This 2018 episode covers defenestrations - which just means "to throw out of a window." And there's been a surprising amount of defenestration in Czech history. And almost all of it has been connected religious wars.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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actually enjoy. It is just the opposite of the doom scrolling that can really take over other social media. He might start out just thinking what, if I learned, it makes them historical costumes and then later what you're actually finding out is that you have a deep and abiding love for making historical pottery centrists, diverse creators help you find what you enjoy doing so surprise yourself with what you can get into on Pinterest, Happy Saturday, everybody on an upcoming, episode. We are going to talk about Johan, Frederick, Stridency Little The spoiler alert there he's the doktor who, more or less rule Denmark for a period in the eighteenth century, enduring some of the key tax setting for that episode will do. flee mention the thirty years war and its connection to the definitive solutions of Prague. We covered the definitive nations of Prague on the show on May twenty. First, twenty eight teen, and here it is as today's Saturday classic
welcome to stuff you missed in history class of production of I radio Hello welcome to the planned cast, I'm Tracy Louis I'm calling for today we have a cap, but I have started on and then stopped me five times in the last five years, but we're coming up on the affair hundredth anniversary, though it kind of feels like I need to do it now or never We could do this in another hundred years. Who would be
all the family would be robots. We would be able to really tell history from alive perspective the so this would be much requested. The fenestrelle visions of Prague and just to set a little expectation that the actual defend straining does not take that much time. The pretty simple story, Defence street just means to throw out of a window and its from the latin word fenestrelle for window. Apart from sounding like it's, the punchline to a joke about dialects, there's been a surprising amount of throwing people out of windows and check history, and almost all of it has been cut
to religious wars. So we can attack through all that today, her the first defend instruction of Prague took place almost one hundred years before the start of the protestant reformation, but it stems from the same kinds of reforms and conflict that were part of the reformation Yon whose was about he me in religious reformer who was born around thirteen. Seventeen and his religious work overlap the western schism, which was a huge dispute within the roman catholic church. Here's how this dispute started. Martello, oh prig, Nano was elected Pope in thirteen seventy eight he became Pope Urban, the sixth and he had been elected in part because for about seventy years, all the Pope's had been french and the papacy had been headquarters. In avenue, Romans started calling for a roman pope, or at least an italian one. They were tired of all these french Pope's,
and before his election Bernardo had been serving as the archbishop of the italian city of Bari. So he satisfied the Romans demands for at least an italian pope, but urban, the sick was hard to get along with he constantly budded heads with the cardinals, who had become very powerful during all those decades of French Pope's. so the cardinals elected one of their own as Pope Robert of Geneva, who became Clement the seventh while urban, the sixth was Pope from Rome Clement. The seventh was Pope from Avignon Inclement. The seventh is regarded as an Anti pope, which is the term someone who makes a competing claim to the legitimately elected Pope. The election of clemency,
seventh spawned a long series of Pope's and Anti Pope's, and various kingdoms and communities sided with one or the other of them. This wasn't at all the first time in history that there had been an Anti pope, but this whole competing string of them and the disputes among the various states about which one was legitimate, stretched on for the better part of sixty years, the western schism really damage the catholic churches. Reputation it also under the idea of the Pope as the Supreme Authority, so the churches, power and authority were weakening movements for reform, which has existed for almost as long as the church had started to become a lot more vocal. One of these Farmers was Ian Mellish established, Bethlehem, chapel in Prague, Bethlehem, chapel became Prague's most popular church and it conducted services in check instead of in Latin starting in one thousand four hundred and two Ian
