History is written by the victors. But one big exception to that conventional wisdom is the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, in which Native Americans rose up against Spanish colonists and missionaries at the turn of the 17th century.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Before the vote of stuff, you mustn't Ezra glasses, brought to you by Katy, keen I love Riverdale. So I'm really excited that the creator of Riverdale has a sparkling adventure in the big apple coming out, full of fashion drama in dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six at eight seven central, it's the new Sea, W serious Katy, keen the big apple, better watch out, no matter who or what gets in the way. The four friends we were part of the shower about to take a big old by they take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the social seen there's so much high style has a new name. Katy keen the fashionable new series speculators fixed on the seat of EU or streams free the next day. Only to see that you up I'm broke shooter, I'm America's number one gossip column is. I want to tell you about my new celebrity put cast naughty but nice with Rob Shooter every Monday, three thursday I'll be joined by some of my fellow gossip reporters and maybe even a celebrity or two to seven
the freshest t, listen subscribe on the eye heart, radio, up apple podcast or where ever you get your favorite show. Welcome to stuff you missed in history, class from House Outworks, icon and welcome to the body ass. I am reasonably well I'm how we cried Polly often have you heard somebody say: history is written by the victors. Like anyone can many times, I've said it. I know it's a lot of biogas debate. talk about a pretty giant exception to that conventional wisdom, which is the level of revolt of sixteen eighty and in this revolt native American. Peoples who are collectively known as the Pueblo rose up
in unison against spanish colonists and missionaries who had started settling the area at the turn of the seventeenth century, settlers, we're catholic and had begun systematically converting the native population and had also forbidden the practice of the pebbles traditional religions. So on this ten. Sixteen eighty, the where's and multiple villages rose simultaneously against the settlers, they threw off the colonial government and lived outside of spanish rule for the next twelve years. this was probably the most successful indigenous uprisings in north american history, but because Pueblo we're not keeping written records of their history at the time it was a largely oral tradition. Most of our history on this one was actually written by the losing side, where we do have written records of the native american point of view, its in the form of testimony that was given orally by Pueblo peoples and written down by spanish priests. So
Clearly, not an unbiased account where we do have the native american perspective on things. Talk about today, huge revolt of which we have very little record victor's idea. so for background. Before the arrival of european settlers, the part of the world it's now. Northern Mexico and the South Western United States was home to several tribes of native peoples who fit very broadly into two groups. In one go was the more mobile hunter gatherer peoples the Navajo in the Apache and the other we have included the native Americans, who were living in establish permanent settlements that spanish colonists dubbed privileges, so poor Those are communal, living situations with terraces and flat raves built around a central court and above an underground ceremonial chamber, called a Kieva. Once this
coined the term pueblo. The various peoples who lived in them came to be collectively known as the Pueblo Indians and the pebble Peoples are most likely descended from the Anasazi and they include the HOPI in, among others. Furbelows do so. This today and one of them, the coma Pueblo is believed to be the oldest continually inhabited place in the United States. People have lived in it said about the year twelve hundred Although the Pueblo people lived in similar looking structures, this wasn't an isn't one homogenous group of people, the Pueblo spoke seven different languages and the sixteen hundreds, although some may have spoken spanish as well. If individual Pueblo governed itself and had its own customs and its own cultural nuances. Spain made way to this part of the world, with the intention conquer land and convert the people living near to Christianity at last, but one
he's on their agenda with finding a bunch of treasure in summer would fold back in to fund their first and second agendas right Our view is that the primary agenda was really treasure, but pressure. There was in some some millions of it like that. The treasure had an end besides just treasure in itself ray, and that was conquering in voting spanish settlers made contact with the Pueblo peoples and early fifteen hundred when markers Geneva. He was a franciscan friar claimed the whole region for Spain, the in some countries. The door Coronado also made his way through in fifteen forty and kind. The door one day or not. I made a voyage there with four hundred settlers and fifteen. Ninety eight at that point tablets. Mexico is a spanish colony, and that's really when spanish colonization of the area started in earnest,
