The court-martial and exile of Alfred Dreyfus was such big news that it started to be referred to simply as “The Affair.” And it divided French society and became international news.
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source for where and when you can experience all the excitement in the proponents. Don't miss the return to an eventful season in the Poconos Subscribe to personal mountains, podcast on the hard podcast network or anywhere you listen or just had to open a mountains? Dotcom your true Welcome to stuff, you missed in history class, a production of Iheart radio, hello and welcome to the pond cast I'm Tracy Wilson and I'm howling frying places part two of our episode on the greatest of care. At last time, we talked about the state of things in France between eighteen Beverly when the Frank Oppression WAR began in eighteen. Ninety four, when Alfred Dreyfuss was accused of selling military secrets to Germany. Honestly, even though that was two thirds of the episode that was a brief discussion. Of all that contacts there
We have a lot of context, earlier episode, including the things that lead Dreyfuss, to join the french army in the first place, so this episode is going to make the most sense folks had listened to the earlier one. First today we're going to pick up where we left off, which was with Dreyfuss beings. active treason and early October eighteen. Ninety four, the accusation against Alfred Dreyfuss followed the discovery of a torn up document known as the border row Border o is a french word for memo or docket, and this document listed several other documents that its author could sell to the recipient. It was found in a waste basket at the Paris office, of german military attache. Lieutenant colonel Maximilian Bunch, forts Coppin Dreyfuss was not informed of what specifically he was suspected of having done just that it was treasonous and at the wheel
getting he seems to have believed that whatever it wise, the people thought that he did like this accusation was just a mistake and surely you ever had made that mistake would rectify it as soon as they realized what had happened so trusting because this involved espionage. The investigation was supposed to be handled in secret Alfred's. Why Lucy knew something was going on very quickly officials arrived to search their home and to question? Lucy and their wet nurse who is from Alsace. This questioning was apparently so aggressive and traumatized being that the nurse vomited afterward. This just me Interrogator commandant deportee decline even convinced of Dreyfuss, is guilt. Multiple people he questioned setting. Seem to be already convinced the Dreyfuss was guilty and that he was just looking for things We back that up, rather than actually trying to find the truth and because of the secrecy involved, Lucy was forbidden to contact any of
for its other family about what was happening or to try to get help when she was only allowed to write to Alfred's brother Matthew. A couple of weeks after Alfred was first accused. Matthew was totally half old, calling Alfred's, perfect loyalty, his strongest traits at the same time like Alfred, Lucy and Matthew. Both seems to think that this was just some kind of mistake that the army soon rectify this investigation found very little evidence to support the allegation that Dreyfuss had sold french secrets to Germany, as we just in part, one, a handwriting expert had examined the border row and claimed that the dissimilarity to Dreyfuss his own handwriting was evidence that he had written it, calling it a cell forgery but Yom bad. It was all just suspicion, because Dreyfuss was a jewish man from Alsace, who did always get along with other people on the french Army General staff, because
demeanor and his family's wealth on October 15th, one thousand eight hundred and ninety four Dreyfuss was ordered to appear in person for questioning in civilian dress when he got there to Patsy said that he had injured his finger and he asked Dreyfuss to take dictation for him. Dreyfuss agreed and is he was riding, do pets he yelled at him, accusing him of taking seriously Dreyfuss thought the dew patchy was angry about how he was writing down the dictation. So you tried to slow down and write more carefully, at which point do petty grabbed by the shoulder and announced that he was under arrest under a charge of high treason and at this point Dreyfuss still did not know what specifically he was being accused of. Having done he finally got the deep he'll in which shone a reproduction of the bordering. On October. Twenty ninth, and when he saw this document he felt deeply relieved because it so obviously was not his handwriting.