was in charge of the chapel, both as the preacher and as an administrator and the chapel. Also because home to a national reform movement and whose became a leader in that movement as well informed No nine petrol, Phil Argos was elected Pope becoming Alexander the fifth. He was intended to replace two competing Pope's that was Gregory the twelve and Benedict the thirteenth, but nine Gregory. Nor Benedict step down when Alexander was elected, so instead of one pope, there were three things a lot more: complicated for yon, who said his followers who supported Alexander, but higher church officials in Bohemia still recognise the authority of Gregory, and at this point things had already been difficult for the reform movements. That use was part of English, Theologian John. Why cliff and his followers who are known as the lollards had been influential
the bohemian movement, but a lot of white cliffs teachings had been condemned as heretical. Some of the movements men We had also been accused of heresy and then some of them recanted their views. This left, whose without anybody to back him up he was accused of hair the as well, although at first he wasn't prosecuted for it. Eventually, Pope Alexander was bribed to ban preaching in private channels, including Bethlehem Chapel, but whose refuse to stop his work? He was excommunicated and once again charged with heresy. I was talking to a friend of mine, who is a history teacher about this whole thing and she felt like I wish yon, whose had been good at giving compliments. and which is like some of the other people who didn't wind up accused of heresy, because he was just like a hundred percent on fire all the time so then
When he refused to stop preaching, the entire city of Prague was punished as long as he kept doing as work. Men of its citizens would be loud to receive communion or to be buried on catholic church grounds. Finally, the Council of Constance was assembled to resolve the issue of the three computer hopes and end the western schism. to deal with Yon House. The council began November of fourteen fourteen and whose was summoned to you're under a letter of safe conduct, but even though the safe conduct promise was supposed to keep him from harm whose was tried for heresy and convicted, he was burned at the stake on July. Sixth, fourteen fifteen, after uses martyrdom nobles, and both though he may a and Moravian protested. What had happened? They wrote letters to the council and they offered their protection to people who are being persecuted for their religious beliefs
uses followers and other, like minded, reformers, became known as the huh sites. These events sparked a massive movement in Bohemia a century before the start of the distant reformation, the Hudson it's where using a czech language liturgy instead of a latin when they were so administering communion to lay people using both bread and wine. When Catholic Services reserved wine only for the clergy, one branch of the hull sites were that each requests, whose name means What kinds? I had? No idea, this dispute about receiving come in one kind or both kinds was even a thing. My entire up, bringing as the Methodist the dispute was, there wasn't even a dispute. There was a discussion that was more about whether to used bread that had been made or communion way
and whether it was ok have grape juice, their wine, like one kind or both kinds, did not even factor into it this. Finally, that brings us to going people out of winners in Prague and fourteen nineteen, the city's magistrates were holding several requests prison and in retaliation a group of hazards broke into the new town hall on July thirtieth and they through several city council members and other officials out of the windows. Some of these people were killed and the king when at last. The fourth died not long after this now this might be apocryphal, but a number of sources say that he died of outrage because of this defenestration or maybe of a heart attack or a straw. that was brought on by his anger over it. I feel like the word. Defenestration is leg such in a nice convict the way to say we did something really barbaric
the monkey Windows is a complicated word. That sounds like an important and non violent thing, but in fact, is tossing people had windows anyway, this first defenestration of Prague is usually marked as the first violent incidents in the huh site, wars, which spanned from fourteen nineteen to fourteen thirty, six, whence a lousy successor as king of Bohemia was his half brother Holy Roman Emperor Sigmund, who was vehemently anti huh site. There is actually some debate about what his role was, but he was the person who had promised on whose safe conduct to the Council of Constance and he was suspiciously absent during the trial and execution. Even though the huh sites had huge support all over Bohemia servicemen took a violent stand against them, going so far as to seek a Paypal bull from Pope. Martin, the fifth proclaiming an answer: huh site crusade, the Huh sites, fought back against that only this
