« Stuff You Missed in History Class

SYMHC Classics: The Sinking of the S-5

2019-09-07 | 🔗

Today's episode is a classic from November 2014. 1920, the S-5 left the Boston Navy Yard on its first mission, with a crew of 36 officers and enlisted men. While performing a crash dive as part of a performance evaluation, the crew found themselves on a sinking vessel.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This episode is brought you by little passports, ignite a love for science through hands on exploration and discovery, little passports, in your subscription is the perfect, give to spark your child's natural curiosity action packed proud. are delivered to your door each month and bring scientific discoveries to life in exciting ways. Gear kids a head start by developing a lifelong interest in science, technology, engineering and math little passport offering stuff you missed in history class listeners, the chance to say fifteen percent on any subscription to redeem. Offer visit, little passports, dot, com, slash, podcast, that's little passports, dot, com, slash broadcast everybody happy Saturday, I hope it's going grandly. Today we are going back to our November twenty six. Twenty four Tina episode on the sinking of the submarine known as s five, which happened the vessels first mission and involves a very dramatic and heroic efforts by the crew to keep themselves alive while they awaited rescue
we're thinking on hearing this episode of sending us the note to let us know that traditionally submarines are called boats instead of ships, we ve got it there. You go I welcome this you missed in history, class of production of Iheartradio's, Howstuffworks radios and welcome works well Stevie Wilson, how we intend to new peoples. I seem to love the stories about shipwrecks there. We have a lot of maritime history Pham yet lots of people who love the shipwreck stories, and you won't hear more shipwreck stories and we have not really talked a lot about submarine disasters. looking through our archive and also pulling on Facebook and Twitter, The only submarine disaster that has been on the podcast ever in its history is a brief part.
The hamley, which was a civil war or submarine from an episode on five battleship shipwrecks, so we can talk about a submarine disaster today and there have been bigger, submarine disasters in history than this. One so, maybe even Actually, I would put this in my notes before I got to the end of doing my research. It says maybe some more dramatic submarine rescues, but this one's actually pretty dramatic, The reason that I wanted to start with this one number one: it's a listener request from listener. Stephen number two, I purse we find the idea of being trapped in a submarine at the bottom of the ocean. The second most terrifying thing you're in the world World drowning is my big death fear. Yet the first most here thing is floating into outer space, with no hope of rescue. The second most terrifying thing is being trapped in a submarine on the bottom of the ocean.
I'm sorry that reason we're doing this. One is boiler alert. Everyone gets out, ok votes, as I think the only way that I would be able to tolerate, recording this episode of being trapped in a submarine. Ah, this is submarine s five and, as we said earlier, it is a list, no request from Stephen such a day when something goes wrong, aboard a submarine most developed countries. Navies have these tools on hand to try to rescue the crew Thirdly, shallow water- it can be a matter of the crew, is putting on a suit that will let them breathe and keep warm while they ascend in or a rescue vessel condescend down to the submarine and then carry the survivors back up to the surface and during peacetime. Rescuing a son submarines. Crew is usually an international effort, so whoever's closest and has the technology to handle. The situation is who go? now is not the case in nineteen twenty. At that point, the United States submarine for
ass. I had only been officially established for about twenty years and even the submarines themselves had really limited means of escape if they were in any depth of water, because the pressure of the water would hold all of the hatches closed, so if your submarine sank really the only way to get out was through the torpedo tubes, and that was a maybe maybe the torpedo. Peter teams can be used as an emergency exhibit, maybe not, but even if you could get out the torpedo tubes in most debts, It would be impossible to swim to the service before you The comes to the bans or drown in your address survival were extremely low, almost zero, but even so by the time, this story takes place. The? U S, submarine force, had a relatively good track record as far as crew safety and prior to that
