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Six Impossible Episodes: Evacuating Children

2018-06-20 | 🔗

All six of today’s topics are mass evacuations of children and youth because of a war or other unrest, and include Kindertransport, Operation Pedro Pan, and Operation Babylift. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
the vote of stuff you missed in history classes brought to you by w w formerly wait watchers it they know that most people have already given up on their resolutions thirteen days and the new year i am proud to say that is not me doesn't have to be you either great thing about the new my deputy programme is that it really encourage you to stick with it it is their most groundbreaking and customize proven wait lost land because its taylor just to you which makes it easier to keep up with and stick to join w w to get matched with your very own customized proven weight loss plant had on overdue debbie debbie dot com that's w w dot com to join debbie debbie today with a limited time offer hey before we get started we just wanted to let you now we have so many upcoming live shows to talk to you about yes on july seventh i will be at history can't boston that's me tracy only highly won't be it that one
i'll be in the history podcast or panel and then the next day july ape we will both be doing alive show it adams national historical parking quincy massachusetts it's an outdoor show it will happen rain or shine and since parking is limited at the park people are encouraged to take public transportation that is probably how i will be getting there also in july we will be back at convention days at women's rights national historic park and seneca falls new york convention days is running from july twentieth to twenty second and our show gonna be on saturday july twenty first and then we have big big big news that we are both very excited about we are going on an actual multi city tour we're going to hit the east coast and august royal becoming to it georgia raleigh north carolina somerville massachusetts brooklyn new york and washington dc and then in october my favorite spooky time of year we will be coming to the west coast with stops in seattle washington portland oregon and los angeles and san francisco
california you can find more information about all these shows at our website which is missed in history dot com click on the link menu that says live shows why couldn't you stuff you missed in history class from housetop works dot com how low and welcomed the broadcast i'm crazy bewilderment can i'm holly fry it's time for six impalpable episode everyone every time for new listeners a couple times a year we put together an episode unfix topics but for one reason or another can't exactly work as well as a stand alone show all six of today's topics are examples of mass evacuation of children and youth because of war or some other unrest and we ve got multiple requests for some of them including kindred transport operation pedro pan and operation baby lift as well as its true
magic plane crash and some of these are big enough story is that they probably could stand on their own as their own episode but then that would make it a lot harder to ever talk about any of the other ones and they we have a lot of overlap and one thing that's true of all of these evaluations which are not going to repeat every single because it is true of all of them as that these children's experiences after being of act waited were really all over the place somebody evacuees developed strong close and loving relationships with their foster family is another caregivers but there were also reports of physical and sexual abuse both in faster homes and in group living situations like hostels in camps that were used in some of the evacuation so we're only going to be making note of those two sorts of issues when there's something unique with them and a particular evacuation otherwise it was just an element and all
of them first up we're going to talk about kinda transport and this is a name that was coined later in the twentieth century to describe a collection of programmes to evacuate children from german in german occupied territory and to take them to the united kingdom these evacuations took place between one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight and one thousand nine hundred and forty would most of them happening before the start of world war ii in europe in nineteen thirty nine this all started after kristallnacht or the night of the breaking glass miss was a program that took place on november ninth and tenth one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight when this happened nazi forces arrested nearly thirty thousand jewish men and sent them to concentration camps nazis also murdered at least a hundred jews and destroyed hundreds of synagogues and community building thousands of homes and shops were also destroyed world leaders had been discussing the quote refugee problem in germany and german occupied territory for months at this point the problem was
aid organisations have thousands of applications from people seeking refugee status but most nations were reluctant to let them in horrors of kristallnacht made the situation worse but it didn't really change the other nations mines this was also true in the uk where jewish and human its organizations had been lobbying extensively for more german jeers to be given refugee status there was really only through this continual advocacy that the british government finally changed its mind ultimately the british government announced that it would allow children under the age of seventeen to enter the country and stay under a temporary visa but the government also stressed that idea of temporary the children intended to be reunited with their families after the crisis had passed will
