Though she was Canadian, Sarah Emma Edmonds fought for the Union during the Civil War. She adopted the name Franklin Thompson while traveling. Disguised as a man, she enlisted and began a career as a nurse, courier and spy (if you believe her memoir).
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to stuff, you must, in history class from how support to that country
hello in welcome to the party. I am Tracy Wealthy, I'm Holly fry, and we got a request on Twitter recently asking it.
what to do any more civil war episodes or hundred and fiftyth anniversary of the civil war
The answer is yes, it is now yes at the time it was somewhere on the spectrum between maybe and probably yeah, and now it's yes,
We want to fulfil those desires of our listeners, but it's not always feasible to get everybody's wishes, granted the short amount of time that we had. I think the real answer it is. Is it
where feasible, because we get literally ten suggestions for every one episode that we can record. Yeah least that the conservative guess, at the civil war very bright
topic with lots and lots of things the cheese from so I chose one of my favorite favorite themes, which is Ladys dressing up his gentlemen to go fight yeah. I dont know, while of that so much, but I d will it fascinating on a number of levels.
So today we're going to talk about Sarah Emma Edmunds she
canadian woman who went to fight for the union just after the start of the civil war and she served.
I am a man without discuss
for almost two years ago.
into her memoir. She wasn't just a nurse in the army. She was also a spy and we'll talk more about the memoir as we go on
yes, we're gonna we're going to talk about some things that she did she discusses in it and then we'll talk about why? Maybe those things happened.
So the zero was born. Sarah Emma Evelyn Edmonson in New Brunswick Canada in December of eighteen, forty one, as was often the case at all,
I'm her father wanted a boy to help him in his farming work and he resented her for not being one. He didn't
you're very well when she was young and when she was sixteen, she was also facing an arranged marriage that she really than won't have any part of. So
around eighteen, fifty seven. She left home and
time. She also dropped the sun from her last name and she worked for
a year in Mountain New Brunswick. She was
TAT. Her father would find her, so she eventually fled to the United States to make.
Easier and safer for her to travel by herself, she adopted a new identity which was Franklin Thomson and she started dressing ass, a man and a note on the pronouns. Here
We are going to you she and her when talking about her, because, based on all the information we have Franklin, Thomson is a disguised that she adopted and not an expression of her gender identity.
also a little unclear whether she went by Sarah or Emma. So for the sake of simplicity, we're just gonna
Sarah, so first of all
after leaving New Brunswick Sarah went to Harvard
KIT and she got work as a traveling Bible salesman.
making her way to other cities, including Bossy Massachusetts and Flint Michigan, and
interesting point of new. She actually use the middle name Flint as part of her male alias, and this could be why in aid,
sixty one after the fall of Fort Sumter started the civil war, Abraham
again called for seventy five thousand volunteers to join the Union army. At that point, zero was in Flint
so, even though she wasn't born in American Tarifa still felt it was her duty to join the side of the union, and she want,
help out by being a nurse she could have done. This
civilian world, by working in hospitals with recuperating soldiers that she really felt lake, the role of battlefield nurse,
more crucial and more needed, and if possible, that the excitement of
was also a draw for her, but that job working in the field as a nurse.
with pretty much everything else in the military at the time was reserved exclusively for men.
Training. Her Franklin Thomson disguise she went to enlist recruitment off
were really busy at the time and there was really not a lot of physical examination going on of the people who were going to join the army, so she joined without anyone, detecting that she was a woman. She joined them
I can't Michigan Infantry on April twenty fifth of eighteen sixty one and she was ranked as a feel nurse. She was income
F, which was the Flint Union, graze, and this was the first three years
German in Miss again and the first western regiment to arrive in Washington D C when this
miss again arrived in Washington. She worked in temporary hospitals with soldiers who were either sick when they got to Washington or had gotten thick after they arrived or had been injured in some kind of mishap, because
a very hot weather and how many soldiers were arriving in Washington. The hospitals were actually really busy and there weren't enough doctors to go around typhoid,
heat related illnesses, were also really common, along with infections that got worse because of the heat and the top.
