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Pluto: The Demoted Dwarf Planet

2013-07-22 | 🔗

It was the only planet to have been discovered by an American, but it's no longer classified as a planet. Who found Pluto, and how did astronomers even know to look for the so-called Planet X on the edge of our solar system?

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff- you missed in history class from Housetop works that can no longer so when you were a kid you know it, you want to be when you grow up, I wanted to be millionaire and limit a mansion so and then, after that, I wanted to be an offer, so your car On track, no well will not for being a millionaire and an author that really hard to deal really for a long time is a child that I wanted to be an astronomer lake. I really thought that when I was obsessed with our world book encyclopedias and all of the various entries on the solar system- and I would trace them- and I would make these trifle pamphlets out of no paper for each planet, but in the making of all of these pamphlets, which I
wish to my family. I would always get frustrated with PLUTO, because we just didn't have enough facts in the nineteen seventy one edition of the robot encyclopedia to fill out my pamphlets and I couldn't just keep tracing the circle over an now. You know why, if it had been on the fence about about bringing you to work with them if we were not an offence but but but but if we had been there story of themselves What's your favorite did those on animals. I was really into publishing my own pamphlets. I dont That was a virus also on track kind of. didn't become an astronomer, except, as you know, an amateur that just enjoy it. Pluto was, I was tricky, because we'd never knew as much about it because of its distance and its what have we knew were to hear in terms of it
thing in being than other thing, so we don't have as much research on meal. We haven't known many more now, and certainly we did Ben yeah so yeah, but having not known that it was their until relatively recently yeah we haven't. I It's time to gather information there. We hopefully a lot more really soon, but I suppose it was discovered on February eighteenth nineteen thirty, but of course it existed for a long time before them and for PLUTO was a planet. It was devoted, It was actually the only payment have ever been discovered by an American just kind of an interesting point of I think it's also the only time that an astronomical announcement in his drawn fury. Well, yes, can't think of any other fury inducing announcement about astronomy. Oh Surely no four eggs that were very, very early days of astronomy when you know things like its revolve around the sun, were
yeah. Why? Rather, there have actually been a lot because any big discovery Draw me often kind of shakes the ground of what came before so there are, but there's been some outcry. We just didn't have as much media to cover it before, but it does make you wonder how do we even think to look away out on the edge of our solar system for this? any little objects that would have been very difficult to find an. How did scientists and researchers find it? so it starts with suspicion. Yes, yes, first thinking It might be there right Perceval, although all who was born in eighteen. Fifty five gets the credit for being the first person to suspect that PLUTO was out. There passed the eight planets that were known to exist in the solar system at that time, but you never able to find conclusive evidence and love all was a really interesting character. He actually worked as a travel writer specializing in Asia and
foreign secretary before turning to astronomy, he had studied. Mathematics in college came from a very good family and he s actually probably more famous for his belief that Mark was inhabited by an alien species that had established anger sure and irrigation on the Red Planet and those assertions may sound a little bit. Ninety two, today, but Important thing is that levels, passion for us, astronomy and astronomical study actually led him to found the little observatory in flags. In character. He had actually worked as a travel writer specializing in Asia and, as a foreign secretary before turning to astronomy, he had studied mathematics in college came from a very good family amnesiac. We want them to the discovery of Neptune, so you're trying to imagine how this works ass, planets orbiting the gravity is pulling on them. Gravel. Of other planetary bodies there there's always acted upon each other, so
because of the way the urine, was orbiting pretty sure there was something else out there, but Eve figuring Neptune's influence into all the orbital equations for yearnest, that there were still discrepancies between the mathematical. the actions of the orbit and the action observed orbit that you could see this to the theory that there was yet another planet in the solar system beyond here and it's a Neptune, low, became obsessed with finding it we'll performed his own mathematical calculations in an effort to pinpoint the likely location of what was being called it, the time Planet x and in nineteen o five. He really just kind of develop concerted effort, and he and the staff of his observatory began extensive search for this planet, Ex low published his more on a Trans Mediterranean planet in nineteen fifteen, actually read that online will have the Lincoln are shown its lovely
things on I'll meet. You alone will actually died in November of nineteen. Sixteen. He was sixty one at the time when he had not yet found his missing planet by he left behind a large monetary legacy to continue the search. His widow initially disputed, the endowments, but the search went on the funding had been depleted by the legal battle, but it still was enough to keep this search for planet ex going whenever we gets you Clive Toolbar, who was a very important figure in all of this topic. born on February, fourth, nineteen o six and Streeter Illinois, and he came interested in astronomy after he got a telescope as a gift from his uncle he became so interested in the telescope that after high school, when he couldn't afford college You studied optics on his own and in nineteen twenty six. He built himself a homemade telescope. He made it more