organizations had to guarantee that until that happens the children wouldn't be a burden on state finances or threaten the british job market the children's parents also were not part of the programme the kinda transport only evacuated children to try to ensure that these children stay was temporary a bond fifty pounds had to be posted for each of them and then a wide range of religious and secular groups all became part of the effort to raise funds and fine bulgaria homes and arrange their care these included the jewish service organization behave riff as well the society of friends and why i am so yea private citizens played a big part to buy them funds and clothing and offering their own homes a shelter after a radio appeal on november twenty fifth of nineteen thirty eight more than five hundred private citizens offered to act as foster parents multiple
organizations on both ends of the journey identified the children who needed to be evacuated and then made arrangements to do so in britain there were the british eighty four for the jews of germany and the movement for the care of children from germany later known as the refugee children's movement on the continent there were the reich wrappers station of jews in germany in berlin and they jewish unity organization in vienna the reich association of use in germany succeeded the right representation of who's in germany in late nineteen thirty nine the first children to be evacuated were the ones who were in the greatest danger so orphans whose orphanages had been destroyed children whose parents had been deported murdered or sent the concentration camps children whose homes have been destroyed
in the pilgrims the first arrivals were nearly two hundred children from an orphanage in berlin that have been destroyed during kristallnacht they arrived on december second one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight as the evacuation went on and a lot of the most urgent cases were handled relief organ nation started to focus on the children that seem like they be able to assimilate well there was an ongoing fear that this influx of child refugees was going to lead to an increase in anti semitism and anti refugee sentiment so ass time went on the focused turned to children who seemed bright tidy and behaved and teenagers who had some kind of job or domestic skills that would be useful but not overwhelm the job market throughout this evacuation children travel by train supports in belgium and the netherlands where they would cross the english channel by boat they left met from major cities like berlin vienna and prague children who live outside of the city's travelled to gathering points together
the train a very few children were flown directly from czechoslovakia and in the very earliest days of the evacuation a few transport left directly from germany itself by one thousand nine hundred and forty the kindertransport had evacuated between nine thousand and ten thousand children from germany and german annexed territory about half of these children stayed with sponsors and foster families those who didn't initially have sponsors or foster families temporarily stated facilities like summer camp in some cases larger groups of children live together in hostels those who were over the age of fourteen often got some sort of job training and then went on to do domestic or agricultural work apart from the reports of abuse that we mentioned at the top of the episode the conditions that these children he's in britain really varied even when it came to children
you were generally treated with compassion and kindness a lot of the host families just didn't have a lot of cultural competence about the religious or social needs of jewish children some a host families also volunteered basically so they could get an older child to work as a household servant in nineteen forty a public panic erupted over the idea that a so called fifth column of nazi sympathisers was at work in the uk the wake of this panic more than one thousand child refugees over the age of sixteen were placed in internment i'm says enemy aliens some of these children were deported from britain and placed in camps in australia and canada often their conditions at the camps in transit were up calling even so a number of kindred transport tease also known as kinda joined the armed forces after turning eighteen although this whole programme had started with the idea that the children
would return to their families after the crisis was over obviously most of the children couldn't many of their parents were murdered during the holocaust and few of the candor ever saw their families again after the war was over many eventually became citizens of the united kingdom or emigrated to other countries including israel after it was founded and nineteen forty eight in team eighty nine the first kinda transport reunion was held in london with kinda from all over the united kingdom israel australia and other countries reconnecting with each other the kinda transport association formed after this reunion and it has continued to work to reunite kinda with their host families and each other today december second is recognised as world kinda transport day although the candor transport is generally celebrated as a humanitarian effort to protect children it really should be noted that most children weren't protected so that kinda transport rescued between nine thousand in ten thousand
she was children but nearly two million jewish children died during the holocaust we're gonna take a quick sponsor break and then after that we will talk about some other evacuation efforts in the nineteen thirties and nineteen forties this episode of stuff you missed in history class glasses brought you buy nor three hundred and sixty with lifelock let's just say you're shopping online with your smartphone i do it all the time that sure feels like your personal info is right there in your hand but that's not always the case as soon as you hit submit your personal information could start going other places in fact when you shot bank or browse online your personal info can get out of your control which can leave you vulnerable to cybercriminals more threats demand more protection that's why norton and lifelong are now part of one company norton three stay with lifelong is an all in one membership for your cyber safety that gives you device security identity theft protection and of e p m for online privacy no one can prevent all cyber crime and identity theft but