That off they were also having a problem with summer storms. Since most of these temporary hospitals were set up in tents, and they didn't always how flooring the ground could quickly flood during a thunderstorm. So things are really pretty tough in a little bit dicey for it
stirring medical aid, the provisions that they had available were also poor. There was plenty to eat, but it was mostly things like hard bread and coffee that might be really good for a healthy young soldier, but not
s, choices were somebody he was sick or recuperating so on.
advice of the chaplain and his wife, who figure into
Laurie. At other times later she said,
an initiative to ask for help for sick and wounded soldiers from the families and businesses in that area, and she helped bring in better
visions for the men who were recovering.
so on July. Fifteenth of eighteen sixty one
As you know, got their marching orders to go to bowl run, which is also known as Manassas, and they departed two days later on the seventeenth, the
All of first of analysis, also known as the battle of first ball run, took place on July. The twenty first
battle. What the union was hoping to do was gain control over railroad Junction. That would give them easier access to the confederate capital of Richmond
they were not successful. Affairs regiment did not participate in the battle itself,
But when the order came to withdraw the army's means of retreat was blocked by carriages of people who had travelled out from Washington to watch. The fighting spectators
So serious regiment was crucial in helping to cover the union's botched retreat. Why
her regiment was providing cover. What she was doing was helping with the wounded, as well as
quivering water to the fighting soldiers. It was so high that day that they were becoming dehydrated in their performance was weakening,
to the battle was over. Sarah actually stayed behind attend the wounded who had to be left behind because they can travel and, as imply,
as her nurse work was
running water to all of these wounded troops, whence you
I believe she had to evade the eye of confederate soldiers and make her way back to Washington by herself
the army remained in DC for quite a while after Manassas and she can
to work in the hospital. She was caring for patients who is securing food and provisions just ass. She had said
two prior to the fighting in March of eighteen
sixty to you. She became a male carrier for her regiment and
for the remainder of her servants, she combined doing work as a nurse with various mail and courier duties, including acting as a postmaster. The second
Again. Infantry eventually join the peninsula campaign, and this was part of the union's attempt to capture the confederate
capital of Richmond by moving up the Virginia Peninsula rather
going overland from DC.
Would allow the union to get the support of the union Navy as well as the army. As part of that
Angela campaign. Her regiment was part of the siege of Yorktown the battle of
spurred the battle of fair oaks,
also known as seven pines, and
Given these battles before Richmond, at which the union was ultimately defeated and had to retreat and all
these battles see worked as a nurse and a stretcher bare and helped carry wounded. Men off the field and about
of Williamsburg. All of that
and while a heavy rain was going on in the fighting was also really fierce and at one point she took up arms herself her right.
It was involved in many other battles, but the next most notable event in her own personal story was during the battle of Second Manassas, also called second boron, which was
On August, twenty ninth of eating sixty two. She was
as a courier during the battles that she was delaying instructions from one part of the battlefield to another and her horse was
so she had to write a mule and said this mule, as mules are known for being stubborn.
her into a ditch and she was badly injured. She
her leg, inexperience, internal hemorrhaging. It was not her
first injury, but it was one that continue to affect her throughout her life and while she had become adapted, treating her own wounds so that people wouldn't
cover that she was a woman. This was one that would have taken some time for her to recover from
soldier who confessed while dying that she was also female, but this may have been an embellishment answer,
burying a soldier who confessed while dying that she was also female. By this
I have been an embellish. My answer part since two
different sources, don't actually list the second Michigan as having been Antietam or it.
also possible that her regiment didn't participate in the action, but that she did participate in treating the wounded after the fact
and also the Antietam took place just a couple of weeks after her injury secondment assets. So it made
slightly romanticized version of what was actually taking place. That right. I found lots of sources that
mentioned Antietam as one of the battles that she within back there
seem to be referencing. That's why I'm maybe questionable part of her of her memoir, but regardless,
She was definitely recovered
a return to battle in the battle of Fredericksburg, which went from December eleventh to fifteenth, and she
orderly and relate messages between headquarters and the front on horseback. Fredericksburg was followed.
the failed mud March, which was a northern Virginia campaign. The union undertook that went so badly that they had to abandon it after three days, because a rain had completely absurd.
