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The Discovery of Insulin (Part 2)

2020-03-11 | 🔗

Last time we talked about how diabetes has been described through history, including treatment before the development of insulin. Today, we’re telling the insulin part of the story, which was at times fraught and contentious. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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video at Apple pie, casts or wherever you get your podcast. Welcome to stuff, you missed in history, glass of production of Iheart, radio, hello and welcome to the body ass time. Tracy me will send and I'm holly frying. You are just too James Bay. This is a two parter. It is on the development of insulin, and last time we talked about how diabetes has been described through history, including how people were being treated with starvation diets in the years just before the development of insulin, and today we are going to tell the insulin part of the story which does build on research that we talked about last time around the easiest to understand. If you have heard part one, as was the case last time, we're going to be talking about how experiments on animals led to this discovery, as well as how the by products of animals that were slaughtered for food,
were used to make insulin. It is not clear who coined the term insulin. It comes latin word insular or island as a nod to the eyelids of languor HANS. As you talked about in power, one, the eyelids of Langer, HANS ourselves in the pancreas that produce insulin and other hormones. John DOE air of Belgium used the word in Celine, with an e on the end in nineteen o nine and apparently independently of that earn Henry Starling who coined the word hormone, also use them in Celine with an e four years later in the early nineties, teen Sir Edward Albert sharply Schaefer also described a hypothetical substance secreted by the eyelids of layer, HANS which controlled the bodies, glucose levels and he called bat insulin. This time there was no e on the end. None of these people are the ones credited with the discovery of insulin. Now that story starts with Frederick Grant dancing
He was born on a farm in Ontario Canada, and initially he had plans to go to divinity school. But after enrolling at the University of Toronto, he's changed has major to medicine when worldwide and started. He joined the canadian Army Medical core and was placed on an accelerated medical study programme during the or he was wounded in action and awarded the military cross in nineteen nineteen, after the war was over Banting completed a surgical, residency and trying to set up a private surgical practice. It did not grow quickly enough for him to make ends meet, so he also took part time teaching position at the University of Western Ontario. That's now known as western University, the classes that he was teaching included physiology, something that he had studied it: part of his own medical education, but also something that he really needed to brush up on in order to teach on October. Thirty first of nineteen twenty Banting was brushing up on the pancreas. He read a paper called the release,
of the eyelids of longer HANS to diabetes, with special reference to cases of pancreatic with biases by Moses Baron. This paper discussed the autopsy of someone who turned out to have a pancreatic stone that had totally blocked their main pancreatic ducked. The person's pancreas still had islet cell but the acid ourselves had atrophied. This paper also noted earlier experiments in which the main pancreatic ducts of various animals had been partially or totally Le Gated, which had caused similar results, and that is research that we talked about. Some of back in our previous episode Banting was inspired by this idea. He wrote a note in his journal, which read quote: diabetes, lagging pancreatic depths of dawn, keep dogs alive till ass. Any degenerate, leaving islets
to isolate the internal secretion of these to relieve glucose area. So a few things to note at this point. One of the advantages, though, is about like or Syria or sugar in the urine, rather than Sugar Manning also was not really aware of all those experiments that we talked about in part one. He didn't read realize that researchers had spent more than two decades trying to do basically what he was describing without yielding something that was safe enough to use inhuman patient. It's also not clear how exactly that he thought he might quote try to ice lay the internal secretion of the eyelids. Your hands were whether he was thinking about preparing a pancreatic extract or thinking he might try to find the secretion itself later on He told people from memory what he'd written down in his journal that night, he said it was quote like eight pancreatic ducts of dogs wait six to eight weeks for deeds
duration, remove the residue and extract, and that is a lot more specific, also part of Banting basic. I here here was a little bit off. His rationale for causing the asking ourselves to atrophy was that they produce digestive enzymes and he thought, there's enzymes might destroy whatever vital substance was being produced in the pilots of longer hands, but really leave. Enzymes are not active until they come into contact with other enzymes in the small and test in the relationships between those two different sets of enzymes had been discovered back in You know for also it's possible that there are some other explanation, but his misspelling, of both diabetes and like Austria suggest that Banting wasn't, We are familiar with what he was writing about. So at this point, Banting went to his boss at the University of Western on,