here, the United States, had only seen two major accidents. One of them was a nineteen fifteen and the other one was in nineteen seventy and to be clear- and this is that was those where's for once the submarine force was officially established gotcha, as there are some other submarine issues before that end, the extremely limited, limited tinkering with submarines that went on before that point, though, the ship from he's episode was part of the S class, and these were: U S Navy submarines from world war. One there s I was just like its name suggests. The fifth and its class was launched in November nineteen nineteen and commissioned the file in March, On Monday August, thirtieth of nineteen twenty, the S five left the Boston, maybe yard. On its first mission, with a crew of thirty six officers and enlisted men, the vessel was expected. reach Baltimore Maryland on September. Third, the ship and crew had by then spent six months in testing and true
this mission was part of a longer voyage to the South Eastern United States and they're gonna be making stops at all these navy ports along the way with the hope of recruiting exe. Servicemen, so be part of the submarine fleet. This Israel, a pretty posh assignment and lieutenant Commander Charles M Cook, Junior, also known as savvy who was income. And of the S five, was extremely pleased with the scale and the demeanor of his crew. They all worked really hard they had learned to do their jobs really well and for the most part they all got along than were my skies to be around in a day, under these recruitment stops, the S five was also to undergo a number of speed and endurance trials as part of a performance evaluation. After all these months, training and tat. The performance evaluation was, for the most part, kind of a cakewalk, as Tracy too said, the squire
Was they worked? Well together? They our car, they knew their stuff. They had just been through six months of intensive training. It was a sort sort of a happy coincidence that their performance evaluation immediately followed all that, but the big, exception was the crash dive so other than during trainings, and this evaluation crashed Ives normally take place only during wartime, and when done perfectly, they took it marine from the surface of the ocean to periscope depth, which is about forty feet in, a minute and the first time, the crew of s? Five tried it citizens when they were learning how to all do it. It had taken them more than four minutes and they heads deadly reduced that time during training and the reason that this particular maneuver was the outlier in their performance. Evaluation was addressed, the level of difficulty involved. These values she's were scored and used as a competition among the submarines in the fleet. Every extra second would incur tea in the overall scores and they all want to
break that one minute record, during which time they had a highly orchestrated series of jobs to do in order like the vessel, watertight and then die very rapidly. So before we get to the the crashed I've and how it went wrong brief bit about submarines for those who may not now a submarine rises and falls through the water, depending in part on how much ballast it has in its tanks and the ballast mostly comes in the form of seawater, an escort submarines, the ballast level, so how much water was in the ballast tanks was regulated by valves called Kingston valves. These valves, workin rolled using waste, high levers which connected directly to the valves through a system of rods which opened and closed the ballast tanks, and they were credibly difficult to move. It took a multiple men to open and close each of them, because they, Kingston valves were so temperamental when preparing for a crash dive. What the
who would do would be to seal off all the vents that let air in and out of the compartments and then they would open the Kingston bows so because the air couldn't get out the water couldn't get in and that and at the level of ballast and tanks stay the same. So the arrogance were just a lot easier to deal with and that led that they can deal with the easier job when it was time to dive opening the vents was faster. in opening the vow, so they were basically getting a little ahead of the game and when it was time to die if they'd, open those events and the air would flow out in the water would flow in from the already open, Kingston valves. So when it came to me to do their crashed I've test on September. First, this didn't go as planned. The crew closed of the arrogance and they opened the Kingston valves, and it turned out that one of the air valves hadn't, sealed properly so water started seeping into one of the ballast tanks and Batman
The submarine almost immediately started to list to the starboard, which means to the right for non maritime people. This was something like a car some pretty serious problems if it wasn't corrected, so the crew immediately got to work, opening and closing other Kingston vows to get things back on an even keel. One of the people who helped out was Percy Fox. The gunners, eight and the senior most man on the ship, except for the lieutenant commander they probably could Have gotten the kings involves taking care of without foxes help it was there a lot of opening and closing that had to be done to level things out, but Fox had is job to do and it was really critical. Both he and Lieutenant Commander Cook, had major sources of ventilation to the submarine they personally had declares before. Diving cook had to close the hat at the top of the conning tower Fox had to close the main induction valve, which was the valve that diverted air to all the parts of the ship from the outside.