and the whole vast hordes of treasure idea didn't pan out for New Mexico and Spain wanted to abandon the area, but the Franciscans made a case for their mission work being far too, to just come to an end abruptly, so they can you'd, on with the aim of converting the indigenous population in administering the ones that they had already been successful in converting In addition, trying to convert the indigenous population to Catholicism, the Spanish without, he's also forbade traditional religious practices. So when they arrived in a village, the Spanish would start by destroying the kiva. which was used for for religious and cultural ceremonies and all this kind of like a gathering place times they would build the church directly over. The Kiva cite the span Also destroyed masks and other items that were associated with casinos, and these were spirit beings worshipped in traditional it. Pueblo religions
The native Americans who resisted the Spanish were often subjects to imprisonment and torture. And a recurring theme regarding the colonization of the Americas, the settlers introduced, measles smallpox and up to Percent of the public population actually died in the years after. First, contact due to disease there, this matter wholly a one sided thing. There was that there are also diseases brought back to Europe from the colony no, not merely with the lethal vacations, as happened in the like eighty percent alive huge here Spain is also implemented. Taxation in their colonies and the rates of taxation were so high over about a decade, the Spanish went from asking the peddlers for foods for help them it started with a colony too. Instead Where blows asking the Spanish for food had been taxed away from them and
and to all of this started in sixteen sixty six that lasted for four years, for the arrival of the Spanish, the public will survive drought by keeping stockpiles of food and trading with one another. It was very cooperative, but the spam should tax them so heavily that no one had a stockpile and trade among the in was prohibited raids by the. Patches on the remaining meagre stores made things even harder survey all of the resources were stripped from that right and then there was an epidemic of an unknown and deeply deadly disease in sixteen seventy wine. And all of this, of course, had him measure, in fact on the Pueblo population, over the seventy five years between the real sort of spanish settlement and the revolt. The number web dropped from about one hundred two about forty listing today are about twenty.
In the minds of many pueblo peoples. At a time, life was getting harder and harder specifically because they were not being allowed to perform their religious observances. got a western idea of this- might be that God was exact. vengeance, because he was not being worshipped enough but this was more a worldview that that those observances were crucial to maintaining their quality of life and the way that the world was supposed to work and without there's observances going on that thing. Going off. The rails will ya there, higher culture had been up ended in most of the year. Tradition, stripped away right. So, yes, that will pretty much ruin your life. Your structure has been completely taken away. The spanish authorities crackdown harder on descent after the coma revolt in fifteen ninety nine and in his revolt, the coma pueblo attack.
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Anything was gonna, be swift and cruel And pretty have I said: yeah yeah So over the development of that diseases and taxation that we just talked about. Other revolts were also going on, but because the eh blows were so spread out. Most of them were really too small to be effective and in some cases, native Kids who were loyal to the Spanish had Tipp them off to what was happening so there resistance going on through this whole time, but it wasn't really strong enough to gain a foothold in the little piecemeal yeah in sixty. many five spanish authorities, rounded up forty seven pueblo, religious leaders and convicted them of sorcery and conspiring to rebel These leaders were beaten publicly and they were sentenced to slavery, four were sentenced to execution, though one of them committed suicide rather than be executed. One of prison wholly leaders was a man named pay and he
firms in one pueblo, pay other leaders were released that same year? appropriate, went to the northernmost Weblog Taos Pueblo. There. Reported being visited by three spirits who gave him a prophecy abundance returned to the Pueblo, those if they purge their world of Spaniards. So Spanish described this event as having had a conversation with the devil and most of the spanish writing about the revolt from the time characterizes it as the work of the devil not as a result of spanish oppression or of their public grievances against the spanish colonists. So, over a period of years, Popa started to organise the privileged people who were living in villages that stand up and down the Rio Grande Valley. rolled out over more than three hundred miles of territory from EAST to West, so to address the language barrier that we referenced earlier which was one of the things that had prevented all these different problems from uniting. In the past, propane gave
each of the villages and nodded cord which he delivered to them using runners and the villages were supposed to unknown one not from the court every day and on the day that, alas, not was untied. That would be the day that everyone was to rise up against the spanish and all given to the runners were pieces of deerskin that were marked with two grams pay rehearsed their meaning with the runners before they left, so the plan to simultaneously attack the Spanish in all these different villages, using Ben's that people had stockpiled in hidden and then to destroy the churches and kill the priests and then to kill the spanish or drive them out of their towns. From there, the revellers plans to converge to turn their attention to the spanish capital at Santa FE. Two of their runners that popish sent out were captured. Giving spanish advance warning of what was going to happen.