He also knew nothing about some of the items that were listed. He couldn't cell information, he did not have in the boardroom, ended with the line Gervais penalty of manoeuvre or I'm going on maneuvers Dreyfuss had not been on maneuvers since the year before, and the document had been intercepted just a month before none of this matter to the people conducting the investigation, though they made Dreyfuss cop out the border repeatedly to try to show that there were similarities between his handwriting in the document and no matter how he conducted himself or how he approached his answers to their questions. Authorities were just inflexibly convinced of his guilt over the next few weeks. The psychological toll of this made him increasingly frustrated and death. bread? Although all of this was supposed to be handled with secrecy in late October, the Anti semitic newspaper LE level, a pole which was founded? edited by Edward Bloom, all published a huge
Jane sensationalize story, claiming there was an influential jewish lobby that was attempting to get it. you wish army officer off the hook for treason, drew more argued that the french armies, allowing a jewish man to rise to such a high rank was evidence that the art and by extension, France itself was here at least flawed and corrupt as we mentioned in the previous episode, drew mall had been vocally anti semitic for years and had initially funded his newspaper through the sale of an anti semitic book. Details of the allegations against Dreyfuss trickled out pretty slowly after it became known that Alfred Dreyfuss was the accused man Dumont published a peace than which he traced the purported history of jewish betrayers included, Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus Christ, C mon Dieu,
Two had betrayed the duchess to bury when she was trying to put her son all agree on the French thrown after the July Revolution, also included Alfred's Joseph now K and Arthur Mayor who Dumont described, as saving General Boola J, who we discussed in the previous episode. With that deception, leading him to ruin Dumont, wrote quote. This is all just a fatal running to type the curse of the race although the coverage invaluable Pavel was particularly sensational and anti semitic, it wasn't you need. In its condemnation of Alfred Dreyfuss, Overwhelmingly. French newspapers covered the story as though Dreyfuss was definitely guilty with the case against him open and shut his
haitian brother felt completely at a loss unable to get reporters to even entertain the idea that he might be innocent. The others news reports basically convinced the most of the population of France. That drape is a definitely done this. On December fifth, one thousand eight hundred and ninety four was allowed to write to his wife Lucy. For the first time in weeks, he asked her to send him his best dress, uniform, hoping that if he wore it to his court martial, it might demonstrate his own and his pride in the french military. This court martial took place behind closed doors from December eighteenth through the twenty first. Three handwriting experts testified for the prosecution. The prosecution so introduced a letter from german military attache, Maximilian VON shorts Coppin, two italian. Military attache Major a Sondra pennant sovereignty and in its shorts cop and made reference to some described ass quote that scoundrel
A d authorities claim the de was for Dreyfuss, but This letter was also in a sort of personal code between those two tat Chaise and it's not clear who is actually about at all, but it was also pretty sordid and strongly suggest the two men were having an affair this letter and another letter that implicated Dreyfuss were submitted to the judges presiding over the court martial as a secret dossier. The letter implicating Dreyfuss was a forgery and Dreyfuss defense was not permitted to see this. These documents, and they did not even know that they existed before they were introduced. The judge as unanimously voted to convict Dreyfuss on December twenty second eighteen. Ninety four he was sentenced to life. Deportation in a fortified place, along with military degradation and payment of the expenses associated with the court, martial, we'll get into that after a quick sponsor break.
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Surprisingly, Alfred Dreyfuss as mental State had varied in the time between his arrest and his court. Martial weeks later, sometimes he had been resolute and sometimes despondent and sometimes angry, but he maintained his innocence, threw out any. He held out hope that he would not be convicted of a crime he had simply not committed, especially since the only evidence that he knew about before the trial was the Boolooroo. But after his conviction he was simultaneously bereft and pan described is just having a total emotional collapse, realising that Dreyfuss was suicidal prison commandant Ferdinand, Forza Nettie, stayed with overnight and talked him through it. Drawing on Dreyfuss values of honour and justice and explaining that suicide would probably be interpreted as an admission of guilt.