crusade, but also against another one that followed it, peace talks began in one thousand four hundred and thirty at the Council of Basel. In one thousand four hundred and thirty three, a delegation of Hussite spent three months they're talking about the fork or freedoms they wanted notice before articles of Prague. These were the freedom to preach, and worship is wished communion in both kinds, punishment of mortal sinners and that the clergy should observe of of poverty, and the church should not hold. Property was actually the Mama it set of demands. The huh sites had split into two main factions. The EU requests in the table rights the table through a lot more radical, and they had gone so far as to establish their own city with the hope of putting all of their beliefs into practice there. So, when the council of Basil granted
uh huh sites communion and both kinds. Tourists are satisfied, but the terrorists were not so then the future with joined forces with the Catholics to defeat the terrorists in fourteen thirty, were it was still about two more years before the Catholics and the youth requests. Finally finish their negotiations for peace and while there were still schisms and incidents of persecution, things stay mostly peaceful between the Catholics in the house. AIDS for almost two hundred years and young hers and his work went on to inspire other reformers, including Martin Luther
There was another window throwing incident in fourteen eighty three, when a catholic mayor was thrown out of a window of the old town hall, but that's not what people are usually talking about when they say the second, the fenestrelle vision of Prague. We will get to that one after a quick sponsor break a racial tension covered cases, leadership, departures, the hit, Paramount, plus original series. The good fight is the new season of the good fight starring, Christine Borinsky, an Otter Mcdonald, follows the events after the historic January sixth insurrection and introduces carbon, a new young lawyer played by Charmaine Binga, whose famously disgraced clientele raises the question: does everyone has the right to a defence Diane, also questions whether its appropriate help Runnin
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music documentary summer of soul with never before seen footage director quest love brings the nearly forgotten nineteen. Sixty nine Harlem Cultural Festival to music vans today summer of soul, will be released. This for day in theatres and on Hulu Who is that earlier? In the show? The first defend a strain of Prague took place about a hundred years before the start of the protestant reformation. The second one took place about a hundred years after on May twenty third, sixteen eighteen, but we have to back up a little bit to make sense of it, the protestant reformation COM, huge social and political upheaval in Bohemia, just like it did elsewhere in Europe. At the time Bohemia was ruled by a collection of states that formed the buggy. in diet, the three states where the lords, the Knights and the burghers and in fifteen seventy five
I've, the king and holy roman Emperor Maximilian, the second of the House of Habsburg, had promised the estates that he would tolerate at least some religious diversity. Maximilian promise didn't really account for all of the religious diversity. In Bohemia, though he had promised to tolerate denominations that accepted the bohemian confession of fifteen seventy five. This was more formally the confession of holy christian faith of all three estates It was an attempt to create a confession of faith that most people in Bohemia could agree to the bahamian confession was patterned after the one thousand five hundred and thirty confession of Augsburg, which is the primary confession of faith in the Lutheran church and its goal was to try to satisfy everyone, or at least as many people as possible with one document that Bohemia could then formally recognized as the official acceptable statement of
If there was intended to create a framework for a peaceful coexistence among the religions, the three major churches. In both here at the time were the roman Catholic Church, the huge requests and the unit is fraught Rome or unity of Brethren Boat, that you'd requests and the unit has frat. Rome had huh site routes, and today that unit whose front room is the moravian church? There were also Lutherans and other Protestants in Bohemia, but they existed in much smaller numbers. The Bohemia convention included things that each of these religions wants it and also avoided material. That would be considered an except. well for one or more of them. So, for example, it mentioned all of the observances that the various churches found to be sacraments, but because the Lutherans considered baptism and
the union to be the only sacraments, those were the only to that were specifically mentioned as sacraments while Maximilian. The second expressed his support for the bohemian confession he didn't formerly implemented before dying and fifteen, so Five. It was his son in successor rid off the second who finally made it official Rudolf signed a document known as the letter of majesty on July. Ninth, sixteen o nine, the letter of majesty granted all religions that accepted the bohemian confession. Freedom, too, the letter of majesty didn't come from a benevolent desire for religious freedom, there and rude off wasn't even consistent about upholding it after he signed it, and sixteen o eight his brother, Archduke Matthias headed aided part of Bohemia after trying to force through off to abdicate. This so called feud between the Habsburg brothers gave the protestant dates. Some leverage over rude off. They agreed to be