Rio about this idea, his boss referred him to John James Record Macleod at the University of Toronto. Macleod was born in Scotland and had studied medicine at the University of Aberdeen. He'd, also taught at several universities and institutes in Europe and North America, before becoming professor of physiology at the University of Terrain and also director of its physiological laboratory Macleod, was a leading expert in carbohydrate metabolism. At the time and in nineteen thirteen he had published diabetes, its pathology and physiology He had been trying to identify which part of the nervous system controlled delivers like a giant storage functions, unlike Banting Macleod, new all about those earlier attempts to make a pancreatic extract that could treat diabetes and he's out. There was some kind of pancreatic secretion that could be the key to an effective, treating but he has doubts about its ever being isolated and used. It wasn't just that Macleod had doubts about
there. It was possible at all to make a usable pancreatic extract those earlier researchers all all had training and skills and experience that Banting just didn't have my clouds impression of Banting was that had a very basic textbook level, understanding of the pancreas and its role in diabetes and really this is pretty accurate, no Macleod was reluctant to offer Banting the lab space assistance, materials and animals that here going to mean to research. His idea of the two men had multiple meetings to talks through the situation and then when Macleod We agreed to let Banting do some experiments over the summer, Banting actually little nervous about it bathing still. But his idea might lead to a breakthrough, but he also understood that if he left his practice and his job to pursue. Idea that didn't work out. He would basically have to start. Is Moreover, while also too
I need to pay off dad's from a failed project. On March Eighth, one thousand nine hundred and twenty one Banting and Macleod, finally agreed on the terms of the project. The work would take place over the summer of nineteen twenty one. Starting in MID may to students Charles best and Edward Clark. Noble would assist Banting. They would divide the summer between the two of them. These two young men flipped a coin to see who would take the first shift with Banting, with best planning to take the first half of the project and noble planning to take a second half best at that point had finished his bachelors. Degree and physiology and biochemistry and was preparing to start medical school for about a month. Banting best Macleod all week together in the lab, with Macleod fine tuning their plan and process and surgical techniques and instructing them on how to best prepare an extract. Then, in MID June he left for a vacation in Scotland that he had previously arranged. We will talk about how Banting
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my last point Banting would have learned that the digestive enzymes were inactive while they were actually in the pancreas, but this atrophy of ass and our cells would at least in theory reduce the amount of material that needed to be removed from the extract before it could be safely used once enough. I had passed after this legation procedure to allow the acid or cells to atrophy. They would you denies the dog and remove its pancreas using it to prepare an extract. Then they inject that extract into another dog whose pancreas had been removed entirely. However, these surgical procedures could be difficult. It was also summer, so the facilities for they were working were hot and uncomfortable. Several of the dogs that they were working with died of infections or other complications, and they started buying stray dogs as replacements. It was MID July before they had a d pancreas
sized dog and one with an atrophied pancreas ready to work. At the same time, the process of preparing a pancreatic exe ACT was also long and complex. It included chopping, the pancreas chilling it grinding it up filtering and warming it back up to body temperature on July. Thirty is nineteen, twenty one tried injecting their extract for the first time. Although, sugar levels in the dogs. You are indeed drop. They rose again pretty quickly. The dog died the next day, most likely from an infection banting and best kept trying
when Edward Noble came back to the lab to take over his shift is assistant. He found that the two of them had worked out this whole rhythm and flow to their work. At that point, noble thought that if he tried to take best's place as was previously planned, he would just become a hindrance to the project. He would have to learn everything that best was doing pretty routinely at that point, so he left best to it. Although he did come back to the project later on which we will get in August, Banting and best ran out of LE gated dogs, so they switched to using the whole pancreas so thing that, as it turned out work just as well, they kept her finding their work and taking notes and when cloud returned to the lab on September twenty first they have results. The seemed promising. They were still seeing some complications, but their extract did seem to be lowering the glucose levels of de pancreas dogs.
Cloud, as we said earlier, was very sceptical about this whole project from the very beginning, and he was surprised at these results that he questioned whether they were accurate. Banting was highly insulted by the suggestion in the two men, but it heads over it ultimately Macleod told them to repeat their experiment. Apart from taking offensive, being questioned, about the accuracy of his work. Banting was also worried about his finances. He had planned to take the summer to do this research, but he had not planned for it to continue into the next academic year.