The road to rewrite everybody was getting bogged down in a quagmire, essentially really the most ideal conditions
No, the war was not going really well for the union at this point, so both Frederick
Third and the mud March had gone pretty poorly
and the loss of Fredericksburg had brought huge casually too casually tools with it and the mud March, as we said, was basically, he asked
I just did not go well at all. General
Ambrose Burnside, who had been commanding the army of the Potomac since November eighteen. Sixty two was
they removed from command. On January twenty fifth, and at that point, General Joseph Hooker was put in command of the army of the Potomac
at this point. Zero wanted to leave the army of the Potomac as well. So she put him for a transfer and was sent to the ninth army core after a few days
Eve she met up with them in Louisville Kentucky, she doesn't really exciting,
We spell out why she wanted a transfer, but it seems kind of obvious from what was going on
in the war. At that point, though,
entry see made in her journal before she left is pretty telling she wrote. The weather department is imperfect, keeping with the war department
its policy being to make as many changes as possible and everyone worse than the last may God
ass, the old army of the Potomac and save it from total annihilation. So
in her memoir, which we have already suggested, is pretty heavily embellished throughout also wrote
we interesting things about becoming a spy for the union? Theirs
mention of her being a spy in her service record, but she
urgently dawned, disguise and went by.
The enemy lines, eleven different times,
It does not necessarily mean that it never happened because they would,
necessarily have recorded spy work in somebody's service record, but
meantime the things that we're going to talk about next are a little vague in historical record. We don't have hard facts on everything is largely her recounting of it.
and exactly when this started is a little unclear, but it seems from her memoir to have been so
I'm during the siege of Yorktown and after a friend of hers, Lieutenant James Bessie Tooth.
had known before the time
exactly when the spy work began as a little unclear. But it seems from her memoir to have started sometime during the siege of Yorktown and after the death of a friend, Lieutenant James Bessie, who she had known from before she joined the army.
At about the same time, a spy who had been doing reconnaissance for the Union in Richmond was captured and
by a confederate firing squad. The chapel
and so it was the same travellin who had recommended that she seek out new provisions for the soldiers in the hospitals and see the chaplain heard about this, and
Sarah confided in him that she was becoming dissatisfied and her nursing work and wanted to avenge her friend. He told her about this, this reconnaissance opera.
Haiti and he borrowed some army manuals for her to use to prepare
in her account. She
does it. She faced a lengthy interview and exam, which included, which included a front illogical example of her skull too,
when the parts associated with things like secretiveness and combativeness before she got the ok to become a spy
her first account of espionage, she'd disguised herself as contraband, which was a former slave who had started to work with union forces. She wore
a wig unused silver nitrate, the color her skin and went by the name of cuff on
on this mission, see gathered information from the Richmond area while working on the fortifications there and while carrying water
Sera, also row of dressing as an irish peddler. And this time the disguise was that of a woman named Brigitte in
in this instance she
shelter in an apparently abandoned house only to find it
bravely injured confederate soldier already staying there. He gave her a watch
to deliver to a major marquis at a nearby confederate camp. If she happened to pass lie there and she took advantage of this
opportunity to gain entry to the camp and scattered around for information.
She also wrote of finding official documents in the pocket of a confederate officer while disguised as a launderer, and she returned these to her commanding officer
legibly. Her spying, continued after she moved into the ninth army. Core see
in her memoir about doing some recon, while dressed as a confederate soldier and then shooting the confederate commander that she had been reporting to in the face once she fell back in line with her union treats and just how. Much of this
real, as we said, is pretty unclear
Do you know she enlisted, and we know she served by the spy stories just they have not been substantiated. Apart from her own descriptions that are in her memoirs,
her military service didn't last much longer after she joined the night core, not,
after arriving in Kentucky. You see developed malaria. She knew she
discovered if she got medical treatment in the regiment and she asked for a furlough and was denied
her account, diverges from the historical account at this point,
more, she wrote that she went to the surgeon to say she was no longer fit for duty and that he agreed and wrote her up a certificate of disability and then
went back to Washington to recover, so it's a little different than what happened in the official
right and the historical record she most
can't say that at some time, in the spring of eighteen, sixty three, she left her post probably
seek treatment for malaria outside of the army, and then Franklin terms
her alias was marked as a deserter. She did
cover well enough to return to service, but she couldn't actually do so big.
Of the desertion charge, so instead
she found work in a hospital this time, ass herself with no disguise, and she worked with return
soldiers until the end of the war
memoir was called unsexed or the female soldier, and then when it was reprinted, it was renamed nurse and spy in the Union Army, its death
Lee embellished, it's very romanticized account of her service, there's plenty of battle action in fighting and shooting, but there is also this a whole lot. That's more about the emotional side of service and lots and lots of stuff about what the
no state of the man was like what life in camp was like and then every time it seems like every other page,
there is someone handing her a walk it or a ring or a note or a package to return home like a comrade who has fallen?