oil to him in exchange for their religious freedom. So once this letter was signed, and Bohemia was still officially Roman Catholic but other religions long as they followed that confession had the right to worship freely. On the same day that Rudolf signed the letter of Majesty Catholics and Protestants in Bohemia also signed an agreement that laid out the details of this freedom and how they would interact with each other. For example, if a member of one of the higher estates wanted to install and its request priest on his land, he could and if an urgent request lived in a Catholic, perish and was attending church and tithing, he could be buried in the Paris cemetery without having to seek any kind of special permission, but otherwise Catholics and boot requests would not be buried in one another. Graveyards. So after this Catholics, then most of the Protestants coexisted mostly peacefully and Bohemia for the next few years. Although the truest church ground,
Julie, faded away as more people became Lutheran, but this didn't really help Rudolf stay on the throne wound up seeding Bohemia to his brother, Matthias than sixteen eleven and the Messiah Matthias became holy roman emperor and sixteen slash twelve Rudolph, headband, less tolerant of religious dissent than their father, Maximillian had and Matthias was less tolerant than his brother Rudolph had been in one thousand six hundred and seventeen, the archbishop of Prague ordered protestant chapels that were being built in the towns of broom off and probably go to be closed. This went directly against the freedoms that we're guaranteed in the letter of majesty. But even so Matthias upheld the decision to close the channels, not long after that Matthias was succeeded by his cousin Ferdinand. The second and third man was devoutly catholic. He was a major figure in the catholic counter. Reformation and
Nan wanted to make, though he MIA a strictly catholic country. He started appointing a lot of staunch Catholics to his council in response to all of this Protestants in Prague called an assembly there, they put to Catholic Regents, William Slovakia and you're a slob martinek on trial this assembly. He found them in guilty of violating the letter of majesty and then on May twenty third, both of them, along with their secretary Fabricius, were thrown out the window of the Prague Council Assembly Room about fifty feet that roughly fifteen metres off the ground, fortunately they wanted a giant pile of horse manure, so none of the three men were seriously harmed and catholic supporters saw this as miraculous evidence of divine intervention. I will keep my gear Owing to myself on that one I mean it is here:
you're than the other defenestration. Where people died. The eyes just landed in horse group, which would be growth, but they weren't seriously hurt right. It's the miracle of of horse manure. That makes it funny, but this windows throwing incident is marked as the start of a bohemian revolt against third man, the second, which then grew into the thirty years war and we're gonna talk more about that after we have another quick sponsor break thanks Both are searchlight pictures presenting the acclaimed music documentaries summer of soul in his award, winning directorial debut Questlove from the roots brings the nearly forgotten one thousand. Nine hundred and sixty nine Harlem Cultural Festival to music fans today, summer of soul, be released. This Friday, in theaters and on,
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fifteen percent or more the thirty years war with, though long complicated convoluted. That has not really possible to do a play by play of it and just the last third, our show today. It would not be possible to do it in a full episode or even a two part, or it would take an entire podcast, a new podcast that would be. We about the thirty years war and it would take thirty years the do it a lot of when you watch lectures and read books about this. A word that comes up over and over to describe. It is exhausting all of the parties involved had their own motivations and their own objective than going to war in some places, civil war and, in other places that wasn't some of the states that were involved enter the fray after they had already been at war with each other. For years before that, boy, over into the greater conflict. All of these various actors had there