three sixty with lifelong is your ally in today's connected world because your info is out there sign up for norton three sixty with lifelong today and so twenty five percent or more of your first year go to norton dot com slash history that's norton dot com slash history for twenty five percent off we're going to return to a world where too for a moment with what might be the most well known mass evacuation of children as operation pied piper mrs the evacuation of children out of british cities that into the countryside during world war two due to the fear of german airstrikes some of the childer i also went to canada south africa australia new zealand and the united states and smile or evacuations after the first big one continued until nineteen forty four this evaluation is really part of the public
memory and the united kingdom it is depicted in a lot of literature that's why children are in that country house with the wardrobe in the lion the which in the wardrobe operation pie piper began on september first one thousand nine hundred and thirty nine that's the day that germany invaded poland but the order to quote evacuate forthwith actually came for industry of health at about eleven a am m the day before following order over the first four days of september more than a million people were evacuated from britain's urban areas the vast majority were children oh you still dron travel by bus and train and they all had tags bearing their names that addresses penta their clothing about a hundred thousand teachers also worked as guardians during transit and his fur big wave of evacuations by the end of the war more than three million people had been evacuated from areas that were considered to be in danger this
a colossal movement of people and particularly destinations the scene was often chaotic although the men had ordered the evacuation local municipalities often didn't get much direction beyond handle it is best you can sometimes children arrived at the wrong destination and local authorities didn't have rations or housing ready or sometimes a town was expecting hundreds of children but received thousands instead but of today's sixth evacuations operation pied piper is the one in which some of the evacuees described the hull this feeling like an adventure at least at the beginning a lot of the children had never left their own neighborhoods before and they looked forward to seeing another place as they were actuated a lot of them didn't have a clear idea of what was really going on or what had motivated their journey they thought they were going on some kind of field trip as adults many of the evacuees talked about not understanding at first
by their parents and other grownups around them were crying and of course a lot of initial optimism and excitement faded due to homesickness and separation from their parents and siblings some of the children who were evacuated in september of nineteen thirty nine returned home again during the phoney war also known as the sits craig which lasted from september nineteen thirty nine until may of nineteen forty in most cases the children returned home during these eight months were evacuated again after germany invaded france and the low countries in addition to that and he were evacuated out of urban areas in great britain which is the more well known story there was all a mass evacuation from guernsey in the channel islands about five thousand children were evacuated with their schools in june of nineteen forty
and this was the start of a major evacuation of everyone on the island although by the time germany occupied currency at the end of june only half of its population or about seventeen thousand people had been evacuated our necks evacuation was also during the world war two years and it was connected to the winter war between the soviet union and finland sometimes you'll see the winter war folded into the larger arc of world war two and it started when soviet leader joseph stalin demanded that finland surrender some of its territory to create a buffer around leningrad which is now saint petersburg finland fused and after a series of failed negotiations the red army invaded on november thirtieth nineteen thirty nine almost immediately people started talking about evacuating finland's children too
we didn t try to keep them safe there were a number of women's organisations and other non governmental organizations all working towards that same end on december thirtieth of nineteen thirty nine they formed the centre for assistance to finland to coordinate this whole effort finland's ministry of the interior spread the word bitch ran in the mothers of young children could evacuate sweden of the six evacuations we're talking about today this is the only one that included mothers in any kind of larger scale and at first there wasn't a lot of interest but that change the war progressed in the situation became more threatening in the end fifty five hundred children eleven hundred adults were evacuated during the winter war they travelled out of finland by train plain and ship most went to sleep