telescopes after that, first one even grinding the lenses and mirrors for them himself, with pretty impressive in my book like that, afford a college education. I went to studying kind of give myself one got to the point that he could grind his own lenses. Fur telescopes as pretty impressive Delhi Its delicate were yeah and told the story goes almost like wonderfully fairytale wish fulfilment here. So using these telescopes he had built, he studied them night sky and he had made drawings of Mars and Jupiter as seen through those telescopes, any them to the Lowell observatory. More for like feedback on you know if he was on track of using right things, etc. But instead getting feedback. They were so impressive work that they actually offered him a job in a stir, me, which he had never formally studied, so that
so ass to his sort of scientific mind on its own that he could just magically procured a job. It has travelled. an advance delegation here was hired a nineteen twenty nine to help with searching for our planet serious planet acts which Percival Willow had suspected was out by out beyond Neptune Tom, I used a blank comparative, which is an instrument that optically superimposing vote plate. So it's like their blinked from one to another and researchers, tiny differences between the two, and he did this in an attempt track downloads planet X, the My computer is really like it's kind of these two photographic plates, and you look through. What's almost like a microscope ip and you literally just slipped back and forth, and we're talking about a photograph taken through a telescope with, like thousands of any doubts on it that are all heavenly bodies and someone
the very keen eye tries to see any variants between the two are taking an angel, in place, but a little time distance apart and its I mean if you just think about staring at a sheet of dots, unlike up is paid and trying to see which ones are different onto you can get a sense of how the ads monotonous. This could potentially be and what attention to detail you have to have it like. Looking at the differences between two cells of a hand drawn animated fell yeah, but instead of looking at a nice pretty picture you yet a field of stars, the dot thought of AIDS. However, Tom, obviously keen on attention to detail, since he had self educated to the point that he could do some pretty impressive things. He managed to find but they were looking for his work paid off pretty quickly and it
with the following year that he found what was the time. The ninth planet here when two cells of a hand drawn animated fell yeah, but instead of looking at an ice prefix, aids to making a very large significant scientific discovery yeah again with no formal training. I just I keep coming back to that cause. He did so many impressive things right without having gone to graduate school figure, a Phd in astronomy yeah what happened later, but there. but gonna pay off we're all this. Apart from the fact that he discovered a planet that he received the Jackson, Gwilt, metal and gift from the royal astronomical society, but even more imploringly. He got a scholarship to the University of Kansas. He earned his learning continued to work at lower, both during and after his studies, He also earned his masters in nineteen thirty nine topic
work that level for fourteen years altogether and he discovered numerous heavenly bodies while doing his research there, including star clusters, comments and galaxies. This episode of stuff you missed in history classes, Morocco you buy Katy, keen, I love Riverdale, so I M excited that the creator of Riverdale has a new show, a sparkling adventure in the big apple, full of fashion, drama and dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six. At eight seven central. It is the New Sea W Series Katy Keen we have singer songwriter, Josie, Jorge with his eye on Broadway, it girl, pepper and fashioned Easter legend to be Katy. They are in New York City of eight million and they are for a kind, their friends who would give everything for their dreams and do anything for each other. So the big apple, better watch out, because no matter who or what gets in the way they are about to take a big old bite. These four determine dreamers take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the New York City Social scene, where they find it more than just careers and the big city they find forever friendships
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significant things about choosing PLUTO is that the symbol for PLUTO includes representations of the letter p and a letter l which, for the initials for personal level, so is kind of a nice sweetening it on his behalf, without meaning it directly. After him, So, let's talk a little bit about this by that they found it is extremely far away. Five point: nine billion kilometers, which is three point, seven billion miles from the sun. Its diameter is two thousand three hundred and forty kilometers switches. One thousand four hundred fifty four miles south less than one third of the size of her It's actually smaller than our moon, also extra I told the surface temperature is around minus three hundred. Seventy five degrees Fahrenheit, which is mine. you twenty five celsius PLUTO solar year, which is the time it takes to travel around. The sun takes the equivalent of two hundred and forty eight earth years. Its circumference at the equator is forthcoming. or how to thirty seven point, seven miles witches.