own things going on the whole thing was so far teaching and convoluted that a lot of historians describe it as multiple different wars. Rather one thirty years war, as so many branches its. It really is hard, it's kind of like him, amoeba like you can, contain. It is one thing it just keeps expanding in different directions, it's a lot and it did start out, ski about religion, the Holy Writ An empire was Roman Catholic and had been ruled by members of the Catholic House of Habsburg. Since fourteen forty, whether the empire tolerated religious diversity, depended on who was emperor, but the empire itself wasn't one monolithic entity. It was a huge hodgepodge of overlapping semi, autonomous AIDS and whether those states tolerated religious diversity also depended on who was ruling them, regardless of how TAT
the individual rulers were, for the most part they had the right to decree which religion and the people should follow, and this idea had been set down in the piece of Augsburg on September, twenty fifth fifteen. Fifty five, the piece of Augsburg was an agreement between the holy Roman Empire and the german states, some of which were catholic and some of which were Lutheran, put an end to violent conflict between all of these different entities he's of Albert included, the idea of Cougars Reggio each Religio or Hughes rule his religion and other words. Whoever ruled could choose the religion of the state's Lutheran or Catholic. Those are really the only two options in this particular agreement This basic idea was still in play in Germany. By the time the catholic regions were thrown out. The window in Bohemia, and even though the piece of Alex Burg was between the empire and the german states, the same basic idea was followed in other parts of the holy
an empire as well, and that was one of the things that led to this war under the piece of odds Burg, the ruler was supposed to decide the relief But people didn't necessarily want to follow the religion that their ruler did religion, all played a huge part in the relationships among the various rulers and the kingdoms in the states that they control, both within and outside of the holy roman empire. in Germany, the catholic and protestant states each formed there. Military alliances, the Protestant Union was first formed in sixteen eight, and eventually it had England, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as allies, the Catholic League was formed and sick he no nine in response and the Catholic League was allied with the Habsburg.
So all these alliances were already in place by the defenestration of Prague in one thousand six hundred and eighteen and for the next two years, the mostly protestant bohemian estates fought against the Catholic Holy Roman empire. In one thousand, six hundred and twenty holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League defeated Frederick V king of Bohemia at the battle of White Mountain and, as numerous historians have noted, the war could have ended. Their Ferdinand was not satisfied with having only crush the bohemian revolt, though in sixteen twenty and he started rounding up in executing rebel leaders in Prague. He ordered remaining Protestants to either be exiled or to convert, and soon Britain, Denmark and the Dutch Republic had all entered the war for about ten years. The Catholic still had the upper hand, but then Sweden joined on the protestant side in sixteen thirty and the Protestants rallied for about four years,
one thousand six hundred and thirty four a spanish army, defeated the main force from Sweden once again giving the catholic side the advantage. That's when France, a catholic country, joined the fray on the Protestants, I'd from France. Those point of view. It was more important to resist the Habsburg than the empire and Spain than to stay on the same as all the other catholic states and then from here on our the thirty years, war became more and more about territory and politics, while becoming less and less direct. about religion over time. The major powers- and hiring mercenaries to supplement their armies, and there were atrocities on all sides. One of the wars most infamous incidents was the massacre of Magda Burg when the empire and the Catholic League sacked the protestant city of Magda Burg and killed about twenty thousand
civilians. Fighting on the catholic side were a mercenary light, infantry known as the Croats who became the fighting force most often associated with the war. Although some of the Croats were croatian at that I am. This is more of a generic word for the type of light cavalry that they were in its actual members were from other ethnic groups as well, and also where the word crevasse comes from after a french word for the scarves that they wore part of their uniforms. All of the major powers in western Europe were ultimately involved in the thirty years war, and there was, being in their american colonies as well, but a disproportionate amount of the fighting took place in Germany, and this led the colossal losses for Germany as much as twenty percent of the german population was killed, and this was not just losses from battle, as troops move from one place to another. They commandeered food and other resources.