These two men had these two jobs, because they were the two most senior men on the ship and the jobs, were the two most important when it came to making the ship watertight so that it could dive. Please when it came to the induction valve itself, it proved to be a little timber. Mental Armand S, five, as well as on her sister ships cook, had some trouble getting. conning tower patched to close. It was caught on something but Fox overlooked his task entirely, because he was trend handle this other stuff. There was going awry right so when it was time to dive Cook sounded the diving collects on. and the crew did all their tasks to get the ship to dive and because Fox had overlooked his part. While wrangling with another crisis water started pouring into
mine. I know how the victims and uneven kind of scared already there. Let's take a brief moment for a word from his bonds. That sounds grant. This message is brought to you by eighty t. Home security made easy. What does real protection mean for your home and business? It means the latest innovation and smart homes, security, combined with twenty four seven monitoring from eighteen, the most trusted name in homes, security, you get a team of professionals designing and installing a secure, smart home. Just for you, you get eighteen thousand employees, safeguarding you with connection to first responders. You get the nations number one: smart, home security provider. You get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells indoor, an outdoor cameras, smart locks on lights, controlled from the eighty app or from the sound of your voice. You get professionally monitored carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. You get a system custom designed to fit your home. You get safety on the goat,
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a system that is custom design just for your home and the great thing is that all of this safety can be taken on the go, whether a car, whether your grocery shopping, your work, your kids are at school. You need the eighty t go up, which has a handy sms button. This episode was brought to you by eighty tee. with water pouring into the submarine from outside box, immediately realize his mistake and started trying to close the main induction valve, while Cook gave the order to blow the ballast tanks to try to clear them of the water that they were taking in, but Fox, couldn't get the main induction bout move. So the rest of the who started manually. Closing all of the smaller events that led to the outside, while sea. Water was literally pummeling them in the face, as they did that repeat: room which had been the first compartment of the ship departs start taking on water was really
you far gone for them to try to save so they evacuated it and then sealed it behind a watertight. Nor, I can't imagine turn it. I mean I can't change the temperature in the shower. If its hit me in the face, like I can't imagine, a much higher pressure situation. An avalanche ladders dress situation, yes, would be intense so with the torpedo room, essential open to the sea. At that point, it filled with water and the S five sank to the sea floor knows first, when it, the rest. For minutes later. It was under about a hundred and eighty feet of water, more or less upright, so a running theme in this whole story. Is that they keep having some good news and some bad news But the Good NEWS was everyone had survived this initial sinking of the ship, the only injuries at this point or pretty miner. The home was still intact. They still had emergency power provided by batteries, and they said had about half of their supply of compressed air. The bad news was
the torpedo room was a bow, two thirds full of water and the the bad news. Was the torpedo room, the submarine had about seventy five tons of extra ballast thanks to all the water which meant that, unless they fig out a solution, they were basically completely stuck. There was, way for them to get out of a sub and even if they could, it would have been virtually impossible for any them to survive a swim to the surface from that death so cook. The river of the tanks, hoping he would be to bring the ship back up to the surface, but it didn't work and his efforts were also hampered because one of the drive motors had been damaged when all the water started pouring in the other. I've motor also burned out, while they were trying to maneuver out of the mud at the bottom of the ocean, which left them with no way to manoeuvre the ship and because, if where they had the bottom of the ocean, which left them with no way to maneuver the ship and because of where they had sunk, they won't work
it was really unlikely that they are going to be able to get the attention of another ship and their presence Baltimore was not going to be missed for several days, so further a couple of hours cook, trying to force water out of the torpedo room using a number of pumps, and he was now making a lot of headway. So he decide to try to use some of their compressed air to try to pressurize the room. And while this help it quickly, became is that there was not enough air to do this job and the idea was that if they were able to pressurize their aim, it would force the water out and they would rise back to the service different hell it's kind of vary in their explanation of why Cook tried the next thing that he tried, which was to use what was left of the compressed air to clear out the aft ballast tanks, and this actually worked. It meant The stern of the sub. Now was a lot more buoyant than the bow. So it rose up, lifting the sun green off of the sea floor. But