One thousand, two hundred thirty one point: nine kilometers we get to the moons which interesting PLUTO has five moons that we now have so far Shirin Nix Hydra. p for and p five and sharing, discovered in nineteen. Seventy eight it's about half the size of PLUTO and over the years, a lot of astronomers theorize that PLUTO Sharon is actually a binary system, so sharing doesn't revolve around PLUTO there actually revolving around each other, with the gravel gravitational point fixed between them thing, and that is why there is something called them you're, my moon, that is about that very thing. Mix and Hydra were discovered in two thousand and five before discovered into doesn't want. Mp, five was discovered in two thousand twelve find his but the moons of PLUTO were formed when the dwarf planet collided with another planet. Sized object
according to Mark Show Walter who is of the Seti Institute in Mountain View, California, his great quote, which is the inform a series of neatly nested orbits a bit like russian dolls, stolidly image, polluters elongated orbit, is also tilted in relation to the other planets it actually passes inside the orbit of Neptune, as it makes its way around the sun and then what the controversy sad that is the only celestial body ever to lose its status as a planet. So it's the only one that ever been demoted also with theme in the Jonathan goldens into that excluding was reclassified as a dwarf planet and given the number designation of one thirty forward ass, three forty there continues to be discoveries of heavenly bodies at the edge of the solar system, and some of them were actually bigger than PLUTO. It became clear that they to take another look at PLUTO status as a planet.
So the International Astronomical Union created a definition of the word planet in two thousand six involving three, criteria. One. It has to be an object in space that orbits listen to you, and this is obviously for planets in our solar system. It has to be a nearly round rigid body and three. It needs to clear the neighbourhood around its orbit, but the as PLUTO orbits along the inner edge, the piper belts It doesn't mean different criteria. Astronomers have discovered and identified more than one thousand other items in the keeper belt that are really similar to PLUTO and sometimes come near it. So it doesn't really meet that third criterion. the only rule, however, for dwarf planets is that they have to be round so PLUTO can be classified that may in this all kind of started because of a display that was going on that needed Thyssen often gets the heat for at.
hidden planetarium, where they just kind of quietly changed it up in their displays. I think of me two thousand and then it and I started getting a little bit of groundswell of discussion and then this officially happened and so near Jason, is often kind of labelled as the man who devoted PLUTO, but he really wasn't there with her. their vote in discussion going on amongst other astronomers, just not through Neil De Thyssen, under vice. Let's If not, I dont want to throw any scientific Sunday the, but I do want to grow anybody ever under a bad, never the they're doing their due and work. That's a lot of us, don't have the the knowledge to do in its importance to those of us We wanted to be astronomers but demand up there.
so in nineteen. Eighty Clyde Tombarel is injected into the International Space Hall of Fame at the new make scarce Museum of space history for his discovery of PLUTO and other heavenly bodies, He died at his last Christmas, New Mexico, home and ninety ninety seven at the age of ninety, so he did not live to see his discovery. Bumped down to list of dwarf planets we are getting very close to what Oh will yield some really exciting information about PLUTO in July of twenty fifteen NASA's new Horizons probe is expert the fly by the Dwarf planets, and so this will undoubtedly lead to new knowledge about PLUTO, which still remains pretty miss theory. to us compared to other parts of our solar system, because it is so far away the furthest out, we have, since this probe
Why can't wait? I'm gonna be that do face. That's like up at all hours of the night. Looking for data come in. up at all hours of the night, for a number of vast, economical thing of reassuring like when the Mars Rover landed. I was over Guy, we have actually my best friend like a fiend and kind of crying a little bit I remember the Mars over and then the next night ways your shower yup there's definitely I've, that's one of the things that I think is to spin off them about the internet is making it possible for the people on the ground. to get all the same things at the same time as the people in Michigan girl, We have very little delay there from the GPS people getting info to it being yes on television and the internet. If you have the the mission coverage to him all right of your cable packets, which I'm lucky enough to have read
well and also now, thanks to the internet, when there is like a solar eclipse on the other side of the planet you can from your death here and there with nine daytime, where you are with no risk to your eyes. I just remember that being such a cautionary tale, there's gotta be the cliffs, don't look, though we can design astronomy, it's the best thing I buy. Did you more and more things on astronomy history, because, if so wonderful and I just love science and general, tell you will see what the fuck holds for PLUTO. Its history has been kind of interesting and unique in several ways in terms of our knowledge of it and will see, may be it will get reclassified yet again, once the probe goes by it, yeah go knew her eyes. the funds of the new there will discover it has some fabulous thing on it. Life now probably
