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Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Pt. 2

2014-02-05 | 🔗

Rosa's arrest for breaking bus segregation laws catalyzed the Montgomery Bus Boycott, one of the keystones in the American Civil Rights Movement. It was widely covered in the national media, which brought more attention to the struggle for equal rights.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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welcome to stuff, you must, in history class, from how support second below and welcome to the fund has increasingly Wilson and I'm wholly frying. Today, we're going to wear radius, never left off, we're talking about Rosa Parks and the memory bus boycotts. Previously we talked about the sort of the historical context of what was going on in the United States prior to the civil rights movement, leading up until the day that Rosa Parks famously refused to leave her see on a MAC, gunnery bus. She was arrested and she was going to be tried for breaking Montgomery's bus segregation laws on Monday December fifth, nineteen, fifty five- that was just a meeting following the weekend of when she had been arrested.
So. The women's political council called for a boycott of the buses on that day as a protest, they pretty much started making and distributing handbills announcing the boycott right. In time as Rosa was arrested, and the handbill red another negro woman has been arrested and thrown into jail because she refused to get up out of her seat on the bus and give it to a white person. This is this can time since the closet Colvin case that a negro woman has been arrested for the same thing. This has to be stopped. negroes have rights to four. If negroes did not read the buses, they could not operate three so the writers are negroes. Yet we are arrested or have to stand over empty seats if we do Do something to stop these arrests. They will continue the next time Maybe you or your daughter or mother this women's day Oh come on Monday. We are therefore every negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest at the arrest and trial. don't write the buses to work to town to school or anywhere. On Monday, you can afford
stay out of school for one day. If he worked, camp or walk, but please children and grown ups. Don't read the bus at all on Monday, please stay off all since Monday, So, in addition to these handbills, which were distributed, there is a lot of word of mouth. Talk about the boy and minister spoke to their congregations, encouraging the boycott and church on Sunday, and so on. Monday. Support for the boycott was here about nine Percent of black bus writers boycott it. That is a man The very significant number when you consider that they were three quarters of the writers people walked, they carpool data tabs cap companies owned by African Americans actually charged passengers, the same fare they would have paid for the bus like ten cents. Yeah embarrassing, of people walking literally miles that day rather than right. The vice. so at the trial roses. Lawyers entered a not guilty plea, but they didn't really
fourth and enormous defence against the charges. The whole point was that a guilty verdict could be appealed, so Rosa was found guilty and she was fined ten dollars, plus four dollars in court costs. That same day, a coalition of ministers and community leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association and elected Martin Luther King Jr. Its president, its mission was to it since the general status and Montgomery to improve race relations and to uplift the general tenor of the community, so that night the Montgomery Improvement Association also called the am. I here community meeting in order to decide whether to continue the boycott. Obviously had been a big show of support, but the question was we keep doing this. Can we get actual change to happen? Doktor kings, oak and afterward Rosa was introduced to the crowd actually speak. They were. She was like I say something and the verdict was
you have said a lot by your actions, so it's fine. in the end, the MIT made three demands to present to the cities. Leadership: one courteous: get on the bus is. The second was for come first served seeding with white and the friend and blocks in the back three firing of drivers for the black bus routes. This sounds an exceptionally reasonable set of demands, but the city refused and from this on the other. I started organizing ways to keep the bus boycott going most african and did not home car, so long term boycott was right going to require some support who started working with attorneys. Two percent demands to try to negotiate with city leaders and the bus company. So as the boycott stretched on Rosa wound, up losing her job. Her employer, which was the Montgomery Fair Department store
that it no longer needed her work as a seamstress, because no longer had a tailor, so the tailor would fit garments to people and then she would so we have done what the tailor had done so with the job she focused extensively on the boycott she, came the dispatcher for a network of privately owned cars that carried about thirty thousand black people to and from work every day. She also can, We need to work and support the boycott throughout its entire thirteen months. Duration chief spoke, she worked and she organised the her involvement did not end with not giving up her seat, life, as you can imagine, became harder for people who chose to ride the buses. The boycott went on people jobs because they supported this effort. Ample he's harassed, black people that we're waiting for cabs cabin Rivers were also find for carrying black passengers with they charge to reduced fair. Yet it was a
a concerted effort to attempt to break them the boycott. There is also some targeting of white women who were driving their maids too in framework a lot of lake, need to figure out how to get the White Ladys to stop doing this because they are really our cause. All kind of will happen here. It was the stated eventually, a white attorney dug up an old law that prohibited boycotts and a grand jury indicted, many private citizens and community leaders who had been boycotting, including doktor king the leaders of the Mai, more twenty minutes, there's Rosa parks. And as a side now the famous picture of Rosa parks being fingerprinted is in fact from her wish initial arrest. After being removed from the bus, its from her arrests after this indictments right. Let's you see a lot of times would like completely not the right captain Things really started to become violent. Also, the homes of Doktor, Martin Luther King Jr and eating Nixon were bombed.