Additional runners were despatched to tell all the Pueblo to move the revolution earlier. Newsday make it to all the outlying pueblo in time and a few pueblo appeared to have declined to participate in the plan. I guess there is some description of this that make sound as though this is it. Quickly, unanimous. action on the part of the privileges and forever What a reasons if it wasn't that some of them seem not to have gotten the new from the runners in time. Other seem to have consciously made the decision of that on August ten. Sixteen eighty, many of the problems along with allies from the patch and the Navajo attacked in more than twenty villages, tat the people who were living there at that point, so darkness of all of that on August ten. Sixteen eighty, many of the problems, long with allies from the Apache and the Navajo attacked in than twenty villages together
they killed four hundred and one spanish soldiers and civilians, including twenty one, franciscan priests, and that was about two thirds of the ecclesiastical force living in New Mexico. At the time we have absolutely no casualty count on the native Americans. We have no idea how many died during the fighting one priests who was father- was grey Robe, Zuni Pueblo, reportedly survived by putting aside Catholicism and taking a pueblo practices and he eventually married a Zuni wife, there's a That's actually unclear about this story, though, since its pieced, together from multiple demoniac that were given orally by native Americans and then written down by spanish priests. So the city of any element of it is a little bit questionable. sort of established that this is probably what happened later and apparently we'll get you in about the Spanish, did return and appearing
found this particularly this particular pueblo still practising a lot of elements of catholic religion led by their one day, room who had kind of, assimilated. into the Pueblo culture, fascinating tat could be Pakistan of itself. I would we had better if we have enough records to do which we really don't The fighting was done in the villages about twenty five hundred warriors attacked the colonial headquarters at Santa FE and survivors in Santa FE and from the surrounding villages. All fled to the governors palace and there they were laid siege to eventually, the travelers cut off the water supply. A group of refugees fled to the is letter Pueblo, which was seventy miles to the south and apparently had not taken part in the fighting the. tenant governor was there with a group of survivors
and eventually on August twenty first, the governor decided to abandon New Mexico he and the survivors who had taken refuge in Santa FE manage to flee to the Rio Grande an egg equally, whether this is because they were allowed to go or just a strong enough presence not to be messed with, is still matter of some debate. Many governor decided to abandon new Mexico as well that we pay much know that they all left and native Americans allowed them to leave, but we have no record of the rationale for everyone was allowed to leave. At this point, you have to cut a deal They just were strong enough that they are liquid words gonna. Let this happen along with some of the public peoples who were loyal to Spain. Everyone went to El Paso Delmore Day, which today is war as Mexico fan For twelve years the Pueblo were actually free from colonial rule, and before we talk about em thirty
How this all played out for the next twelve years, how it affected life. In New Mexico, for the next. While, let's take a moment and talk about our sponsor green, this episode of stuff you, Mr History Class, is brought to you by earnest. If you have student loans, financing them with Ernest could save you money or lower your monthly payments, and it only takes two minutes to check. Rate online that financial relief can really go a long way when you are trying to pay down those loans. If you are still pay the same rate that Europe, when you graduated odds, are you could reduce your monthly payment and really save earnest as the easiest to refinance or student loans. Saving you time and money, and checking that me rate is so fast and easy. You just complete a few questions on line. It only takes a couple of minutes. You'll get a personalized rate estimate all of it without affecting your credit score. If you qualify, earnest offers cost possible loan terms and no fees so start saving
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To be the best for you, I'm on the blue plan, and it has made such a big difference or me in terms of encouraging means, eat healthy foods, join W W, formerly wait. Watchers unlock your customize weight loss plan that can make losing weight easier for you had gone over to Debbie Debbie dot com. That's w! W dot com to joint Debbie Debbie today with a limited time, offer to the aftermath, the Pebbly revolt yeah after their revolt, prepay, toured the privileges and instructed people to really throw off all spanish influence. Many underwent a ritual bathing that was meant to wash away their baptism. Still. Marriages were also voided until traditional pueblo ceremony could be performed. The pub burned down, villages that the Spanish had built, including spanish Bill Pueblo, that their native peoples had been living in the vicinity. To eradicate anything, the spanish touch the air they burn down mission churches and smash the bells they whipped statues
out the eyes of religious paintings really didn't happen in every single pueblo. This is another thing that a lot of times in modern accounts. He will see this as a universe thing that happened in every single pueblo to the same extent But there is really a lot of variety in exactly how much each Pueblo Village did or did not reject catholic influence at this point, and some their try. Some of the tribes actually move their pueblo. Timor defensible vantage points to better defend themselves. In case the Spanish returned many the new privileges that were built after the revolt were immediately adjacent to other villages that dated back to the twelve there thirteenth century. So it sort of seems as though the in addition to going back to their traditional ways. They were also going back to the places where there sisters had lived but influence, was not entirely destroyed, so spanish introductions to Pueblo culture, including raising cattle and sheep, have become