although some went to norway and denmark the children's parents were expected to contribute to their cost of transportation and care on march third one thousand nine hundred and forty one of the trains that was being used for transport during this evacuation crashed three nurses fifteen children and one pregnant woman died in the accident about twenty people were also injured the winter war ended ten days later and the evacuees returned home although not immediately we wanted to wait for the country to stabilize before returning in june team forty about eight hundred evacuees had not come home again eighty people who had evacuated were still out of the country by the end of nineteen forty war in finland and nineteen forty one when finland and nazi germany fought the ussr during the continuation war and then finland was at war with germany from september one thousand nine hundred and forty four to april one thousand nine hundred and forty
i've in these later years nearly fifty thousand finnish children between the age of one and ten were once again evacuated into sweden there have been several studies exploring the idea of whether all these children were really better off in their evacuation by looking at their health later in life based on increased incidence of issues like heart disease and diabetes researchers have concluded that the stress of the evacuation may not have our way being out of the wars own have all of these evaluations like i found a lot of papers that included oral histories and kind of socio logical studies of what the evacuation was like and this is the only one that i found a big focus on health outcomes later in life and what that might say about the stress of the evacuation and whether it was ultimately work that you there's not a lot to focus on long term health in general i would say but specifically mob from something that happened to a group of people
they were very young and then tracking them into their adulthood is very rare yeah so our last evacuation that too during the years surrounding world were to actually connects to the spanish civil war the spanish civil war started at nineteen thirty six than it followed a failed military coup on one side was the spanish working government on the other side where the nationalists who had orchestrated the cue the nationalists were led by general francisco franco and they had the support of fascist italy and germany on april twenty seven nineteen thirty seven german and italian forces acting at the behest of general franco bombed the basque city of gurney veronica was of no strategic importance in the war so most other nations regarded this bombing is completely senseless it also inspired pablo picasso painting gurney guy which will also often here but
gerda which is how i learned from our teacher but that is one of his most famous works and is described as one of the world's most famous anti war paintings tat the one that has like that this strange cows and the woman holding that the child in its like a mural sized painting i haven't done a very good job of describing it a few think of of think of picasso that may be that the image that immediately leaps into your mind so there was an immediate call for nations to accept refugees from veronica and at first the british government as has happened in the case of transport or as would happen and the kind of transport refused but in the face of huge public pressure the government reluctantly agreed but as would be the case with the kinda transport they sat very clear
expectations for this programme relief organisations that were making all these arrangements had to guarantee that they would be solely responsible for these children and all costs associated with them for the entire length of their stay in the uk one of the big proponents of this plan and allowing these refugees and see the uk was eleanor rathbone who is the independent mp for the combined universities who would all now go on to be a big advocate for the kinda transport about four thousand child refugees arrived in the united kingdom on may twenty third nineteen thirty seven they mostly stated camps near the town of easily in hampshire and some state and foster homes after the nationalist side one the spanish civil war in nineteen thirty nine and franco became its head of state he demanded that the children be repatriated to spain and although most of these evacuees were returned to spain between two hundred and fifty in four hundred
then we're still in the uk when world war to actually started a few of them never returned home we have two more evacuations that we're going to talk about after we have another sponsor break both of those were connected to the cold war and usually how the united states responded to communism during the cold war this episode of stuff you missed in history classes brought to you by w w previously weight waters that most people have already given up on their resolutions thirteen days and the new year i'm really proud to say he does not have to be you either first joint w w because i really wanted a plan that was going to encourage me to make healthier eating choices and w w
formerly watchers has really done that great thing about the new my deputy we programme is that it really encourage you to stick with it it is their most groundbreaking and customize proven weight loss plan when you join the my deputy programme you'll take an assessment about you're eating habits in your behaviors and that will scientifically match you up to a customize weight loss plan one that can make it here for you to stick to your head on over to debbie dot com that's w w dot com to joint debbie debbie today with a limited time offer
our next evacuation of operation baby lift which was carried out by the united states at the end of the vietnam war so the history of the united states involvement in vietnam is long and complicated i initially tried to explain it and it was taking the length of an entire podcast so to be extremely brief the united states supported the republic of vietnam also known as south vietnam against the democratic republic of vietnam or north vietnam which was communist is obviously a more gigantic story than that but that's the basic for the poor says of setting this up those broad strokes the united states direct military involvement in this war started in nineteen sixty five under the administration of lyndon johnson