Rosa also got threatening phone calls at her home it became recently dangerous situation for the people who were boycotting in supporting the boycott. when, from the city's point of view, this boycott was having a very clear economic impact. The buses simply couldn't afford to run without the fares from black riders and downtown businesses were really suffering from the absence of customers who had, obviously got in there to shop the bus but but he would not budge on the segregation policies, even though it was harming them. So Is that gradually made its way to the United States? Supreme Court was called browser, verses, gale browser was Aurelia s router, who was one of the women who had been mistreated on a Montgomery Bus, gale as Mayor William, a gale and also part of the case were other plaintives independence as either is often true. There other women who had been arrested for breaking segregation, laws on the plaintiff side and on the debate,
inside were also the chief of police. The bus company drivers and other people wrote herself was not actually one of the plaintiff of the Supreme Court, because at this point she was also being prosecuted on these other charges and the attorneys did not want that to influence the proceedings. A? U S. District court in all found in favour of the plaintiffs on June. Fifth, nineteen, fifty six, the the commissioner's appeal in the: U S: Supreme Court upheld the district court decision on November thirteenth of nineteen fifty six citys officials asked the Supreme Court to reconsider the Supreme Court, reject This plea on December, seventeenth of nineteen fifty six on this twentieth. A written order from the Supreme Court arrived in Montgomery, requiring the buses to integrate, found that the boycott into then it had taken. and thirteen months. No more than a year of people, not writing the bus.
Many other boycotts leaders road together on the first integrated Brass Rosa herself because her mother wasn't feeling well and she wanted to stay home with her. But some reporters figured out where she lives showed up Photoshop and drove her the town to get on and off buses, so they could take pictures so that is the source of the equally famous pictures of Rosa Parks riding on an integrated, but for the first time staged on behalf of journalists, journalists Photoshop and drove her into town to get on and off buses. So they could take pictures so that integrating the buses there were shots fired, integrated buses monsieur of very real danger, and Rosa herself said that it, even though the buses had been integral. And they ve got what they were after it
really feel like a victory, because she knew just how much work there was still left to do and before we talk about some more of that work. That way Let's take a moment and talk about a word from our side. This episode of stuff, you miss than history glasses, brought to you by Norton three sixty with life. Luck with your shot, online with your smartphone. Its super feels like ear person information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit your person, information could start going other places and whenever you shop Bank or browse online, your personal invoking, get out of your control and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats, demand protection. That's why Britain and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton three sixty with Luck is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security, identity theft, protection and a VP end for online privacy. No one can prevent all cyber
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The time like we said in the beginning of the first episode of this topic, it's kind of lake, the quick sound bite did she get Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus, God it was widely covered in the national media and it brought more attention to the struggle for equal rights. It was also a clear indication that it really was possible to change things as we reference the end of our previous episode before the busboy caught a lot of civil rights activists genuinely felt like their work was not going to produce any kind of real change. In their lifetimes, even No people were working really hard trying to organise that occur at grass roots level, trying to take legal steps to to address laws that were unjust. really seemed like a an uphill battle that was going take a really really long time to see any real change on this
the success of the bus, boycott, inspired communities to organise and the protest and also sort of gave a template for four its work. It would take it how much organization and how many people you have a unified action on something and this is also when Doktor Martin Luther King Jr started to really emerge as a civil rights leader in Jeanne non violent protests and civil disobedience is a way to encourage social change, This movement continued on. For many years we could have like a whole series of pi casks. That was about the civil rights movement, There is an awesome book and tv series called eyes on the prize which documents it just astoundingly So many important and historic moments that that went on in and culminated in a lot of federal legislation that made a lot of what was going on illegal, so while A lot of these things do still happen today. A lot of these things being things that are there,
obviously discriminatory or racist, they are not. Legal and encouraged the way that they were for this, the words we met happened right. this episode of stuff. You, Mr History Class, is brought to you by Ernest. If you have student loans, financing them with Ernest could save you money or lower your monthly payments, and it only takes two minutes to check rate online. That financial relief can really go a long way when you are trying to pay down those loans. If you are still pay, the same rate that Europe, when you graduated odds, are you could reduce your monthly payment and really save earnest as the easiest. To refinance or student loans; saving you time and money, and checking that me rate is so fast and easy. You just complete a few questions on line. It only takes a couple of minutes. You'll get a personalized rate estimate all of it without affecting your credit score. If you qualify, earnest offers cost. possible loan terms and no fees so start saving