It is also worth noting that she don't you or the proceeds from the sale of this book to help wounded soldiers. So even though it may be a roommate sized account, it was ultimately beneficial
she one point road of a friendship with a woman named Nellie in this. The story and
this telling Knollys husband who was a confederate soldier as
was no other relatives- had been killed by union soldiers and that when
first encounters Nellie and she
her if she could, by provisions for the union, Army Nellie actually drew a gun on her. But sarah-
thirdly shot her through the hand and then captured her, but by the end of the book
here, pals and Nellie has
go to work in a union hospital, though it reads kind of like a supply in a movie, this relationship that that she has with
Nellie and something, if you think about it. Maybe that could have happened, but it also seems a little far fetched.
as I was reading her memoir, I read it with a pretty big brain of salt year.
We do know that in eighteen, sixty seven Sera married line a seal. I, who was a canadian mechanic and they had three children together,
They moved around quite a bit before they eventually settled in Texas as their home. This
Michigan Infantry held a reunion in eighteen, seventy, six and Sarah attended, and when people think
who she was. They welcomed her into the fold the people here,
served with her. Some of them also helped her fight the desertion charge that was on her record and obtain a pension
which see five because of the injury if she had incurred. At second analysis, they had continued to trouble her throughout her life, so eventually
Franklin, Thompson was cleared the desertion charges that took place in eighteen, eighty four anyway.
In an honourable discharge and then was awarded a pension of twelve dollars. A month in eighty
ninety seven Sarah was admitted to the grand army of the republic, which was a civil war veterans organization. She was the
the woman to do so and on September fifth of eighteen, ninety eight
died of malaria in Laporte Texas, which is where she was living with her family.
She was fifty eight years old. She is
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which in save with Geiger it's almost better than sport. I love the story. It's really
I dont want to say fund because there's so much sort of darkness about it, but there is just such a thing
the adventure and spiritedness about it that there is a fun element to it right. It's just.
Wild ride it, leaving without her embellish version. That is a wild right, even without all of the things that you can't go this with eighty behaviour. So
He was not the only woman to serve in the civil war, and I found a
wide range of estimates from His-
You is two hundred and fifty two more than seven hundred and fifty women who disguised their sex and went to serve in the civil war and it was feasible for women to passes MA. Am
thanks to the modesty and sanitary standards at the time, you know soldiers
in their clothes and sometimes would go for weeks without bathing, especially during active wartime, women could buying their chest pad out their waste and pretty easily pass from
as you know, the facial here thing was not as much of an issue, because at that time a lot of really young boys were enlisting as well and a lot of
all in tears were coming from all walks of life and had to learn everything about being a soldier. So
being a little bit lost in the world of the military, was not unusual for anybody male or female, serve. You could
Fire Gunnar do other tasks. It wasn't a red flag that you might be a woman, so
Oh that there are other women who made it all the way through their service without being discovered. There is
whose sex was discovered only after the woman had been severely wounded or killed
Don't have a lot of real
a documented historical examples. Here, a few though one
Loretta Velasquez, who wrote
serving in the civil war as Lieutenant Harry Buford. In her memoirs, which were published in eighteen, seventy six Mary seed
Jenkins enlisted in Pennsylvania and was wounded in battle, and she said
for two years without anyone discovering her sex, she died in eighteen. Eighty one
Mary Owens of Pennsylvania serve for eighteen months using the name John Evans. She was there
To be a woman and was sent home after being wounded in the arm such
yes with Hunt enlisted alongside her husband who died of wounds.
One of the other. Most famous example is Albert DJ, cashiers, who enlisted in eighteen sixty two and served until eighteen, sixty five when his regiment was mustard out of the federal army in nine.
Thirteen while living in a soldier's home in Illinois sergeant discovered that he was female.
Why does a man for his entire adult life and died, and it is in an insane asylum in nineteen fourteen? There are,
David on file and his record from people who serve with him. He said that they had no idea of his physical sex. So, for its part, the
we actually tried to deny the involvement of women in the war, at least once in nineteen o one item. Turbot writing for the American magazine wrote to the Aegean,
well to ask about how many women had served in the civil war. Then she got an answer. There was just blatantly false. He said
I have the honour to inform you that no official record has been found in the war department showing specific
that any woman was ever enlisted in the military service of the United States as a man.
of any organization of the regular or volunteer army at any time.
The period of the civil war. It is past,
however, that there may have been a few instances of women having served as soldiers for a short time without their sex.