involvement was incredibly controversial and divisive by nineteen sixty nine the nixon administration had implemented a policy is vietnam position to try to end american involvement in the war in theory this policy transferred military research mobility from the u s to south vietnam while this deadly to the u s pulling the last troops out of vietnam and nineteen seventy three it didn't allow south vietnam to successfully defend itself by the spring of nineteen seventy five north vietnam was headed toward victory but the city of saigon about to fall by this point that you know states had been evacuating united states citizens and non essential personnel from more remote areas to the relative safety of saigon four months aircraft from world airway these are being used for this purpose and why old airways president bailey also had a daughter charlotte who was working with
it is in the united states to try to find adoptive homes for vietnamese children she asked her father to try to help find a way to get these children to the it states daily used his connections with the government to try to get authorization to do so but things were not happening quickly enough for his satisfaction so on april second nineteen twenty five a world airways dc eight cargo plain took off from saigon on board were fifty three vietnamese children and twenty two adult attendance the flight had no passenger seats no flight plan no formal clearance and no sanction by the u s government or by the government of south vietnam airfield staff cut the runway lights and unsuccessfully ordered the plane to stop its take off but it ultimately made it to its final destination of oakland international airport the next
as word of olive this spread president gerald ford authorized and announced operation baby lift this would be a mass effort to rescue as many south we had the means orphans as possible and bring them to the united states where they would be placed with adoptive families as also became part of a larger effort to transport south vietnamese refugees out of the country and that greater efforts would start on april seventeenth of nineteen seventy five and the words of henry kissinger quote twenty years of hope frustration and discord over vietnam now been reduced to a single objective to save a maximum number of potential vietnamese victims from the consequences of america's abandonment the first official flight in operation babylift took off on april fourth one thousand nine hundred and seventy five and it is in tragedy the plane was immensely crowded with children in both the passenger and cargo areas of the plane
in the passenger area toddlers and young children were strapped in two to a seat in the car go area babies were on blankets and secured to the floor in groups a crew of nurses and tears were on board to look after them in flight but shortly after take off from thomson you'd air base the rear cargo doors blew out because of a maintenance problem this destroyed the rear of the aircraft and caused a rapid loss of pressure inside of the aircraft the pilot was captain dennis trainer known as bud turned around to try to make an emergency landing back at the air base but the plane crashed a couple of miles shore the runway seventy eight children and about fifty adults died in this crash most of the more than one hundred seventy survivors had been in the passenger compartment while many cargo area were killed the pro continued after the crash of that first flight though and in the
and more than two thousand children were evacuated from south vietnam to the united states and a few other countries around the end of the war a lot of mainstream coverage of operation baby lived in the united states has framed it any positive humanitarian way but it continues to be surrounded by controversy there's some day about how many of these children were really orphans it certain that some of them had living parents who either didn't have the means to take care of them because the war or whose they would be better off outside of vietnam there have also allegations that american personnel took some children off the streets of saigon without real knowing what their family situation was in some of the children had been fathered by american military personnel who were stationed in vietnam outside of the context of this evaluation translational adoption has its own controversies and its own complex
he's from of which frankly are way outside of our lane some vietnamese showed and were adopted into white families who didn't necessarily know any other vietnamese people or know anything about the enemies culture sometimes the adoptive families seemed motivated by a desire to sort of demonstrate how generous and patriotic they were by adopting one of these these children and as the children of operation baby lift have grown into adulthood alot of them has tried to figure out who their families were in vietnam and tried to reconnect with their vietnamese heritage on top of all of this operation baby lived was very political the united its involvement in the vietnam war was incredibly contentious and as we said divisive and u s action during the war had directly contributed to what was happening in south vietnam at the end of the war so operates
baby lived was simultaneously a genuinely humanitarian effort a paternalistic attempt to save south vietnam and an attempt to restore some goodwill and create good pr for the united states the president himself even greeted a plane full of orphans in san francisco on april fifth where his picture was taken holding babies from the plane tat there was just a lot of very positive attempts to spend this as look at how we're rescuing our allies and south vietnam just sort of leaving off the part of having largely made the problem in the first place although this controversy is not news is not something people have just started talking about in the law just five years a number of lawsuits were filed in the wake of operation baby lift soon after it happened these included a class action lawsuit contending that it was