forcing Eddie became convinced of Dreyfuss his innocence and became one of his very few supporters during the early part of this ordeal Dreyfuss as one again denied visits from his wife or other family Lucy. Who would only wear black until her husband was freed, started preparing for the possibility that she and the family might be able to accompany him into exile wherever that exile was going to be. She also started packing what she thought he would need for his imprisonment. Although at this point she didn't know yet where he was going We held a wild through more continued, his sensationalize and anti semitic coverage after Dreyfuss conviction, on December twenty seventh level, a poll published an article suggesting Germany should put up a statue in honour of Dreyfuss this article. Reiterated the idea that Dreyfuss was not really french, saying that he hadn't really betrayed France, because since he was Jew,
His true loyalty was to quote the Temple of Jerusalem. Dreyfuss appealed his conviction, but his request for a new trial denied on New year's Eve, eighteen. Ninety four and then on January faith. He was publicly degraded degradation was originally scheduled to take place on January forth, and all the reasons for the change in the date aren't documented anywhere. Various people that January fifth fell during the jewish Sabbath for this degradation officials came to wear, Dreyfuss was being held and loosened his metals and epaulettes and scored his sword to make it easier to break them in front of assembled military units and jeering civilian crowd at the accord militarily, an officer physically tor. crayfishes metals, insignia as an epaulettes off his uniform before break the sword over his knee, then Dreyfuss was
or to march out under guard, as the crowd screamed, insults and anti semitic jeers at him. Officers. Wives spat at him as he was taken from the courtyard and as he was being transferred back to prison, onlooker, shouted insults and slurs and threw stones at the carriage newspapers printed alot of depictions of this after the degradation took place and end them. Dreyfuss is pretty frequently shown as being stooped over and kind of cowed, but he faced this whole ritual, shaming, with an upright military bearing shouting Bayard, degrading and Does that man long live? France long live the army when Dreyfuss was transported to his exile. The army tried to avoid another mob seen by moving him in the middle of the night in secret. His first stop was assent, meltdown delay off the coast of Western France, but he didn't get there without attracting attention a mob gathered when someone overheard his name when the train was stopped for this move,
Dreyfuss had been taken from his cell without being allowed to gather his things and he left his pulse, nay, behind any got frostbite and bruises from the shackles during the trip while He was held at Samarkand Array. Dreyfuss wrote repeatedly to the Minister of the Interior, asking for him to investigate the case and how it was handled. He asked for permission to write to Lucy, more often as well. He was only being allowed send her to letters a week, officials that Samarkand the re also held Drake, of mail and they refused to allow him visits from a rabbi sending the prison chapel into him. Instead, when he was finally allowed to visit in person. She wasn't allowed to discuss his case with him eventually Lucy learned that Alfred was going to be sent to the french prison complex known as Devils Island, this was a collection of prison facilities on the mainland of french Guiana and three small islands off the coast. The small
of these islands was also called Devils Island, and that was where Alfred was to be imprisoned, She bought him appropriate clothing for the tropical heat, along with a medicine chest and a mosquito net Dreyfuss set sail for his transatlantic crossing to this prison on February 22nd, one thousand eight hundred and ninety five, which was his daughter's second birthday. When he laughs devils, island itself was being used as a leper. Sorry am further prison, complex and Dreyfuss was held Neighbouring Island, while its residents were relocated and the existing facilities were decommissioned. As that was happening, he was held in a cell that was made from a converted guards. and he was allowed no exercise and kept in solitary confinement. Therefore, about a month- and during that time he contracted intestinal parasites and had recurring fee. Where's Devils Island is small and rocky surrounded by treacherous waters that are home to sharks, all of it,
was seen as a natural deterrent to escape once he got there, Dreyfuss in solitary confinement in a small stone hut with corrugated roof, the measured four metres square any was kept under continual guard. He had caught a table and two chairs, along with a bucket of stagnant water. There was used for all purposes, including drinking. He was expected to cook his own food, but it first had no cook where or utensils and no great for the fire. His water bucket became a mosquito breeding ground and Dreyfuss contracted malaria. He also had chronic dysentery any lost some of his teeth due to malnutrition. One of Dreyfuss as very few comforts and this appalling environment was that he was allowed books and paper among these books were english language, textbooks that Lucy got for him and he used those the teach himself
English, so that he could read Shakespeare in its original language, but he was also ordered not to speak to the guards and since he had no one else to talk to that meant, he was essentially held in silence. After his eventual release, his voice was raspy for the rest of his life, back in France, Lucy and Monsieur Dreyfuss were spearheading an effort to clear his name. There was some Rufus had no knowledge of, since all of his mail was being censored Felix Fava, had, and president in eighteen. Ninety five and Matthew had hoped that the new it the situation would be more sympathetic and that he be able to get some more support, but what the exception of the most anti semitic newspapers, which continue to relentlessly focus on in vilified Dreyfuss, mean attention and mostly fallen off. The general public perception was that
he had been guilty and justice had been done because of his efforts to help his brother Matthew faced suspicion as well. Authorities followed him. They read his mail, they bribed his cook to spy on him, but he seems to have been willing to talk to anyone who he thought might be able to help his brother he was eventually connected to a physician and hypnotist doctors, Z Bear who had a patient's named Leoni, who claims to be a clairvoyant Matthew met with Lenny, who told him that Alfred had been convicted, not because of the border issue, but because of secret documents. That day nothing about You bear new President Father and mention this to him and far, apparently not only confirmed it, but so gives you bear permission to share that information with Matthew This was not lebanese. Only detail that turned out to be correct. She s describe, Dreyfuss is wearing spectacles when his family knew him aware opposed, nay and they live
You found out about his being unable to get them when he was moved in the middle of the night. All of this Matthew, hope. But then far was asked again about the secret documents he denied it. I am really fascinated: everything going on with this clairvoyant, and I wish I knew more about all of that. Eventually Matthew into a detective agency in London, dodging secret police in France, to be able get there, and he realized that the public in the UK, where a lot more sympathetic to his brothers situation than people generally were in France. So we thought that if english newspapers picked up his brothers story and publicized it that might put more pressure on french authorities to act. So he started talking to newspaper editors.
