Rosa's arrest for breaking bus segregation laws catalyzed the Montgomery Bus Boycott, one of the keystones in the American Civil Rights Movement. It was widely covered in the national media, which brought more attention to the struggle for equal rights.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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welcome to stuff, you must, in history class, from how support second below and welcome to the fund has increasingly Wilson and I'm wholly frying. Today, we're going to wear radius, never left off, we're talking about Rosa Parks and the memory bus boycotts. Previously we talked about the sort of the historical context of what was going on in the United States prior to the civil rights movement, leading up until the day that Rosa Parks famously refused to leave her see on a MAC, gunnery bus. She was arrested and
she was going to be tried for breaking Montgomery's bus segregation laws on Monday December fifth, nineteen, fifty five- that was just a meeting
following the weekend of when she had been arrested.
So. The women's political council called for a boycott of the buses on that day as a protest, they pretty much started making and distributing handbills announcing the boycott right.
In time as Rosa was arrested,
and the handbill red another negro woman has been arrested and thrown into jail because she refused to get up out of her seat on the bus and give it to a white person. This is this
can time since the closet Colvin case that a negro woman has been arrested for the same thing. This has to be stopped.
negroes have rights to four. If negroes did not read the buses, they could not operate three
so the writers are negroes. Yet we are arrested or have to stand over empty seats if we do
Do something to stop these arrests. They will continue the next time
Maybe you or your daughter or mother this women's day
Oh come on Monday. We are therefore
every negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest at the arrest and trial.
don't write the buses to work to town
to school or anywhere. On Monday, you can afford
stay out of school for one day. If he worked,
camp or walk, but please
children and grown ups. Don't read the bus at all on Monday, please stay off all
So, in addition to these handbills, which were distributed, there is a lot of word of mouth. Talk about the boy
and minister spoke to their congregations, encouraging the boycott and church on Sunday,
and so on. Monday. Support for the boycott was here
Percent of black bus writers boycott it. That is a man
The very significant number when you consider that they were three quarters of the writers people walked, they carpool data
tabs cap companies owned by African Americans actually charged passengers, the same fare they would have paid for the bus like ten cents. Yeah embarrassing,
of people walking literally
miles that day rather than right. The vice.
so at the trial roses. Lawyers entered a not guilty plea, but they didn't really
fourth and enormous defence against the charges. The whole point was that a guilty verdict could be appealed, so Rosa was found guilty and she was fined ten dollars, plus four dollars in court costs. That same day, a coalition of ministers and community leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association and elected Martin Luther King Jr. Its president, its mission was to it
since the general status and Montgomery to improve race relations and to uplift the general tenor of the community, so that night
the Montgomery Improvement Association also called the am. I here
community meeting in order to decide whether to continue the boycott. Obviously
had been a big show of support, but the question was
we keep doing this. Can we get actual change to happen? Doktor kings,
oak and afterward Rosa was introduced to the crowd
actually speak. They were. She was like
I say something and the verdict was
you have said a lot by your actions, so it's fine.
in the end, the MIT made three demands to present to the cities. Leadership: one courteous:
get on the bus is. The second was for
come first served seeding with white and the friend and blocks in the back three firing of
drivers for the black bus routes. This sounds
an exceptionally reasonable set of demands, but the city refused and from this
on the other. I started organizing ways to keep the bus boycott going most african
and did not home car, so long term boycott was right
going to require some support
who started working with attorneys. Two percent demands to try to negotiate with city leaders and the bus company. So as the boycott stretched on
Rosa wound, up losing her job. Her
employer, which was the Montgomery Fair Department store
that it no longer needed her work as a seamstress, because
no longer had a tailor, so the tailor would fit garments to people and then she would so we have done what the tailor had done so with
the job she focused extensively on the boycott she,
came the dispatcher for a network of privately owned cars that carried about thirty thousand black people to and from work every day. She also can,
We need to work and support the boycott throughout its entire thirteen months. Duration chief spoke, she worked and she organised the her involvement did not end with not giving up her seat,
life, as you can imagine, became harder for people who chose
to ride the buses. The boycott went on people
jobs because they supported this effort. Ample
he's harassed, black people that we're waiting for cabs cabin
Rivers were also find for carrying black passengers with they charge to reduced fair. Yet it was a
a concerted effort to attempt to break them the boycott. There is also some targeting of white women who were driving their maids too in framework a lot of lake,
need to figure out how to get the White Ladys to stop doing this because they are really
our cause. All kind of will happen here. It was
the stated eventually, a white attorney dug up an old law that prohibited boycotts and a grand jury indicted, many private citizens and community leaders who had been boycotting, including doktor king
the leaders of the Mai, more
twenty minutes, there's Rosa parks.
