was inducted into the french Legion of honor in one thousand. Nine hundred and five violent programs also continued in the russian empire during the same years, killing at least two thousand jewish people between one thousand nine hundred and three and the start of the russian Revolution of one thousand nine hundred and five in one thousand. Nine hundred and six spoke about these programs in Geneva, calling for Esperanto to become a shared language to try to break down religious barriers. By this point he had also revived his ideas of Hillel is Amanda, something that he called Homer Andy's mow that roughly translates to hue to them, and although this contained a lot of this same concepts that Hillel ISM had Zammit half saw Khomeini's MO as a neutral ethical framework to unite all of humanity in a lot ways. Esperanto and homer amazement went hand in hand as well. Tat was a shared language to unite the world and Homeric
smell, was examined hops words a neutral human religion which would unite just Jews Gentiles, but also theorists and atheists into one global community, with a shared set of ethical principles that really it really had a lot in common with that earlier idea of Hillel ISM, but with a slightly different focus. So, although part of Esperanto community shared this sense of global ethics and global unity. Others, including a lot of a french intellectuals that we mentioned earlier, we're really more focus on the language itself and its practical uses in nineteen o seven
Salmon half sent Louie double fraud to represent him and the language at the delegation for the adoption of an international auxiliary language, but rather than representing Esperanto, which he was expected to do. The both fraud anonymously proposes that the committee adopt a different language. It was easy to which was Esperanto for offspring, the beau fraught described. As the revised version of Esperanto in it eventually came out that he was the one who had submitted it to the committee. This sparked the first of several schisms within the Esperanto community. As the ediths broke away from Esperanto tests, salmon half was really shocked and disheartened by double fronts. actions and by the division that followed, but also in nineteen O. Seven Zammit off was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for the first of fourteen times. Multiple different these made the nominations over the years. The
His nomination came from twelve members of the british parliament Other nominations included forty two members of the french parliament in nineteen ten painter in us. Otto promoter Filling Stone, Michel and Charles Robbery. Shea, who was himself awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine in nineteen, thirteen, the Universal Esperanto Association or you ie was founded in one thousand nine hundred and eight and the language continue to spread around the world. It was introduced into Japan after the Russo, japanese war, and it became something of a sad there. In one thousand, nine hundred and five and nineteen eggs, eventually, the japanese religion, o MOTO, adopted Esperanto as its language doctor, hell Molly proposed renaming neutral more as net, which was a small, neutral patch of territory in Western Europe. As a meagre, yo or place of friendship in Esperanto, and he commissioned an Esperanto national anthem in nineteen. Oh eight,
Germany eventually annexed, neutral Morris net, and it became part of Belgium after World WAR, one that, even though the idea wasn't fur Esperanto to be any nations like official language India that this, like tiny, neutral patch of territory, might use Esperanto as an official language, was kind captivating to people that off had been heavy smoker for a lot of his life and by the maintain teens. He was showing symptoms of heart. Does He's only became increasingly ill. His son Adam, took over part of a medical practice, but beyond that, salmon have just didn't want to slow down commodities and Esperanto were too so deeply important to him. He kept promoted in writing about and adding more and more works of literature onto his list to translate into Esperanto Zammit. I travelled to Paris in nineteen fourteen for an Esperanto convention and he got trapped. or when nation started closing borders at the start of world war, one a network of experts contests helped him get back
home vs Scandinavia. that same year, a bill was introduced into the: U S, Congress to teach Esperanto in the schools of Washington DC, although that got stuck in committee, there were also people in the: U S who were advocating for the teaching of Esperanto to break down racial barriers, including black journalist and essayist, William Pickens and nineteen. Sixteen Zammit hops Brother Alexander, took his own life after being conscripted into the russian army. Alexander had been really deeply traumatized by what he had witnessed as a doctor Earl, during the Russo japanese war, Ll Zamenhof died the following year on April 14th of nineteen seventeen at the age of fifty seven Clara kept up with his work after his death, corresponding with us Brontis and promoting the language she died of cancer on December sixth, one thousand nine hundred and twenty Your Zaman have had conceived of Esperanto as a neutral language, and the declaration of Boulogne had affirmed that neutrality, but after salmon half to death.