unconstitutional and in violation of international treaties there also a lawsuit against lockheed martin that stem from the crash of that first baby lift flight by the end of april one thousand nine hundred and seventy five forty thousand people have been in he waited from saigon including about three thousand babies and young children in operation baby lived in about two thousand of these children were adopted in the united states about one thousand were adopted in canada australia and the in the u s allies in europe and as is the case with kinda transport of people about how many people were evacuated but many many more people were left behind at the end of the war are last mass evacuation
these episode is operation pedro pan sometimes called operation peter pan and this was a mass evacuation of unaccompanied minors from cuba after fidel castro came to power following the cuban revolution in nineteen fifty nine making cuba the first communist state in the western hemisphere at first operation petru pan was a programme to allow and even encourage people who were fighting against the castro regime to send their children to the united states and the idea was that they be able to focus on the resistance without having to care for their children or to worry about their children's safety the children came into the united states on student visas which were issued from the u s embassy in havana but the united states cut diplomatic ties with cuba and closed the embassy in havana on january third nineteen sixty one and at this point operation pedro pan began to broadened to include any one who wanted to say
their children out of cuba people did this for a lot of different reasons some people really were a counter revolutionaries who are fighting against the castro regime and were worried that their own activities could endanger their children catholic families were also becoming concerned for their religious freedoms as castro began nationalizing catholic schools and expelling catholic clergy from cuba some herons worried that the castro regime was going through and parents legal authority of the over their children or that their children are going to be indoctrinated the united states especially when it came to these last two definitely help bread these fears through media and propaganda after closing the embassy havana the united states state department worked with the catholic welfare bureau to continue these evaluations the state department gave muncie your brian walsh the authority to sign visa waivers for cuban children under the age of sixteen there's these
waiver would allow them to fly from havana to miami panam flew to direct flights a day and these planes became increasingly filled with unaccompanied minors between one thousand nine hundred and sixty and one thousand nine hundred and sixty two fourteen thousand unaccompanied minors flew from cuba to miami about half of them are met at the airport by friends or relatives maybe not close relatives but someone they at least work waited to the rest of them were placed with foster families or were housed in hostels or other group living situations most of these children were from the cuban middle and lower class because wealthy cubans who had wanted the country had already done so before this programme really started this whole situation was supposed to be temporary
idea was at the u s and counter revolutionary reason cuba would overthrow fidel castro and then the children would return home to their families but that is not what happened not only did castro stay in power the children were only reunited with their families if their families left cuba as well the united states also stopped all commercial flights between the united states and cuba during the cuban missile crisis and nineteen sixty two that ban on flights stated for three years and during that time the only way for these children to be reunited with their parents was if their parents made the dangerous crossing from cuba to florida by boat after commercial flights resumed in nineteen sixty five freedom flights began taking off from havana to carry refugees to the united states the first of these left her
on december first one thousand nine hundred and sixty five and this is really when the evacuated children noticed pedro has resumed being reunited with their families but this had its own level of difficulty some of the pedro pan has did not already have friends or family in the u s had been sent to foster homes away from miami and that's where their parents had to go sometimes moving to a place there were few if any other cubans because that's where their children had been placed they always say far four miami we dont mean like or less the highly yeah yeah we mean like minnesota yeah really an end and in some cases but there was just now human community there is not really a lot of resources as it was going on operation petrol
was not really publicized the state department and the catholic welfare bureau really tried to keep it out of the press as much as possible but at the same time once it did make the news it was as with the case of operation baby lift bearing politicized for example the miami harold ran a headline quote eight thousand cuban children saved from communist brainwashing today this is regarded very differently in cuba verses in the united states and cuba especially while fidel castro was when power it was viewed as a nefarious and coordinated cia effort to destroy cuban families stories of pedro upon as experiences with racism abuse and homesickness became part of anti american propaganda but in cuban american cultural memory it has more often been seen as a necessary flight from the castro regime that came with some hardships but still