And as a side now the famous picture of Rosa parks being fingerprinted is in fact
from her wish initial arrest. After being removed from the bus, its
from her arrests after this indictments right. Let's you see a lot of times would like completely not the right captain
Things really started to become violent. Also, the homes of Doktor, Martin Luther King Jr and eating Nixon were bombed.
Rosa also got threatening phone calls at her home it became
recently dangerous situation for the people who were boycotting in supporting the boycott.
when, from the city's point of view, this boycott was having a very clear economic impact.
The buses simply couldn't afford to run without the fares from black riders and downtown
businesses were really suffering from the absence of customers who had,
obviously got in there to shop the bus but
but he would not budge on the segregation policies, even though it was harming them. So
Is that gradually made its way to the United States? Supreme Court was called browser, verses, gale
browser was Aurelia s router, who was one of the women who had been mistreated on a Montgomery Bus, gale
as Mayor William, a gale and
also part of the case were other plaintives independence as either is often true. There
other women who had been arrested for breaking segregation, laws on the plaintiff side and on the debate,
inside were also the chief of police. The bus company drivers and other people wrote
herself was not actually one of the plaintiff of the Supreme Court, because at this point she was also being prosecuted on these other charges and the attorneys did not want that to influence the proceedings. A? U S. District court
in all found in favour of the plaintiffs on June. Fifth, nineteen, fifty six, the
the commissioner's appeal in the: U S: Supreme Court upheld the district court decision on November thirteenth of nineteen fifty six citys
officials asked the Supreme Court to reconsider the Supreme Court, reject
This plea on December, seventeenth of nineteen fifty six on this
twentieth. A written order from the Supreme Court arrived in Montgomery, requiring the buses to integrate, found that
the boycott into then it had taken.
and thirteen months.
No more than a year of people, not writing the bus.
Many other boycotts leaders road together on the first integrated Brass Rosa herself
because her mother wasn't feeling well and she wanted to stay home with her. But some reporters figured out where she lives showed up
Photoshop and drove her
the town to get on and off buses, so they could take pictures
so that is the source of the equally famous pictures of Rosa Parks riding on an integrated, but for the first time staged on behalf of journalists, journalists
Photoshop and drove her into town to get on and off buses. So they could take pictures so that
integrating the buses there were shots fired, integrated buses
monsieur of very real danger,
and Rosa herself said that it, even though the buses had been integral.
And they ve got what they were after it
really feel like a victory, because she knew just how much work there was still left to do and before we talk
about some more of that work. That way
Let's take a moment and talk about a word from our side.
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Now go back to the events unfolded following the Montgomery Bus boycott. Here are some of the
can't became one of the keystones in the American Civil rights movement. It certainly something we hear about
The time like we said in the beginning of the first episode of this topic, it's kind of lake, the quick sound bite did she get Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus,
God it was widely covered in the national media and it brought more attention to the struggle for equal rights. It was also
a clear indication that it really was possible to change things as we reference
the end of our previous episode before the busboy caught a lot of civil rights activists genuinely felt like their work was not going to produce any kind of real change. In their lifetimes, even
No people were working really hard trying to organise that occur at grass roots level, trying to take legal steps to to address laws that were unjust.
really seemed like a an uphill battle that was going
take a really really long time
to see any real change on this
the success of the bus, boycott, inspired communities to organise and the protest and also sort of gave a template for four
its work. It would take it how much organization and how many people you have a unified action on something
and this is also when Doktor Martin Luther King Jr started to really emerge as a civil rights leader in
Jeanne non violent protests and civil disobedience is a way to encourage social change,
This movement continued on.
For many years we could have like a whole series of pi casks. That was about the civil rights movement,
There is an awesome book and tv series called eyes on the prize which documents it just astoundingly
So many important and historic moments that that went on in and culminated in a lot of federal legislation that made a lot of what was going on illegal,
A lot of these things do still happen today. A lot of these things being things that are there,
obviously discriminatory or racist, they are not.
Legal and encouraged the way that they were
for this, the words we met happened right.
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Rose s own autobiography, which is sort of men for younger leaders. It's called Rosa parks. My story, don't really say much about the life after the boycott after it.
though she imparts, couldn't find work because of their involvement with the boycott and movement. They were also accused of being communists because of their civil rights work and their associations with some civil rights organizations that did have some communist leanings.
her vast, allied parks,
increasingly worried about road safety. So,
months after this whole
then ended. They moved
troika we're roses. Brother had also moved after world war, two and even the year. They had some serious economic troubles.