But this ended up. Backfiring an english newspaper ran a false report. The Dreyfuss had escaped that overruled. Matthews worries that such a story might lead authorities to treat his brother even more harshly. It turned out These fears were justified level. A parallel and other anti semitic newspapers picture this rumour and ran with it, alleging that there was a massive jewish plot to smuggle Alfred off of Devils Island as a consequence. Guard started shackling Alfred to his bed at night. In addition, to being degrading and painful, am causing injuries to his feet and ankles. This also me it even harder to deal with the insects that infested the hut. They were an addition
so the mosquitoes there were ants that bit like a lot of stinging writing insects just that he could not get off of himself. In the night. Eventually months after Dreyfuss was deported to Devil's island Matthews started making a lot of a more progress. He became connected to August sure commissioner, who was vice president of the french Senate, who originally was from me, lose like the Dreyfuss family was sure the new that Dreyfuss was innocent. He had seen evidence of his innocence, but for security reasons he could not disclose it kind of gave Alfred's brother. The sense that, like If he could come to him confirming the information he would be able to like, say yes or no. This is this is what I heard so even now. He could not confirm this to Matthew at the time. The fact that he seemed to know, something that could exonerate his brother gave Matthews the more hope
then, in July of eighteen. Ninety five lieutenant Colonel Marie George Pixar became chief of the armies, intelligent section as a person Picard. Was anti semitic but, as he looked at the case, he also I am totally convinced of Dreyfuss his innocence and he started trying to convince military authorities to act then, in March of eighty, ninety, six french intelligence officials, intercepted. Another document and handwriting that was identical to the border row since Dreyfuss was imprisoned, devils island. It was impossible for him to have written it and its author was the real culprit: Major Ferdinand Wealth and esterhazy. We'll talk about that's a more after a sponsor break.
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get to you, but I took it from Shakespeare. Gargoyle. Fifteen minutes could save you. Fifteen percent or more earlier we talked about how opera drapers had no motive to sell french secret, the Germany he was devoted to his wife, Lucy and their two children. He was deeply patriotic toward France and he was financially very secure, but Ferdinand. Whilst Esterhazy was almost the exact opposite, he was vocal. his hatred for the french army. He was notorious for his abuse of alcohol and he had a lot of very serious gambling. That's the kind of debts you might a lot of money to pay off when it became clear that Esterhazy not Dreyfuss had written the border. Rome lieutenant Colonel Picard started trying to convince the army to act but melody
the officials were increasingly afraid of losing face, believing that admitting wrongdoing would weaken the army and, by extension, weaken France. The cart was removed from his post and transferred out of Paris. At this point, esterhazy involvement, not publicly known, but people in France were starting to take sides with Dreyfuss desired, supporting Dreyfuss, maintaining Dreyfuss innocence and Anti Dreyfuss are doing the opposite of that over the next few years, newspapers published an enormous volume of articles and slogans and caricatures and editorial cartoons. On this subject today there are entire books on the art of the Dreyfuss Affair and how that impacted? The development of popular sure in France on September, eighteenth eighteen. Ninety six Lucy Dreyfuss published an open letter in her husband's defence and
November of that year. Bernard Lazard published a pamphlet called judicial error, the truth about the Dreyfuss case. He sent it about. Three thousand french judges meanwhile level a powerful published an article claiming that the pamphlet was false and that Lazard had been paid five thousand francs to write it for the purpose of discrediting. The french army on November tenth eighteen. Ninety six parisian newspaper the matter published a facsimile of the border areas that had been obtained from one of the handwriting experts involved with the court. Martial Matthew, dream first made posters showing the border row next to a sample of his brothers handwriting
Meanwhile, a stockbroker saw a reproduction of the border in a newspaper and recognise the handwriting as belonging to a quiet. He detested because he was an odious person which was Ferdinand Wilson. Esterhazy client probably also owed him a lot of money. The word of all of this made its way to Matthew, Dreyfuss and he's two August sure Kessler, who finally firm that, yes, Esther He was the person he knew had created the border. Rome esterhazy was finally public, accused of treason in the fall of eighteen. Ninety, seven more than two half years after Alfred Dreyfuss had been sent to doubles island, but when Esterhazy was courtmartialed in January of eighteen, ninety eight he was acquitted. His defence claims that Picard had made up the accusation to smear him after her.