also reorientate it so that it was more or less vertical So do the to imagine for a moment a submarine which is a confined cramp space on a good day if you have ever done, like a tour of the military, submarine. You probably have that moment of holy smoke. This is really tight space, a live down here to think about all of these people in this tiny space It will give you a moment s pause. At least it does me so. Every his wet aboard at this point. There is, broken stuff, and now it's about sixty degrees from horizontal, so not quite straight up and down, but really close to vertical, though I just imagine people stacking on top of each other as they try to get footing net. Yeah for another round of good news, bad news, the Good NEWS was they weren't stuck on the floor of the ocean anymore. They were tracking their death and the vessel was very slowly entering upward toward the surface. But there was bad news,
which is that now, the lowest point of the ship was the battery room which had filled with water. The waters interacting with the sulphuric acid, in the batteries producing clause gas in such a confine space, nobody We should remember the chlorine. Gas has the potential to become deadly, so clues, started, evacuating the parts of the ship that were filling up with chlorine gas by basically hauling themselves over one another climbing be previously horizontal services of the ship, which were now vertical until we're all out of the battery room and then they sealed that off behind them They also started trying to funnel some of their air into the torpedo room to try to keep it for Marie filling back with water, and at this point this had all been going on for about five hours. Yes, when we take another brief break before we resume their efforts to rescue them, so
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So five hours after thinking to the sea floor The man aboard the s by we're not in good shape everything. As we said before, it was wet and slippery. There was debris everywhere, thanks to the comedy of stirred up bilge water and fuel and exhaust and the lack of a functioning toilet it smelled, awful and Cook had the conclusion that his effort to used compressed air to clear water out so that they could rise faster was not working. He was appearing to tell the man that hope was lost and that they were going to die not long after that Some men who are sheltering in the submarines motor room which at that point was the highest point in the submarine reported that they could hear way. was breaking against the side of a vessel. So that sounds awesome right like we have cleared the water, since they weren't oriented in the car
direction. They used math plus the ship's England operator, to figure out just how far up they were. I'm a good news was now about twenty feet of the ship were above the water line, but there is also bad news. The actual escape hatch, though, was still submerged by a good thirty and even if they ve been able to shift their angle from sixty degrees to ninety degrees from horizontal, the hatch still have been underwater and sipped would not have been enough to take clear it of of the waterline buy it now having part of the vessel above. The waterline gave everyone a tiny, a glimmer of hope and they came up with a plan to cut their way out of the ship. So that's it. fine glimmer of hope, because their planning to cut their way through three quarter inch thick steal. That was made specifically to keep
ocean out of the submarine. That's who not be easy to break correct. That sounds like just a desperate plan, but it what they decided to do, and they did it cook. Climbed up to the tiller room which was a small compartment off the motor room. And he and several men took too. Starting with an electric drill until its motor burned out, and then they to a manual drill and that's what blows my mind: Blake Death, But I guess, if you feel like life of both yourself in a lot of men, that you are, you know close with a bang went they were together, really closely you have the choice of, we can try to drill through three quarter and Stoa manual drill, or we can die yeah so what we would surely they drilled a quarter inch hole through the side of the sub and it took twenty minutes, sir. A quarter So it's not we're getting anybody's get out of that now and- and