four also pueblo people. At this point. You identify people should go back to claiming corn exclusively, but some continued plant, wheat and barley, which had also been introduced by the Spanish There were also pueblo people at this point who identified as Christians and who didn't want to give up their religion. These people, would salvage and hide what they could or wherever a christian themes into their traditional spiritual practice. So you can see some kind of merging of the two employment is in the archaeological record. In some places of a Spanish started to attempt to retake the Pueblo area in sixteen eighty one there skirmishes and seizures that went on for years. Pope hey died in sixteen eighty eight and there really wasn't another charismatic leader to take his place and try to unite all the people of the different problems and eat. before his death. His leadership had really weekend here
The dying and disgrace. There's some suggestion in the testimonies that what was taken early from the Pueblo peoples, but there were those that went along with Pope because they were scared of him and not because they actually wanted to repel it's kind of her to figure out whether that is really what people thought or whether that is sort of an addition of this and its translators, but the fact that he did die in pretty much not a state of respect or reverence run seem like. Maybe there was some merit to that it. Yes, some merit to that part of it. also the sort of back to the old ways that he was advocating did seem like, and sometimes it was sort of back to the old ways as envisioned by pay some of the points. Is that, where rebuilt after their revolt, have me in common with Pope particular people, then with the web. Is that they were replacing
and by years of fighting in a loss of a central leader to coordinate their efforts. The Pueblo people's once fell to the Spanish, and that was in sixteen. Ninety two at this point The evangelical policy of the Catholic Church did become somewhat less oppressive in terms of religious expression, so there we're still missions and churches being built. Missionaries still tried to convert people, but they really stand in the way of the Pueblo people's free religious expression at that point, so well was still a whole colonial system going on that the Pueblo p we did have more of inability to carry on their their history, traditions than their spiritual traditions, but therefore that did not stop things from being bloody and the reconquest process. So while there were some people surrenders in other places, the Spanish actually went house to House in Burma, people in their homes pretty bloody all around her.
nickel, archaeologists, Matthew, J, leave men frames. This whole revolt evolution and not a revolt, and he draws them parallels between it and the american Revolution. Basically, in both cases, they were farming. people who were unhappy with the leadership who organised at night to write and get rid of an oppressive colonial government that they were unhappy living under Today there are about seventy five thousand people of Pueblo descent still living. Yes, we're not talking about people who existed only in the past. As we said earlier, one of the problems as one of the most or one of the oldest continually inhabited places in the United States Walter endures to some degree, lies indoors, and a lot of the problems that still exist are still inhabited in that similar to how they were inhabited at this point in history,
all of them, are places that people can visit if they are interested in learning about. There are a lot of resources online to kind of get a sense of what the it is of going like what people can. What visitors can and cannot witnessing can and cannot, do and participate in that your list of history, POD Castro, trips Yeahs the pebble trip that would be very cool. There's a statue of Pope Hay and Statuary Hall in the United States capital. It's one of seven native Americans, who are represented in a sanctuary hall and as we ve talked about there are nuances to this story. So you know For that reason, it was a pretty controversial addition to the statuary haul. It was carved by cliff regular came as well below, and it depicts him he's here holding back nodded cord that was used to help time everything correctly with. You're pretty ingenious timing device
yeah, I have all but effective, appear. I also watch a video that pointed out it's kind of weird, where its position, because, where where the statue of popish, as you can see over his shoulder this, this big mural of Columbus quote discovering, but because of the way the statue happens to be position here spaces kind of turned away from that staying here. I don't think that was a deliberate. I think it has worked out that way of Ebay, but yeah Do you also have some listener meal for us to enjoy? Do you have some listener? Mail this listener mail, from Halley, and it's about our Laura Ingalls Wilder Podcast you start by wishing us happy holidays. We are just from these. How? I guess I was here for most of them less I say we, it was really me I was gone far away and, and though it is, it is our.
recording session pose holiday yeah. Be holidays to everyone, belatedly, Thank you so much for your recent podcast on Laura Ingalls Wilder and the long winter of eighteen, eighty two, eighty one which eagerly awaiting had not heard that when you get when you read the letter, I am a huge, Laura Ingalls Wilder Fan. I was introduced to her books at age or and might senior history thesis topic this past year was inspired by Laura stories. I am one of those people You have not yet gone on a Laura Ingalls Wilder Road trip, but would absolutely love to you. I had been to three sides: plus a man's is New York Farm on different occasions. There considering how much there is to say about Laura. I think you did a great job, condensing forty minutes, just one action man, those name it was pronounced like it was spelled, not almonza, so that I have no idea where I picked up the pronunciation Armando.