Having been detected, but no record of such cases is known to exist in the official files. Contrary to that answer, that
had compiled the records of the union and confederate armies at that point, and there were plenty of records on file of women soldiers and of discharge papers that were marked with sexual in compatibility.
so when the war was going on and afterwards women soldiers were known of and upon discovery, often got quite a bit of attention in newspapers. Word would spread of something like that, but for
time after the turn of the century and even up until the nineteen eighties, or so
writing about the civil war, actually omitted the women soldiers completely or branded them as free
or deviants or prostitutes, and it really was,
until the late eighties-
early nineties. The stories of female civil war soldiers started to be told in a more positive light and their service was actually recognised
So that is the story of Sarah Emma Edmunds and, if
we're one. You can read her whole memoir for free on the internet. If you would like to read
very adventurous and probably heavily romanticize tail of a woman's fight in the civil war. If you
like to read some fiction actual fiction, not probably fixed, analyzed kind of truth,
Another book is Terry projects, monstrous regiment, which tells the story of Polly who joins the the army after her brother
there's nothing in battle, which I love, because I looked very project
and I love story- is about the Ladys who dresses gentlemen to go off to war. Invite me to
it seems that you should be easy, but is not just getting out of bed and getting your day started, trying to accomplish everything you need to do in your day that to do list as a lot easier when you're getting news stories and music to lift your mood and preparing for the day ahead connected to the things that make you laugh and make you think or make you want to reach out and share with a friend every morning with us, it's Elvis Joanna Morning show listen to us on Kyoto to or anywhere in the world, on the Iheart Radio app when your car breaks down do
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most in I knew I have listener male, it's from our Facebook message Box and it is from China
and she says I must listen to the trees by loved it. After all, who doesn't love cheese, many people do love teeth,
building Holly and me ashes logistics
question and a common question you spoke most
about european trees. Origins- and I was wondering, is the cheese made in other parts of the world just an offshoot of the cheese invented in Europe, or did you
any evidence of cheese being developed independently elsewhere, just curious. I once thought that the Bagpipes or
It's the scottish thing, but was
Listen to learn that bagpipe type instruments can be found in nearly every region of the world. Perhaps an interesting Comcast topic comment:
but then she links with two to a video and says that she has absolutely no debts connections and therefore, probably has no business pointing this out. I disagree with that point. There's something that you would like to point out. Please do it, however,
when I heard you refer to the Netherlands is HOLLAND several times during this podcast. This video recently posted on Facebook by a dutch friend of mine, immediately came to mind, but in fact the source of this video, but found both educational and quite another,
so, I thought I'd passive along and the video is about the difference between HOLLAND and the Netherlands. So talk about that first
First of all, if we are constantly called HOLLAND call them
in HOLLAND. We're sorry,
Some point that we did having watched the video is in added is confused
to people who do not live there in much. The same way as the nuances between
the british Isles and the United Kingdom in great Britain may be confusing
we don't live there, which is another thing that people have written comments to us about.
So any time we must set up we're. Sorry, you were trying to get it right, but we may get it wrong at some point
on the trees question we talked about that
pursued a little bit and it was one of those things that are like I wanna go double check to make sure this is right, because what we had talked about was the most
she's history sort of started in the Mediterranean then glanced out into what is now Europe as
all developed new methods for controlling the spoils of milk,
an exception being in India, which had a long history of using milk and to make better and to using
and made pioneer which is pretty much, the only
that is native to India. So I confirm that's pretty much
in fact it was mostly what we think,
the western culture who were farming, lots and lots of animals to use for dairy purposes, and that just wasn't very prominent in a lot of cultures outside of the western world. I did
Tibetans, along with another, a couple of other chinese ethnic groups and all-
These are real outliers and the greater context of chinese quizzing. They include the by people
and Tibetans along with another, a couple of other chinese ethics.
And all of these may have learned how to make cheese from the by and in the paper
I read about it. It was
was clearly so unusual that its remarked on multiple times
how unusual is, and it really
boiled down to you that there were not many cultures that were raising lots of animals that we're both producing enough milk for people to drink, while still providing milk for you.
And would allow themselves to be milked. So the third of a cultural
we have to be raising herds of milk producing animals in order to make cheese, and that is why I very much of the chief history is from a western perspective, so I hope at least that up you looked as though you have something that you wanted to say truthfully. I was waxing wrapped Zadig in my head about chief pleaded
anything else. You may we are at history, Prague, castle discovery, dot com were also on Facebook, at best facebook, dot com, slash history, class stuff and on Twitter
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