He also thought the facilities where he had spent the summer working left a lot to be desired. For example, he said that they couldn't scrub the floors thoroughly, because if they did water leak through the ceiling of the room below, he thought that was to blame for some of the infections and the deaths of their research animals. So Banting asked for a salary and one for best, as well as her parents to the floor at the lab, an assistant to take care of the animals. Banting also asked for a biochemists to be. Added to the team to help them better refined, their pancreatic extract. Macleod didn't think they were ready for that last step yet, but he did give dancing and best retroactive salaries. He also hired somebody's. Take her the dogs and arrange to have the laboratory floor. Waterproof with tar, which was like the least expense
The way to deal with this water seepage problem, eventually banting in best tried another source for their pancreas tissue. After learning that feeble and newborn calves had fortunately more islet cells than older animals. Do they started buying fetal pancreas from slaughterhouses. They still had trouble getting enough pancreas for their work, though so they ultimately started using the whole pancreas of adult animals. Also purchased from slaughterhouses in November of nineteen twenty one Banting and best published a paper. The internal secretion of the pancreas Banting also presented the paper publicly that December and New Haven Connecticut this presentation once again cause tension between Banting and Macleod. Banting was just not a very good public. Speaker
some of the people who were in the audience on that day were literally at the top of their field. He just didn't have the breadth of knowledge to answer some of the very probing questions that they asked him when Banting had trouble, fielding questions, Macleod, step and he did have that breadth of knowledge, and he was also polished and well spoken in his presentation. He also used word. We alot something that was it necessarily unusual, considering that the work was happening at his lab. Ultimately, under his supervision, but Banting fell, like Macleod was taking credit for work that he had not actually I'm in the audience. That day was the research director for Eli Lily Pharmaceuticals, who asked of the company could be involved in this project and and Mc Clouds opinion once again, they were not there yet by the end of nineteen twenty one, though Macleod thought the project was promising enough that he finally did bring on a biochemist James.
Term collop, who took a sabbatical from the University of Alberta at Edmonton to work on it. Macleod also dedicated the whole lab to the project, thinking that they were on the verge of a life saving breakthrough the extraction method that Collop developed was a lot more effective, but also still very involved. I initially had like all of the steps written into this outline and it went on four paragraphs We realised that different pancreatic materials can be extracted at different strengths of alcohol, and so he developed this method that included multiple extraction steps with the results of those extractions being concentrated, centrifuge and precipitated it went on. He also discovered that the extracts lowered the blue, sugar of rabbits, so they no longer needed to work with deep concretize dogs. Edward Clark, noble
rejoined the project. At this point, to help with the studies on rabbits running parallel to this work at the Universe the of Toronto were developments in blood sugar testing, which made it easier to test their extracts effects on blood sugar direct He, rather than relying on how it affected glucose levels in the urine, more efficient and effective blood sugar testing was a huge part of the ongoing development of insulin and late December of nineteen. Twenty one Banting tried one of their extracts on a human subject. Doktor Joseph Gilchrist had been one of Banting classmates and had developed diabetes, long after they graduated from medical school, they extract did not work at all, though, and it wasn't because the extract itself was bad, even if they had made completely pure insulin if taken orally would have been digested in the stomach way before it could have been absorbed into the bloodstream
this extract did not work at all, though, and it wasn't because the extract itself was bad, even if they had made completely pure insulin, if taken orally, that would have been digested in the stomach way before it could have been formed into the bloodstream. In January of nineteen, twenty two, the team was ready for their first a general hospital. He had been on a starvation diet like we talked about in part, one which had taken him down to about four hundred fifty calories per day. His daily urine output was about for leaders, that's more than a gallon. A typical amount is more. Like eight read the two thousand millilitres and he was also showing signs of diabetic Keno acidosis, which is when the body starts burning fat instead of sugar for you all and, as a result, acid start to build up in the bloodstream. So this whole time Banting had felt like Macleod, had been stealing credit for his work