Either, but I did it. I mean if you'd woke me from a dead sleep, it said how do you pronounced this? I would have said about it. I think maybe that was how they set it on the tv show. Perhaps I could not confirm that before we came in here to day, but he soon my bad, I dont know where I picked up the wrong pronunciation for his name, but apparently I did vince you sell that would explain why scalded manly dies. Resounding longhorns ends its with less of a jump. Yes, I like to suggest a related pack topic women in the homestead ACT. We mention Eliza James Homestead, there's so much to talk about on the subject of women, particularly single women and the homestead. What I actually focused my thesis on there is The interesting struggle and gender slash power play that went on with allowing single women to file. As you mentioned upon cast women were confined largely to the house, but found
the homestead claimant working the land, and although the government allowed women to do this, the language that was used to talk about homestead in completely left out women. Because of this You got some women using masculine language talk about themselves. I don't if you remember the term backing from the long winter to describe how a man so and royal we're living, but some women mainly You called herself Bachelor Basque, started using words like that to refer to females. Ebay is also fascinating. Ass. She had trouble proving up her claim and wrote a really long letter regarding her experience during those five years care He too was homesick at a homesteader, though she did it after the five year line was changed. I could go on and on about this, perhaps collaboration with stuff. I never told you, I also think I'd cast on Rosa, be wonderful. What with her reporting, libertarianism fascination with Albania and difficult relationship with her mother, Lastly, I wanted to draw your attention to a few things you might find interesting in case you didn't come across them in your research. There is
search organization devoted to large Ngos, water, the large Ngos about her legacy and research and innovation at their first conference official Peter presented on science behind cap and ol man. There's winter track in the long winter. Can see many land patents on the website of the Bureau of Land. That management, including the timber claim patents, four Eliza Jane Royal, Wilder and remember. The bloody benders episode from last year, borrow on several occasions, claimed her father had run ends with the family, but historians generally agree that this embellishment was suggested by rose, to add more excitement to her mothers, childhood. then how he gives us. clearly unnecessary apology for how long this email is. The social agenda is full of good stuff. Thank you so much Halley the Homestead ACT, there are so many in and new to the Homestead ACT that we definitely good night scratch the surface. In that particular episode, I dont we have
we talked about this in our fire. Podcast has up, but one of my favorite. We the tv show was called frontier, how oh yeah and it was about three families who are sort of sent to to basically pretend that they're gonna be on the frontier with through the winter and summer historians who came in to say whether they could survive or not. The families. An interracial couple who, at the time period, I've been a potential action for a mixed or an interracial couple to be able to make a life for themselves without interference from the rules of society around them would have said that their relationship with not okay, We have potential opportunities for women for interracial couples for people who are not living in. the social standard that was acceptable, but at the same time it was devastating act for the native american population who were being removed.
Their homes and put on reservations to make room for unsettled So where's here. The homestead act was simultaneously an opportunity and absolutely devastating and horrible. Thank you how we were right it's about matters of how good it is very good. So if he would like to you, email lesson share, your authority can do so in history. Podcast discovery dot com. We also have some new ways to connect. The bats are always with new addressing you can connect to this on Facebook still, but now we're at Facebook, dot, com, Slash missed in history. We're still on Twitter ATLAS in history were still on Tumblr at missed in history, that tumblr dot com and our Pinterest has moved an expanded rather significantly. So you can find the slayer at Pinterest that cop slash MR history, if you
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really excited that the creator of Riverdale has a sparkling adventure in the big apple coming out, full of fashion drama in dreams colliding with real life, Thursday February six, that eight seven central, it's the new Sea, W Series, Katy keen the big apple, better watch out, no matter who or what gets in the way. The four friends we were part of the show are about to take a bigger they take on the runway, the recording studio, Broadway and the social seen there's so much high style has a new name: Katy keen the fashionable new series, Premiers February, fixed on the seat of EU or streams free than that they only to see them. You up available now from my heart, a new series presented by T Mobile for business. The restless ones join me. Jonathan Strickland so we're curious about topics. My guests are passionate about an topics. Menus urges too afraid to talk about. I get past the fluff to work There is a better way to get things done, and there ready, curious excited.
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