it's not at least as we classify life, let her, but we never know. This episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, brought to you by Norton three sixty with life. Luck with your shot, online with the smartphone, its super feels like ear personal information just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit your person, information could start going other places, and whenever you shop, bank or browse online, your personal invoking, get out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats demand more protection, That's why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton three sixty with life. is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and a VP end for online privacy. No one can prevent all sides
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he would lifelong is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and of e for online privacy. No one and prevent all cyber crime and identity theft, but Norton three sixty with life lock is your ally entities connected world because Europe, is out there sign up for, Three sixty with lifelong today and save twenty five percent or more of your first year, go to Norton Dotcom, slash history, that's Norton, Dotcom, slash his or threats demand more protection. That's why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company. Hey guess why I also have a couple who so the first one is from our listener tomb, Two has very cool job. He teaches british history at the Sorbonne in Paris. Certain will be visiting sailor. I wish I had a dream you to me. he's writing to us about our protests on Irish Tito famine
He says where I grew up in the West of Ireland. The countryside is dotted with thousands of abandoned villages from this time which really cooperative farm hamlets of maybe ten or twelve dwellings. Often these have been totally reclaimed by the undergrowth and have no modern road connections, but if he tramped out into the field, sometimes you notice that there is a cobbled path hidden in the grass beneath your feet and then under the nearby brambles are old gateways and there remains a fireplaces in front doors in old maps. They have names and streets and village squares and on new maps there simply nothing there vanished. It really is quite sand to think of people who lived and loved here, perhaps dying in these houses or leaving on mass for their village to disappear from history. still is the fields around the villages are invariably surrounded by a network of rigid parallel lines in the landscape. The outlines of lazy bed, potato fields where, once the people of these villages pulled the rotting harvest out from the ground in devastation, I thought
like that little personal detail that not many people notice is absolutely right that it's a lot of things I never would have thought about not having no immediate access to that area would not have been something that I would have seen. It is interesting that way. Reclaims history on yeah. So I'm glad he pointed out that there were still there in a much less, let's less tragic It reminds me they were. They were train. Tracks It went near my house when I was a kid. and as shipping by train because fallen out of paper earlier, it's not about not having no immediate access to that area would not have been something that I would have seen a beat me
I also another peaceably airmail from our listener, and it's really so happy to read it and I want to share it, enhances high everybody at the park ass past and present just wanted to thank you for being such good company. When I'm out walking For this year we have long three hundred and seventy five miles together and you have helped me loose praise, for this is a serious one hundred pounds of last April. I haven't got up on the present yet and I hope to never run out of per capita sweaty thanks again and keep up the great work, and you are also that was right to say that I was pretty cool. That's pretty firing. So thank you am for sharing that cuz, really cool thing yeah. You should be lauded and jeered at all points. I love the idea. People listening to us, while they're making health changes from you The package will you run ever I?
have a hard time. Listening to my castle, while I run my due to tear while I walk for sure I can absolutely while I'm walking or if I'm on the elliptical here, but when I heard they need Blake running ass may be yet there has to be music and I'm running idealists into a lot of my god when I'm travelling along, When I'm waiting, thing have a confession to make, which is that I have self imposed. Restrictions were about allowed to listen. If I guess I'm driving as I get so absorbed in what is being discussed, maybe don't make safe driving to align the wheel, yank the opposite, where I get distracted by the fact that I'm driving subvert environment an important things than I kind of going. What are you talking about you so ass? You are say it many times over and thinking it constantly
want to shear any historical info with us, or your personal triumphs, like an even do so at history forecasts discovery dot com can also connect this on twitter atmosphere, history and at Facebook darkened slash history, class stuff or on Tumblr at missed in history that tumblr dot com emerald penetrates, if I'd like to learn a little something more about what we talked about today. You can go to your website industry, including in the search bar, and you will get family countries, one of which is. Why is PLUTO no longer a planet which will go into a little bit greater detail about what we talk? If you want to research, almost anything else you can think about. You can do that.
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