after the end of world war, one a range of social and political organisations adopted and advocated for the language. These include its socialists, Labour organizations Vegetarian organizations and members of the high face Well, there had always been people of various religions and political alignments who had learned and advocated for Esperanto in the nineteen twenties. If it came in singly associated with leftist political and social movements. Meanwhile, they use Ursule Esperanto Association advocated for Esperanto with the League of Nations, a proposal for Esperanto to be adopted as the leagues official language was blocked by France, which argued that French was all Eddie, a universal language, brazilian ambassador, Raoul de real Bronco Black, a resolution that Esperanto be taught in schools, calling it language of quote near, do wells and Communists
No, the idea that France, that French was a neutral leg it. Well. this is our universal language. We certainly speak yeah. I didn't, I didn't, do it, outline or probably talk about it in the behind the scenes, but like there's also been a lot of conversation about, but now English is the universal language and it might come on really rates When the russian Revolution began in nineteen, seventeen russian Esperanto s agenda we supported it, and eventually the bolshevik government officially supported the language in turn. The Esperanto Union of the soviet republics. You'll see that is s e? U organised itself, according to bolshevik principles, which led to a schism between the ESA, you and the? U S a narrow view. Yea was like this goes against the idea of being politically neutral. However, when Joseph Stalin came to power, Esperanto fell out of favour in the South
union and by one thousand nine hundred and thirty six. There were mass arrests of Esperanto. As the SE used leaders were executed, esperantists were persecuted in imperial Japan as well these years in Germany Heinrich Himmler shut down the german Esperanto Association in nineteen thirty six overall all, the Nazi regime saw the language and its associated movement as radical and dangerous Reich Minister of propaganda. Joseph Verbose, called Esperanto quote the language of Jews and Communists at of Hitler, also condemned the idea of Esperanto or a similar universal language in his book, mind pomp, describing it as it Fuel, the Jews would use to take over the world, Nazi regime persecuted and killed Esperanto costs, including those with, without jewish ancestry. World were too continued to strain.
Idea of Esperanto is being politically neutral. Many Esperanto for Anti fascist and the movement had always been focused on these principles of peace and international understanding. Networks of Esperanto suffered to aid, people who are being persecuted, or the knots regime but, at the same time, national german Esperanto organizations were established during these years that excluded jewish members and otherwise tried to appease the Nazis, and in the nineteen thirty of Nazi Party member Anton vote was the vice president of the USA. The salmon, how family were all victims of this violence and persecution. The salmon have and in Warsaw was bombed in nineteen, thirty, nine and afterward M Sofia and Lydia's Amman, half as well as Adams, wife Wanda, were all arrested, Wanda was eventually returned to the Warsaw Ghetto and she and her son went into hiding and ultimately survive the holocaust
So, as we noted earlier Adams, Evan half was a doctor and he had become the director of a hospital. Sophia was a pediatrician. Lydia was a writer and a translator. She had converted to the high faith and had travelled all over the world. Studying and teaching, and lecturing the American Assembly of the baha'I faith had invited Lydia to the United States to teach Esperanto classes at one thousand, nine hundred and thirty seven, but when it turned out that teaching those classes violated the terms of her visa, her request for an extension was denied and she was forced to return to up in nineteen thirty, eight nazi officer shot Adams, Amman half to death. During the Palmiry massacre in January of nineteen, forty Lydia and Sofia examine how for both executed. At the Treblinka death camp, the fear reportedly went Treblinka voluntarily, possibly because she did not want to leave her patience,
Esperanto had already spreads and many other parts of the world before world were too many of the speakers that its largest organizations had been in Europe and in the face of these horrific tragedies that really took some time before the language started to reverse I've again after the war. The Esperanto community had also face yet another schism after Swiss Esperanto costs undermine a planned move of the USA headquarters from Geneva to London, organisation the International Esperanto Lego, I e L was established in London and most of the national Esperanto organizations left the. U Ie, eight and joined it the two organisations were merged. After the warm the world, s poorest Congress, was convened in nineteen forty seven. That was the first time that it had been held since nineteen. Thirty, nine peoples,
advocating for Esperanto at the United Nations as a way to encourage and facilitate international communication and nineteen. Fifty four, the general conference at UNESCO pass the Montevideo resolution, which supported Esperanto as an international auxiliary language. Poland hosted the World Esperanto Congress and nineteen fifty nine, which was the first time at the Congress, had been held in that part of Europe since the World war. Two years, the first feature films and Esperanto were produced in the nineteen sixties. There was an doorway in nineteen sixty four and in Cuba, which is also called Incubus, which start William Shit, where, in nineteen sixty six, he apparently learned his lines fanatically Esperanto progress was complicated in some parts of the world. During these years in China, Sample Esperanto were imprisoned during the culture. revolution in the nineteen Sixtys and Seventys, while