second guessing him and undermining every step of the way added to all of that, Banting could not really control this first human trial at all. He did not have the background or the experience that was needed to run a trial on human subjects. He also did not have the already to work with patience at Toronto General Hospital. So when it came to their first human trial ban really insisted that they use and extract that he and best had prepared. They did this. On January, eleventh of nineteen twenty two, this pressure nation did lower Leonards blood sugar somewhat, but it did not alleviate any of his outward symptoms of diabetes. The boy also develop an at one of the injection sites, Collop, who was still refining his methods for extraction, really went into overdrive at this point. Finally, producing an extract. He thought was pure enough to use several days later. They tried again with this extract on January twenty third of
in twenty two, and this time the results were immediately and dramatically affected. Leonards blood sugar dropped significantly, as did the glucose and his urine, and he also was just visibly improved. It was obvious to other people that he was doing better in the words of Charles Best's notes, quote daily injections of the extract were made from January twenty third two February force accepting January twenty fifth and February: force. This resulted in an immediate improvement. The excretion of sugar became much less. The asked own bodies disappeared from the urine. The boy became brighter more active, looked better and said he felt stronger Leonard, whose condition had been critical when he was admitted lived another ten years after the success, though,
the ongoing back biting and hostility in the lab became even more dramatic and we will get to that after another sponsor break this episode of stuff, you missed in history classes brought a U bike whip. I love my quips youth rush. I've loved Elect toothbrushes for a really long time, but my. Quip toothbrush is more lightweight. The charge lasts for such a longer time. In general, it's just you, here and more fun to use. It also makes it so much easier to take care of my dental health. That's with brushing for two minutes. Why today Flossy regularly no matter Randy use quip makes all of that really easy, starting with an electric toothbrush. Refundable flaws in anti cavity toothpaste, quips electric brush has sensitive sonic vibration with a built in timer and thirty second pulses to guide a full and even clean, plus quip, delivers the fresh brush head floss in toothpaste, refills to your door, every three months with free shipping. So your route,
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cybercrime or identity theft, but dont make taxis and extra taxing save up to twenty five percent off your first year. At Norton dot com, flash history Leonard Thompson was getting his first injections about working. Pancreatic extract be already contentious relationships. The team from the University of Toronto got even worse James Collop, who had not shared the details of his extraction method with anyone else, threatens to quit the project and did himself. The details here are a little bit sketchy, but Banting was outraged and he M Collop had a physical altercation in the lab, with Banting grabbing call it by the color of his coat and waving him into a chair and best writing that he had to restrain Banting with all of his force after this. On January, twenty fifth nineteen, twenty two Banting
and Collop all signed a memo that none of them would be seeking a patent for insulin. This was part of a man factoring agreement with Canada laboratories, which is a public pharmaceutical company that had been established in Canada during world, where one to make diphtheria antitoxin. After that, first successful treatment of Leonard Thomson, six more patients were treated in February of nineteen twenty two from there. They moved quickly into a clinical trial, and at that point the project large moved out of bad things and best hands, as we said earlier, banning just did not have the training or experience to run a clinical trial on human subjects, and he was deeply frustrated by his exclusion and he tried to cope, unfortunately, by drinking to excess. On March, twenty second of nineteen, twenty two, a paper was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, called pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes, mellitus its authors, where F G, Banting C h best,
J B Collop W are Campbell a Fletcher, J, J, R, Macleod and Easy noble the two names from that long list of authors that we haven't mention specifically before this point, our Campbell and Fletcher, and those were the doctors who administered the actual injections to the diabetes patients on May third. Nineteen. Twenty two Macleod presented a paper called the effects produced on diabetes by extracts of pancreas. It described that strapped as insulin once again from the latin route for islands and apparently not related to the earlier uses of the same term from the same source, both Banting and best, refused to go to this presentation between roughly these two papers between March and the clinical trials of insulin, had run into a huge stumbling block. When cannot laboratories tried to replicate collops extraction methods? I just didn't work, multiple source,
Describe this as collop losing the knack for making insulin or as problems with translating collop small scale, batches from the laboratory into a large scale production they finally did resolve the issue use and started production in MID may of nineteen twenty two for bad things part. He believed that Collop had wanted to keep his method secret for his own benefit and that, consequently, he had not kept good enough records and that that's why they were having so much trouble. One patient died during this shortage and banting and Collop had another massive altercation, as word started to at about insulin. Family is started, trying to get their children included in the clinical trials. The most famous of these patients was Elizabeth hues.