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Slash history or enter the code history at check out that security S a k, a are a dot com, slash history, to get twenty percent off your first order, one more time for wellness, Sakharov dot com, slash history, Rose s own autobiography, which is sort of men for younger leaders. It's called Rosa parks. My story, don't really say much about the life after the boycott after it. though she imparts, couldn't find work because of their involvement with the boycott and movement. They were also accused of being communists because of their civil rights work and their associations with some civil rights organizations that did have some communist leanings. her vast, allied parks, increasingly worried about road safety. So, months after this whole then ended. They moved
troika we're roses. Brother had also moved after world war, two and even the year. They had some serious economic troubles. We did not want to hire Rosa. She continued to go to meetings and work with civil rights organizations. Those organisations would not offer her paying work. There. actually like she'll news stories, the Ashworth all too high profile for people to take a risk yeah and I M, and they were There- were new studies that covered this story. That was like this civil rights. Heroin cannot find a job for a while. She moved to Hampton Virginia where she had found a job running the sort of combination, dorms last guest facility on the Campus of Hampton Institute, which with a black college, but she really lonely an isolated there. She tried really hard to find work for park so that he could come and be with her and was able to. She eventually move back to Detroit and it took about five years for her to find steady, paying work and in Detroit
She had parks continued to be harassed because of their activism and even though, reviewers continue to ask her about the progress of civil rights and the south. She became You really aware of how many of the same problems still existed in the north yeah, while in the south pointed to isolate the hotbed of all of it, but it really was all over the country. Now, a lot of, like registering to vote was for easily convoluted, delay, lead demeaning process for African Americans in the South and in the. north. There are also many steps that were taken to deliberately disenfranchise african american people. It was not as obvious the social things that we talked about earlier in the introduction, The previous episode and we talked about sort of their social contacts. We talked about businesses that would hire only African Americans for service positions on about was like fancy
tells in the north who were hoping to attract southern business people and they would maintain veneer of Michael fantasize slavery version by having an all black wait staff. It was not just a learned that no nineteen C4. candidate named John Conyers Junior ran for a seat in the House of Representatives and Rosa following his campaign. He had before he got into politics a civil rights lawyer Rosa endorsed his candidacy, and he was eventually elected and in nineteen sixty five he hired her for a position in his Detroit office and chicken. We need to work for him until she retired. This is us material role, because she was a woman, and this was the sixties. That was basically the job limited option. Yeah like the job that of a middle class. Women could do, is basically secretary but evidently gave her the chance to continue with her activism throughout Detroit
and really the rest of the country. She continued to travel and speak and work for equality for the rest of her life. There are photograph just her at Anti apartheid. She got into her later years. It was really a life long activism for equal rights for all people, yet was really her purpose. I mean her personal mission. and Rosa Parks died at home on October, twenty fourth, two thousand five preventative Conyers introduced a resolution for her to lie in honour at the Capitol Rotunda in Washington DC. She was the Swollen and the second african American to be given this honour- and I love her- I think she's amazing. She is it's like the moment on the bus was an amazing moment but to redeem Her to this moment, A lot of other amazing is ours, so much amazing staff. There is a god.
book that I read was as recently as podcast its by dream Theo Harrison. It's called the rebellious life of Miss Rose parks, and it's this, like its whole annotated volume. not all this other work that she did for so long that they know even breaking this into two parts. There are lots of things that we did not talk about, that she didn't accomplished and that she represented on behalf of the civil Rights movement and women which, in a lot of ways, tended to be a male dominated movement So while we finger allowed on her as a party who also has an listener, mail for as I do from Jessica and Jessica was is actually I have like the file stuff than I mean to read, and, and sometimes I miss something in it. It's only later so this is from, like way back machine of my inbox Jessica. He wrote. At the beginning of December she's
First of all, I absolutely love the podcast. I listen up my daily commute from Boston where I live to fall river, where I work yes, the same fall river. Where delivery burden was acquitted of axing your parents to death we'll asterisk here then down at the bar. It says the General fences among the people of all river. Is that she'd definitely did it strikes me up. I work in far river as a public defender representing low income individuals who have been charged with crimes, the house miss burdens, alleged murders took place, is actually right behind our new courthouse spooky. It is a better, breakfast: now you can sleep in the very room. Were Abbe burden was half to death? If that's something you're into, I dont know where follow that issue. Nor me, I recently listen to the boss, the massacre podcast, which was awesome. I'm really glad you took the time talk about. John Adams is defensive. Soldiers is something that I and other public defenders used to explain to others. Why we do what we do?
everyone deserves to have their rights protected, whether its british soldiers or everyday people who can't afford representation so Timing court I'll be there about John Adams and trying to forget the fact that the spooky Lizzie boardinghouse is right. Next to me, thanks for their great broadcasts Jessica, I kind of love that there's a spooky Lizzie board. Now Next to the courthouse me to find a Vegas. So I always forget that so much stuff in New England is an easy commuting distance from so much other stuff in New England, but the fact that somebody can from Boston to fall, river kind of delights me and the fact that people are using the story of John items in the boss massacre to explain the role of public defender yeah. I think that is awesome If you would like to write to us your history podcast at least every dot com, but also on Facebook at Facebook com ash missed in history and on twitter at Miss than history or tumblr his business.
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