chinese government simultaneously used the language for propaganda purposes, Even those Amman. Half had created the language with the idea that it would bring peace and unity in the nineteen. Six ease the s army used it for war games in which the enemy combatants had their own uniforms and spoke Esperanto as part This the army put out a publication called Esperanto, the aggressor language, the army eventually drop. This programme because it turns out that, even though Esperanto is meant to be easy to learn, it is still time consuming till a whole language for war games. Esperanto popularity started to wait a bit in the latter part of the twentieth century, but since then the answer that has made it a lot more accessible to more people by the early twenty first century was also becoming more popular in parts of the world whose official languages are based in law,
in some places like China and parts of Africa. The language Abdul Lingo issued the first version of its Esperanto coarse and twenty fourteen I took a tiny more of those while working on. Is that not enough to her any sort of conversation, but I did do a few. It is clear that online classes and apps have led more people to learn at least some as Bordeaux, like Tracy, but exists members are really pretty unclear, as its range all the way from one hundred thousand speakers to a couple of million the Universal Esperanto Association has members in more than one hundred twenty countries, but it also seems like in them The online spread of the language is both a blessing and a curse. More people are learning the language, but not necessarily with the connection,
to salmon hops ideals of unity and bridge building. Like back when most people learned Esperanto almost exclusively through clubs and Pennon paper correspondence courses, there were directories of people who would welcome other Esperanto into their homes. Those directory still exist but it's just its map as feasible. To do something like that when a huge number of people are learning a language through an app without necessarily that shared cultural context. The internets enthusiasm for Esperanto also means that resources in Esperanto can weigh outnumber resources for other languages that have a lot more speakers. the one hundred fifth World Esperanto Congress was supposed to be held in twenty twenty in Montreal, but because of the pandemic that was postponed until twenty twenty two Instead, a series of virtual events took place from June to September of twenty twenty also December fifteen,
L, L, salmon, hops birthday is now salmon. Half day I enjoyed working on this episode, even as the tragic parts or really hard to work on Do you have listener mail in Esperanto for us, but I do this. It's not been Esperanto, but it is from Caroline it's about her. One thousand nine hundred and eighteen flu episode
Enterline says hello, lovely, ladies, I hope you're doing well and enjoying some lovely spring weather and writing this email right after the release of the first part of revisiting the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic. While I understand there's a lot to cover their, especially in the overlap of the current pandemic, I was disappointed and a little shocked that you did not discuss how both pandemic affect those with chronic illness, especially in regards to mask man dates throughout the episode. I noted three opportunities for you to do so where you didn't. I understand that you had a lot to cover and I do not believe this was done maliciously, so I thought I'd take the time to do so. I can spend all day discussing how the pandemic has negatively impact it us with chronic illness, but I wanted to specifically address mask mandates, because this is my view is the most problematic in the social realm.
although I can tell you to try to be compassionate with this issue, there were times where, if, like you slipped into stereotyping, those who don't wish to wear masks selfish near dwells, although there is no denial that this is some of the population, this again completely dismisses situations where people to have very serious but personal reasons for wearing a mask the woman to rub. The email talked a lot about Carolines own personal medical history, So I'm not gonna read all of it. But thank you for sharing that with me, Caroline, so, first I apologize if I may, by anyone who is chronically ill or disabled, feel excluded or talked over or dismissed in working on an episode. There are some valid reasons that people have for not wearing mass and at the same time there are also a lot of non disabled people who are using disability as a shield to do crap like print out fake Americans with Disabilities ACT, notices and like harass, store employ.
and generally make things unsafe for everyone, and it outrageous me- and I didn't feel like it- was something that I could like: Bring into the episode without feeling like I was giving acceptability or weight to the people who are doing that because over Wellman lay the disabled and chronically ill, people in my life feel more unsafe because of that type of behaviour of people who were like using disability as a shield do not wear masks just because they don't want to do it and want to be jobs to others. Also, there is just not a lot of data yet about disability and chronic illness in the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic, beyond the chronic respiratory diseases that came up several times and episodes liked
killing says, and part of that is because the nineteen eighteen flee was happening during the eugenics movement. During a time when overwhelmingly disabled and chronically ill people where they were living in like special homes and special schools or being cared for at home in a way that they were in the public eye. Very much. Also it like a shortcoming within the field of history was just isn't something that historians have looked at a whole lot recently and the pay
where's that have started to be coming out over the last decade or so a kind of like. While there is almost nothing about this, the field of disability studies itself is also really knew, so it's like that field has not had a lot of time to go back and said, like the nineteen eighteen archives, to really pour over that and create a comprehensive history of how the pandemic affected people with a chronic illnesses and disabilities. So again I apologize if there were people I apologize. If the way I wrote that episode made people feel excluded or anything like that, I feel like there's a lot of complicated stuff with this. So thank you again to Caroline for sending that note. If you like to write to us about this or any their passport history podcast that I hurt radio, that camp were also Oliver Social.
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-30.