Daughter of former New York Governor Charles Hughes, her father Charles later became Secretary of state in nineteen. Twenty one and chief justice of the Us Supreme Court Elizabeth had been born in one thousand nine hundred and seven and had developed diabetes and one thousand nine hundred and nineteen Elizabeth had been Doktor, Frederick Alan's patience and had been on a starvation diet before starting insulin Therapy Alan saw her at a conference later in nineteen, me too, and she was so improved that he literally did not recognize her. She later wrote quote Doktor Alan said with his mouth wide open, oh and that's all. He did after starting it, let there be Elizabeth, lived until the age of seventy three soon there was so much demand for insulin that cannot labs not produce enough on their own, and that is when Eli Lillian company was brought on to increase the output. This lead, so yeah
another challenge which was trying to standardize. This treatment across two different drug makers who were operating in two different countries. It wasn't yet possible to measure the strength of insulin itself. You had to administer a sample of it to rabbits and then measure the rabbits blood glucose levels to figure it out. One issue in this whole process turned out to be because the two drug makers were using different sized rabbits with one of them using rabbits that had been fasted. And the other using rabbits that had been fed. Normally, you seem like such small but important details very, very important to take this, Andrew Process, ultimately led to the first definition of a unit of insulin, which was the amount that it took to lower blood sugar of a rabbit, weighing two kilograms from zero point one one. Eight percent to zero zero for five percent with that drop happening over five hours,
yours and the rabbit having been fasted for twenty four hours. Insulin is still measured in units today but we can also measure insolent itself now so today, one unit, is equivalent to thirty four point. Seven micrograms of crystalline insulin throughout the nineteen twenties cannot laboratory Eli Lily and numerous doctors, clinicians, researchers and others were working on standardizing insulin, with one of the major contributors being Sir Henry Dale, sometimes he's described as being the person who did it but like there are a lot of people in and he's involved. Another big project, including most of these same basic entities, was refining the extraction process and improving the yield of that process. A few years drug manufacturers went from being able to extract fifteen units of insulin from a kilogram of pancreas to extracting almost four hundred units per kilogram and light nineteen, twenty
to George Weldon at Eli, Lily developed a method for I so, electric precipitation of insulin, but the really friendships among Banting, best Macleod and Collop, or not nearly as productive in September of nineteen, twenty, two hoping to create a definitive account of the discovery of insulin and put all of the hour, doing to rest. Colonel Albert good of him asked Banting best in the cloud to each right up their account of what happened by that point. Collop had returned the University of Alberta at Edmonton but Macleod, wrote him and asked for his thoughts. Well process did not really solve anything, bow, Banting character.
Macleod is constantly undermining and criticising him and taking credit for his work, and he ended his right up with an appendix of six additional instances that he said showed quote a lack of trust and cooperation on Macleod Spark Macleod, characterized his caution as very reasonable, giving dancing's inexperience, and he pointed out that he had frequently taken a lot of care to give credit to Banting and best whenever that credit was due. Best's account was relatively brief and fairly new well between the two of them, although Banting best Macleod had all agreed not to personally apply for patents on insulin as part of their agreement with Canada laboratories, patents were needed to ensure quality and safety. This was a brand new drug that could be life threatening if made incorrectly, not just because of all the side effects that talked about earlier from poorly made extracts, though, because a formulation that was too weak
or two strong could be life threatening for patients. At the same time, the goal was to make insulin widely available as quickly as possible, and for it to be portable, an insulin committee had been established in early one thousand, nine hundred and twenty two to help coordinate patenting and licensing issues. Numerous patents were issued on insulin in the process for making it in the early 1920s by one thousand. Nine hundred and twenty six insulin was patented. Twenty six different countries that it had become the standard of care in managing type, one He's especially around the world, the relationship among those men who had created it was never smooth, though in many ways, Banting became the face of the discovery on August 27th, one thousand nine hundred and twenty three he was on the cover of a magazine. He received numerous awards and honours, and he met King George, the fifth, the Banting and best chair of Medical research was established at the University of Toronto and Banting was the first person
did to it. However, none of that seemed to outweigh Banting stealings about another, a word which was the nineteen twenty three Nobel Prize and Physiology or medicine, which was awarded to both him and Macleod. Banting was so outraged at MC clouds. Inclusion and getting the Nobel Prize that he threatened to decline the award until somebody pointed out to him how unfortunate it would be for the very first canadian Nobel laureate to refuse the honor Banting ultimately decided to give best half of his prize money and Macleod gave half of his prize money to call. It The team also faced criticism from a number of directions in the early nineties, twenties anti vivisection, its objected to the research in general and to things admission that they had been buying stray dogs of the streets when they ran out of research animals, some of which may have actually been people's pets with it.
The medical community. There were people who criticised the whole project because, even though it had a good outcome, it had started with pantings, fundamentally incorrect ideas, and then there was nickel, a polish skew who we talked about briefly in part one. He claimed that Banting and Macleod, had stolen his work and that they had only become known as the people to discover insulin because they had just made the first commercially viable extract policy had sent Banting his papers and nineteen twenty one and had asked him to keep up a correspondence with ham. Butt Banting had never answered him dancing and best had also miss care derive some of policies earlier work in their own writing, something that really seems to have been because of a mistranslation of a document that was in French rather than a deliberate, Miss statement on their parts like tat.