Fortunately, that also doesn't mean that fresh air is coming in through they. They were finding. You know, successful yea, they had managed to make a hole they decided that what they would do with the drill holes close enough together that they could then knock out the spaces between them with a hammer and a chisel hoping to create a whole large enough for the men to escape through, but based on the fact that took them twenty minutes to make the first hall they all expected that this effort was just gonna, take more time than they have, but they persisted anyway. By morning, they had a space large enough to scan the her in four ships, and they were actually seeing some, but those ships or two a way for them to get their attention, and since they know the hole in the ship, it was no longer as pressurized as it had been. So there was more water seeping in as air was escaping out of this whole that they had punch
and even though, in theory they had a source of fresh air. Now it was not enough to keep the air in the ship clean. There was in fact, increasingly disgusting, and the oxygen levels were low enough that the men couldn't keep it there, drilling task hello having this source of of new air from outside it like share from outside, wasn't coming in gross air from in the ship, was going out and being replaced from up underneath by water right as well. So, basically now they were in this process of trying to make the whole big enough to escape from before the size of the Oh let enough air out the submarine sank back below the waves, I'm scandalous that set for a minute like, This is race against time to try to make the hole bigger before the ship sinks again,
I keep saying ship and I think somebody might write in and say we should have said sub the whole time. So if that's a nautical folk, I'm very sorry twenty four hours after the initial incident so full day, they have been in peril they had a hole in the side of the ship. There was about six inches by eight inches but Basically, everyone was unable to work about point to make it any bigger, because there was just a lack of oxygen and many of the men had lost consciousness, so it wasn't and when you're doing something drilling holes and with a manual really really hard. It's really difficult and you consume a lot of suggest. So when there is not much there well, all of the oxygen, not all, but a lot of accident at this point had been replaced by carbon dioxide. And breathing. That is not good for you and and can lead you to all kinds of other health effects by your body, not being able to clear that out as a waste plus some of the
guys had already as the whole situation with chlorine gas started. Some of them had started to have other breathing problems because of the toxic gases that were inside. The ship was a really bad situation, but just then a ship came by and cook who was still conscious, roused some men to try to find a way to signal it and what they went up doing was tying a say, lawyers shirt to with a ten foot, long length of copper pipe and then sticking up and sticking that out the whole they had made and waving it around. So the ship in question was merchant ship, the Ss Olympus, which was acts headed away from them, but good for Can someone on deck turned back and actually saw their signal, and so they came about to see what was going on. I'm just trying to imagine them, and of the man who sees lake a piece of pipe sticking. a whole year of something sticking out of the ocean yeah. What the heck is that
yeah. I believe this is captain earnest agents and maneuvered close to the S five, and then he rode the rest of the way himself in a dingy or a little skiff or something, and he and the FAO. in conversation with cook through the hole in the sub, which is fantastic, and I will do one partner. They can do the other part. What shipper you suffer ass five. What nationality United States? Where are you back to hell by Compass who loved Why is this not a fell? I feel it has to be, and I should have looked on. I am to be before we came in here. Just like we laughed the men who were still conscious on the submarine laughed and after you know his confusing kind of you'd up Johnson realised that this was a cry. this like. This was an emergency that he needed to help with right now, and so he taught the S five to his ship with chains and cables to keep it from thinking
and then he ordered his men to build an improvised wooden platform so that they can have better access to try to work on a ship and then It also made an improvised air pomp to try to get some fresh air into the ship or into the submarine for the men. I also just love the cook him. The most dire circumstances is finally to crack Giles like he gets. My unending respect and admiration well about one of the. What the other two primary sources for for this episode in one of them is a book called under pressure. The final word of submarine. As five and one of the remarks that comes up was the situation like it's really difficult to live on us marine and peoples, had to have really dark senses of humor and to be able to make a joke about anything, but the jokes had ceased for quite some time. Before he said to Hell by Compass and like that one of the things where he would. He realized like how dire the men's, situation, while no one with laughing about anything anymore, yeah. So the lad. This is radio