children and their families to escape the thumb of that perception become a little more nuanced similarly with operation baby lift whereas the children who had been evacuated grew up they started telling their own story is more an and some of that has happened with operation petard and as well and we said earlier that this operation was meant to be temporary for most of the petty parties the separation from their families was tear temporary most of them were reunited with at least some family members although in a lot of cases it take years for that reunion to happen but overwhelmingly their stay in the united states was not temporary most petre pennies have never returned to cuba and at various points it's been illegal for them to do so on november second nineteen sixty six president lyndon johnson find the cuban adjustment act which set up a process for these and other cuban refugees to become permanent residents of the united states
operation pedro pan made news again in ninety ninety nine in both cuba and the united states during the alien gonzalez controversy gonzalez mother had fled cuba with him and she had died in a shipwreck and this led to an enormous international custody dispute with images of operation pedro pan again heavily politicized being used by both sides federal agents took alien gonzalez at gunpoint on april twenty second two thousand and returned him to cuba something that was seen as an outrage among most cuban americans and a victory among most cubans in cuba i was of all of these evaluations i was astounded to learn about fourteen thousand unaccountable unaccompanied minors i will tell you funny thing which is that when you first just kind of said that number to me that phrase with no context in my head i have vision fourteen thousand children flying a played by themselves
think i completely leg made a really completely inappropriate cartoon version and then i was like oh no they were on regular transport they were just they didn't have any adults with them icy icy icy so yeah yeah so yeah those are there are six evacuations of children all of them having some elements in common but thus especially those lasting having sort of dramatically different political use almost in terms of propaganda and p r i also have some listener mail that sounds grand mrs from lauren warrants as high tracy and holly i work at the minnesota historical society which manages historic force knowing and i was so excited when i listened to your episode on the knee say in world war to you and heard you talking about the military intelligence
language school in minnesota the piece of minnesota history i didn't know about and still until i started working at em and h s here are a few more details about the am i s l s his time in minnesota that i find super fascinating one when the school had to leave california after executive order ninety sixty six the army tried to find some were to move but several states completely refused to accept the school in their borders so minnesota was unique for saying yes and being fairly welcoming to these students to the schools time in minnesota actually significantly change the population demographics of our state and the nineteen forty census only about fifty people
japanese descent lived in the state and by nineteen fifty over a thousand people lived here after their deployments many of the former emma s ella students remembered their experiences training in minnesota and decided it would be a great place to live and today at em an age ass we do a lot of work with the twin cities japanese american citizen league mostly the sentence but there are a few emma s less trained world war two vets who are still alive to make sure this history keeps being told where also always workings of better document this history and our collection because it's not as robust as we'd like and then she talks about working with us and and finding some new photos of students and she sent a links you a press release that had some stories about these and how they went up training in minnesota and she says to please let her know if we ever need any minnesota history ideas thank you so much lauren for sending that one of
articles that i found as i was doing the research on this is really all about how the the military intelligence service had been viewed in minnesota and how it like how they had worked within the community and it was not one of the things that we had time to deeply get into an episode so thank you so much for sharing that if you would like to write to us where history pod gas that house networks that guy and there were also all over social media missed in history dot com and that is our facebook and our better and our industries and our interest you can come to our website which as mr history dot com and fine show notes for all the upset the holland i have ever worked on that includes links to other sources that we use there's also a suitable archive of every episode ever and you can subscribe to our show on apple podcast play and wherever else you find point
furthermore on this and thousands of other topics visit housetop works dot com this episode of stuff you must in history classes black to you by w w formerly wait watchers didn't know that most people have already given up on their resolutions thirteen days and of the new year i am proud to say that is not me doesn't have to be you either great thing about the new my deputy programme is that it really encourage you to stick with it it is their most groundbreaking and customize proven wait lost land because its taylor just to you which makes it easier to keep up with and stick to join w w to get matched with your very own customized proven weight loss plant had on overdue debbie debbie dot com that's w w dot com to join debbie debbie today with a limited time offer
Transcript generated on 2020-01-18.