And to cover something up, and we should also know that there are still people who make the argument that policies should be credited as discoverer of insulin, while others point out that he also published multiple anti semitic documents and that he helped found anti semitic parties later form the fascist organisation known as the iron guard. In Romania, finnish strange turn of events the one, collaborator that Banting was actually on good terms with at the end of his life, was James Collop, who he had shoved to a chair earlier in the story. By the time, dancing died in nineteen forty, he had fallen out with best to he'd, previously been close to that year. Being one thousand nine hundred and forty best was scheduled to travel to Europe to act as a medical liaison during World WAR Ii. He canceled that trip and Banting took his place reportedly telling a friend,
before leaving quote if they ever give that chair of mine to that expletive deleted best I'll roll over. In my grave, having made that statement, dancing's flight on this trip crashed after taking off from Gander Bay Newfoundland on February, twenty of them nineteen forty Banting survived the actual crash, but died of his injuries before he could be rescued in terms the other three of those first for contributors. Charles best, did succeed Banting as the chair of the Banting and best Department of medical research. He continued to do groundbreaking work on insulin and he was part of the development, the drug heparin he died on March 31st, one thousand nine hundred and seventy eight John Mcleod left the University of Toronto for the University of Aberdeen in nineteen twenty eight and he died in nineteen. Thirty five at the age of fifty nine James call up ultimately became the dean of medicine at the University of Western Ontario,
On June nineteenth. Nineteen sixty five there have been a lot of developments in the worlds of India, Chronology, diabetes and insolence of the nineteen twenties that first preparation made a nineteen. Twenty two only lasted for about six hours, and people could have really dramatic spikes in blood sugar as it were off, can be really careful with it. So researchers started trying to develop versions of insulin that would be absorbed or gradually and predictably, and with last longer. Researchers also worked on isolating insulin itself, and figuring out its exact chemical structure, John Jay able crystallized insulin. Nineteen twenty six, ten years later, insulin was combined with the hormone proto mean to make a version that absorbed more slowly and consistently in one thousand. Eight hundred and thirty nine aversion that combine protamine and zinc was introduced. That could last for up to forty eight hours, slow, acting buffered, Lente insulin,
were developed in the early nineteenth fifties beyond and Macleod and best multiple other researchers have been awarded Nobel prizes for work that was related to insulin and nineteen. Fifty five Frederick Sanger was awarded. The Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work in identifying the amino acids that make up a molecule of insulin and nineteen sixty four Dorothy Mary profit. Hodgkin was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry, quote for her determinations by X, ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. One of those important by a chemical substances was insulin. In nineteen. Seventy seven Russell and Yellow was one of the recipients of the Nobel Prize and Physiology or medicines quote for the development of radio amino acids of pected hormones. This was tied to a discovery that people who got injections of hormones, including insulin, could develop antibodies today
Those two decades saw a lot of other advances. In addition to those Nobel prizes urine glucose self test strips were introduced in the 1960s in nineteen sixty three and one thousand nine hundred and sixty five two different teams, each synthesize insulin. For the first time, the first insulin pump was also developed in nineteen sixty three, although at the time it required a pump, the size of a backpack Amy's diagnostics introduced the first blood glucose meter in nineteen sixty nine. The first fully synthetic insulin was introduced in nineteen. Seventy five was made using recombinant dna rather than by extracting insulin from animal pancreas. Before this point, it took an estimated twenty steers or eighty hogs to get enough. When for a patient for one year and although most people are using synthetic insolence. Now animal sourced insulin is still made today and there are still people who are using it to manage their diabetes
the ability to synthesize insulin made it possible for researchers to create so in analogues in the nineteen Eightys and Ninetys, these have slightly different amino acid chains from human insulin. So they lower blood sugar. The way that insulin does, but they also behave a little bit differently in the body. In most cases, they are made to be absorbed more quickly or more slowly than human insulin is This research into ways to improve its limb is ongoing, including attempts to make insulin that can be administered orally and the United States. There have been a lot of headlines about how expensive insulin has become big reason for that is that all these refinements and synthetic analogues and other developments there all patented and so drug makers can set their own price, and especially with these newer versions, there's just not a generic alternative available
in general. The lower cost alternatives that are available were developed decades ago, so they haven't had all those tweaks and things like absorption rates that we just talked about using insulin demanded diabetes is a lifelong, daily process and researchers are still trying to find a way to treat diabetes directly rather than using insulin to manage its effects. This could include pancreatic, graphs or transplants, or finding a way to prevent the bodies immune system from damaging the pancreas in the first place. The introduction of insulin also made it possible for people with diabetes to live much longer, so research is ongoing in two ways to treat and prevent the complications that can arise later in life, including written apathy, nor apathy and foot problems, so that in two parts is insulin.