operator, unfortunately was not on board, also not on board or any sort of tools or equipment that would have, easier to drill through the side of the submarine, so the exhausted and at this point delirious crew, of the S, five ass the gear that they had been using out of the hall to the crew of the eleventh this, who think it resume drilling from the outside? Yes and then quite fortunately, another ship, appeared, the sun was the S S General George, W girdles and Johnson ran up an emergency flag on the Atlantic to get the other ships attention and that ships master. Captain E O Swenson moved his ship over and anchored near by being a much bigger and more equipped ship and having a radio operator on board. The George W Girdles was able to radio the Navy and let them know it was up with the submarine, but it was going. take at least until the next morning for a Navy vessel to arrive. So Captain Swenson and Johnson decided
they would keep on working to try to seek free the crew of the S five Swinton, If Engineer William Grace and his first assistant Richard Mc Williams, headed up the task where with another manual drill and some kind of a rationing one that seem to work a little better as well, channels and a sledge hammer, they finally managed to make a whole big enough for the crew to crawl through thirty. Six hours after the original incident rough They were taken on board the lamp this, where a makeshift sick bay had been put together so that they could receive them, and at this point as you, imagine. The men were in really bad shape to doktor. Should the jaw w ghettos or on hand to look after the men, and they agreed that the rescue had really been in the nick of time when success. Onto to evacuate everyone just because they were so exhausted and there are basically having to climb up the interior of vertical submarine
they weren't ban, getting all the men off of the S five until about the same time as the Navy, ships arrived and Cook was the last man to leave the US five, and at that point he had been awake for two days. He he gets, the captain goes down with his ship yeah for sure. The navy tried to salvage the submarine, but eventually gave up two different ships were not up to the task of trying to haul it back to the surface, and they decided it was discussed it. It was more trouble than it was worth basically as two thousand too, which is when the book that I referenced earlier was published? still on the bottom of the ocean. The navy investigated and they found that foxes failure to close the intake valves was probably the cause of the sinking, but they also chalked up all those extenuating circumstances, including the valves themselves, were apparently too active and let you know those values. Extremely hard. Durango were really what had caused fox to leave his post in the first place and Fox
also gone way above and beyond during the whole survival effort pretty much? meantime, they needed a volunteer. He was it. I have to wonder personally if that was motivated by guilt, Edinburgh, sure it was a thing going on cook also some of the blame for having not ensured that the ship was clear before giving the ordered us emerge GEO. So there's a that their there's a lot that went on like specific things that went on in all their efforts to save themselves that we didn't go into one of them is that before the motor burned out in their drill they needed to go yet more batteries, and so was somebody who's. Gonna try to go into the battery compartment, which was filled with chlorine, gas and foxes. Like Argo, like he was the volunteer. There is also a note in the book that that cook at one of these points, when five Stalin tiered to go. Do something dangerous to try to help them realized that at no point had he heard any of the men criticize
for? Having messed up in the first place, where this kind of incredible to me like like, I can see how the person impulse might be like fire, you had one job. What is the matter with you bet instead by all the man who really focused hard on not laying blame on anybody and not arguing about it, but I'm doing whatever they needed a due to keep themselves alive. maybe also recognised captains, Swenson and Johnson, in their crews, for whom, how they had gone to try to rescue the crew whence they found the submarine sticking. partly out of the water, and they also put more safety measures in the place of had the same thing would not happen again. Cook was also a career Navy man, he eventually retired. As oh Admiral, in nineteen, forty, eight, after more than thirty years of service, apparently after the S, five was sunk of most of the crew,
oh really petitions to be placed under him again, which is not surprising to me at all. I feel, like this story could be used in corporate leadership manuals. His nickname was savvy. He had been nicknamed that long before and this just because that was his demeanor. He was a savvy. Are he knew how to handle things so so happy and a happy, a harrowing story, but a happy and is harrowing. I do wish that I had sure that there is not a movie of visit. I am deeply because there absolutely said be if there is not Thank you so much for joint action on this Saturday. If you have heard an email address or a facebook url or something similar over the course of today's Epizootic, since it is from the archive tat might be out of date. Now you can email us at history, podcast at how stuff works, dot, com and you can
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