And a lot of the time they just left. People to starve disease also spread rapidly. Along with the army's. There was really a concrete winner of this drawn out, complicated conflict, peace talks went on at the congregation of West more than five years from one thousand six hundred and forty three to one thousand. Six hundred and forty eight negotiations took place in the westphalian towns of muenster. an answer brook and they involved two hundred different rulers and thousands of other officials, the only european powers, not involved were the Ottoman Empire, England, Poland and Russia first, they spent six months just on matters of procedure, lay who was gonna, sit where and who had president's when entering the room from there negotiations started by addressing issues that were specific to Germany. More
National peace negotiations took place from October, one thousand six hundred and forty five to April of one thousand six hundred and forty six and for most of the rest of it. The negotiations were about religion. The war didn't stop during the few stock Oh, I beg kept going on without fighting and there. later years, France is actually actively trying to undermine the peace talks, because some of the terms that had been agreed to we're going to leave it vulnerable to attack from Spain. The war finally ended with the piece of Westphalia which registry It is a lot of territory in Europe, basically redrawing the map. It also recognise the United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Swiss Confederation as independent republics, and it confirmed an expanded on the piece of Alex Burg, adding Calvinism to the list of TAT,
raided religions, so at least in theory, Lutherans, Calvinists and Catholics could all worship freely, and those were the three primary religions in Europe at the time by austrian territory, wasn't included in this religious freedom and the piece of Westphalia also didn't recognize the huh site religions that we talked about an earlier parts of the show they weren't Lutheran, calvinist or Catholic, so they continued to not be recognised as allowable. religions mare their members continued to face religious persecution. Throughout this war, military forces in Europe got much bigger even before the widespread use of mercenaries. All of the major you P and powers also got a lot of administrative experience. Managing these ever increasing militaries. They apply that new found knowledge to governance. These loosely connect
Groups of semi autonomous political units that had been part of the holy Roman empire started to coalesce into the nations, as we think of them today. This is connected to another element of the piece of Westphalia. The agreements recognise the sovereignty of all the member states of the holy roman empire. The piece of Westphalia gave each one. the right to negotiate with the others on their own behalf. As long as that, wouldn't somehow damage the holy Roman empire and a massive change. It set the stage for today's international model of independent nations that are all at least on paper equal on the world stage I mean different nations obviously have differ, amounts of power and wealth, but the bigger countries aren't multiple votes and the? U N, because their bigger, not how it works.
idea that nation states have exclusive sovereignty over their own territory and have equal rights to that sovereignty is even called Westphalia in sovereignty. The power structure within these nations also changed. Although nations continue to have official religions, those religions had less political power. A monarchy might still be rooted in the idea that the monarch had a divine right to rule and the law might still have a heavy religious influence. Religious persecution still existed, but it was far less common for the church and the state to be essentially the same, almost inseparable thing, and, of course, there is still plenty of war to go around after the piece of Westphalia France and Spain, She needs to be actively at war with each other. From the time the treaty was signed until one thousand six hundred and fifty nine they hadn't been able to actually negotiate with each other much during the peace talks in Westphalia
if they can agree on the protocol to do it, who, in all those six months of negotiations about who sat where and you got to come into, the room burst, France's bank could not get it. Other multiple other war is also started in the years after this treaty by they tend to be more about territory, trade resources and colonialism, then specifically and directly about religion and all of that started with three people being thrown out a window along with a hundred. fears of religious warfare that happened before that. So other people have so been thrown out of windows in Prague since the second defenestration, but none of them is really considered. an official third wine. The most widely known as the death of Yon Masonic on March Tenth nineteen, forty eight, he was the son of T dream psoric. The first president of the czechoslovak public, and he was the only non communist member of that government. He was found by
the window at the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign affairs and it's not clear whether he fell, jumped or was thrown out of that window pays them unstring joining us on this matter day. Since this episode is out of the archive, if you heard an email address or a facebook url or something similar over the course, the show that could be obsolete. Now, our current Emil address is history. Podcast at I heart, radio dot com are old house to. Firstly, mail address no longer works. You can find us all over social media at missed in history, and you can subscribe to our shadow on apple pod task. Google podcast the eye heart radio app and wherever else you listen gasped study must than history class in the production of Iheart radio for more part cap from Iheart Radio mythical.
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Transcript generated on 2021-07-03.