Ah, you did some listener. Male up our one. Do you have some more for part to you? I do I do. It is framed in a sense, a note about Woolworth's lunch counters than even says high Ladys. Thank you for your episode on the lunch counter citizens, although it does feel funny to say thank you for an episode which essentially involve people being nasty to each other for something they did not choose like the color of their skin. If you want to have lunch at a Woolworth lunch counter, you can still do so. If you visit Sidney Australia, the Woolworth's at Town Hall Station still has a lot counter on the top floor of its store. It's not quite the same Woolworth's, though many years ago I got a new work mate who had just move from South Africa to Australia. He told me his wife have worked as a store manager for Woolworth's in South Africa, but that it wasn't the same store as the one we had an Australian. I looked it up out of curiosity.
It's not worth was founded in eighteen. Seventy nine and Utica New York by Frank when worth the store name, was
Woolworth without an s on the end or with an apostrophe and Anne S. On the end, it was originally a discount five and dime store specializing in selling items, five ten cents and grew to become at one time the largest department store chain in the world. The pod cast useless information that a Christmas special last year that talked about how it popularized Christmas tree decorations in the U S, sadly, changing times, and competition from new stories like Walmart, lead to its decline and ninety ninety seven, the original Woolworth's department stores were closed and the parent company focused on its foot locker brand. Instead Woolworth's did, however, set up several overseas subsidiaries and Mexico, Germany, Austria, Cyprus, Britain, etc that german and mexican subsidiaries still survive, but the british chain, when on a business in two thousand nine, this is kind of sad as Woolworth's was a british institution. My mum even worked in one when she was
High School in England in the nineteen sixties, meanwhile, back in nineteen, twenty four, some australian businessmen want to set up their own Woolworth's style store. They had one or two ideas for the name, but they found the name. Woolworth's had not been registered in Australia, so they copied the name. No, this spelling hasn't s on the end and no apostrophe Woolworth's Australia started as a department store, but after world war, two started selling groceries and developed its own supermarket chains. Eventually, the department stores were rebranded is big. W for big will worsen continue today. Competing with the discount department stores like targeting Kmart Woolworth's in its arch rival calls are too big supermarket chains and Australia and control something like eighty percent of the market. I continues on from there, but the part about the australian Woolworth's was the part that I really wanted to read, because I found that all very interesting. Thank you. So much too in
for writing about that. Something that we didn't really mention in the episode or in any other list are made at this point is that a lot of the former Woolworth's buildings have been converted into something like the building is still standing with the original historic Woolworth facade on there, and one that I have been sea is now the Woolworth walk in Asheville North Carolina, which is like an art and studio space. That also has a fifty style lunch counter in their. So, if you like to write to us about, Authority, there pod gastric history, podcast at heart, radio, dot com and then we're all over social media. Mr history, that three or find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Instagram and you can subscribe to our show on Apple gasped. I hurt radio app and anywhere else idiot about gas stuff. You missed in history class. The production
lunch counter in their. So, if you'd like to write to us about this sword, either pod gastric history, podcast at heart, radio, dot com and then we're all over social media missed in history that three or find our facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Instagram, and you can support. Yes, look sometimes that long, Zen yoga classes just not in the cards, so maybe a cookie is peppered farm Olano, but You should make some time for yourself once in a while. I know I have a particular space in my sewing room that I like to just take a few minutes. Every day I sit there, I think about things, it's kind of like meditation and munching. At the same time, yummy, beautiful cookie flavour. It makes it luxurious and delightful and I always feel recharge, mulatto, cookie, are truly a treat worthy of your me time, their delicate and crispy, with luxuriously rich chocolate in the middle. You really want to keep these just for you, so remember to save something for yourself with peppered farm, Olano
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Transcript generated on 2020-03-29.