We did not want to hire Rosa. She continued to go to meetings and work with civil rights organizations.
Those organisations would not offer her paying work. There.
she'll news stories, the Ashworth all too high profile for people to take a risk
yeah and I M, and they were There- were new studies that covered this story. That was like this civil rights. Heroin cannot find a job
for a while. She moved to Hampton Virginia where she had found a job running the sort of combination, dorms last guest facility on the Campus of Hampton Institute, which with a black college, but she
really lonely an isolated there. She tried really hard to find work for park so that he could come and be with her and was able to.
She eventually move back to Detroit and it took about five years for her to find steady, paying work and in Detroit
She had parks continued to be harassed because of their activism and even though,
reviewers continue to ask her about the progress of civil rights and the south. She became
You really aware of how many of the same problems still existed in the north yeah, while in the south
pointed to isolate the hotbed of all of it, but it really was all over the country. Now, a lot of, like registering to vote was
lead demeaning process for African Americans in the South and in the.
north. There are also many steps that were taken to deliberately disenfranchise african american people. It was not as obvious
the social things that we talked about earlier
in the introduction,
The previous episode and we talked about sort of their social contacts. We talked about businesses that would hire only African Americans for service positions on about was like fancy
tells in the north who were hoping to attract southern business people and they would maintain
veneer of Michael
fantasize slavery version by having an all black wait staff. It was not just a
learned that no nineteen
candidate named John Conyers Junior ran for a seat in the House of Representatives and Rosa
following his campaign. He had
before he got into politics a civil rights lawyer
Rosa endorsed his candidacy, and he was eventually elected and in nineteen sixty five he hired her for a position in his Detroit office and chicken.
We need to work for him until she retired. This is us
because she was a woman, and this was the sixties. That was basically the job
limited option. Yeah like the job that of a middle class. Women could do, is basically secretary but
evidently gave her the chance to continue with her activism throughout Detroit
and really the rest of the country. She continued to travel and speak and work for equality for the rest of her life. There are photograph
just her at Anti apartheid. She got into her
It was really a life long activism for equal rights for all people, yet was really her purpose. I mean her personal mission.
and Rosa Parks died at home on October, twenty fourth, two thousand five
preventative Conyers introduced a resolution for her to lie in honour at the Capitol Rotunda in Washington DC. She was the
Swollen and the second african American to be given this honour- and I love her- I think she's amazing. She is
it's like the moment on the bus was an amazing moment but to redeem
Her to this moment,
A lot of other amazing is ours, so much amazing staff. There is a god.
book that I read was as recently as podcast its by
dream Theo Harrison. It's called the rebellious life of Miss Rose parks, and it's this, like its whole annotated volume.
not all this other work that she did for so long that they know even breaking this into two parts. There are lots of things that we did not talk about, that she didn't
accomplished and that she represented on behalf of the civil Rights movement and women which, in a lot of ways, tended to be a male dominated movement
So while we finger allowed on her as a party who also has an listener, mail for as I do from Jessica and Jessica was is actually I have like the file
stuff than I mean to read, and, and sometimes I miss something in it. It's only later so this is from, like
way back machine of my inbox Jessica. He wrote.
At the beginning of December she's
First of all, I absolutely love the podcast. I listen up my daily commute from Boston where I live to fall river, where I work yes,
the same fall river. Where delivery burden was acquitted of axing your parents to death
we'll asterisk here then down at the bar.
It says the General
fences among the people of all river. Is that she'd definitely did it strikes me up.
I work in far river as a public defender representing low income individuals who have been charged with crimes, the house
miss burdens, alleged murders took place, is actually right behind our new courthouse spooky. It is a better,
breakfast: now you can sleep in the very room. Were Abbe burden was half to death? If that's something you're into, I dont know where
follow that issue. Nor me,
I recently listen to the boss, the massacre podcast, which was awesome. I'm really glad you took the time talk about. John Adams is defensive.
Soldiers is something that I and other public defenders used to explain to others. Why we do what we do?
everyone deserves to have their rights protected, whether its british soldiers or everyday people who can't afford representation so
Timing court I'll be there
about John Adams and trying to forget the fact that the spooky
Lizzie boardinghouse is right. Next to me, thanks for their great broadcasts Jessica, I kind of love that there's a spooky Lizzie board. Now
Next to the courthouse me to find a Vegas.
So I always forget that so much stuff in New England is an easy commuting distance from so much other stuff in New England, but the fact that somebody can
from Boston to fall, river kind of delights me and the fact that
people are using the story of John items in the boss massacre to explain the role of public defender yeah. I think that is awesome
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