These acquittal, with what prompted Emily Zola, who was at the time France's most famous living rider to write an open letter to french President Felix Power. This was published on the entire front page of the Social newspaper L'Aurore under the headline NEWS, and it came out on January 13th, one thousand eight hundred and ninety eight Zola accused the army of wrongfully convicted rapist and covering it up, and he ended with a list of allegations against specific people all beginning with Jacques Hughes and accusing multiple high ranking army officials, the three handwriting experts, the offices of war and the first Council of law. of wrong. Doing Laura was owned by politicians and journalists, George Clemenceau and it reportedly sold hundred thousand copies of the Jack Hughes edition. In response,
other publications went into overdrive with Anti Dreyfuss coverage, much of a deeply anti semitic, including, of course slowly will uphold the Catholic Daily Newspaper, LA and other catholic publication It was during this time that this became known just as the affair and became international news with people follow The story particularly avidly in the UK and the? U S, the Anti Medic media publish during this time really fuelled anti Semitism all through France, widespread simultaneous anti semitic demonstrations took place all over the country on J Mary eighteen eighteen. Ninety eight also one thousand eight hundred and ninety eight twenty two openly anti semitic candidates, mostly representing rural areas, were elected to the chamber of deputies. In response to all of this, Francis Human Rights League was established in eighteen. Ninety eight and a french league.
Anti Semitism had also been formed in part because, while this three years before This period was incredibly divisive in France, a political cartoon, idled on DNA off a meal ran on February, fourteenth. In the first four, a family is sitting down to dinner at a huge table with the caption. Absolutely no time of the affair in this can frame. The scene has devolved into an all out brawl with the caption they talked about it, divisions peered within numerous french circles. Different groups of people were not necessarily united and how they thought about this about literary and artistic community D got an Renoir where Anti Dray facades, while Pizarro and Monet were Pro Dreyfuss. Some socialists defended Dreyfuss and saw his conviction. Is that clear, miscarriage of justice that needed to be ready?
while others saw him as a class enemy because of his affluence and his position in the army, the jewish unity was also not monolithic. In its response, Many jewish Dreyfuss hard saw? This is an issue that was broadly connected to fundamental human rights for all people, rather than the defence of one jewish man. Some the Human Rights League, or otherwise advocated for justice and against Anti Semitism others. Voted to Christianity or change their last names to try to escape the escalating anti Semitism or just tried to be unobtrusive so that they might go noticed and for many many people all of this went
way beyond Dreyfuss himself, there was a fence among Dreyfuss sides that the French Republic could not survive if this miscarriage of justice were allowed to stand and that the army should be beholden to the same just laws as the rest of the nation. Meanwhile, among Anti Dreyfuss ART, there was a sense that French republic could not survive if the army was weakened by exonerating Dreyfuss In February of eighteen. Ninety eight a meal Zola was tried for libel because of his Jacques Use letter he was convicted and said since to a fine of thirty thousand francs plus a year in prison. I did not look into the validity of his accusations at all Zola,
Conviction was upheld on appeal and he fled to England. On July, Seventh got Affright Coveney ACT. The Minister of WAR, publicized the purported evidence against Dreyfuss and in Response Dreyfuss Sardes published a series of articles countering that this purported evidence had been forged and the evidence had been forged. As and of the forgery became public, Lieutenant Colonel Hubert Joseph already was implicated and arrested. He confessed to making these forgery. There were additional forgeries that had been added to all of this over the intervening years and he Is our life in August of eighteen? Ninety eight, in the face of all of this Anti Dreyfuss sardes, generally maintained that these forgeries were a patriotic act that had been done for the public, good or e was called a martyr.
patriotism. As word spread, the Minister of WAR resigned and Esterhazy fled to Belgium and then to London present far resisted calls to reopen the case, but in November of eighteen, ninety eight Dreyfuss was informed that his wife was petitioning for him to be granted an appeal. This was the first time I'm he had learned about Esterhazy involvement with the border row and he added. Will we know idea about the international fewer that had been going on in June one thousand eight hundred and ninety nine. The combined chambers of the Supreme Court of appeal ruled that Dreyfuss was eligible for a new trial. He set sail for the three week. Return trip to France on June I ain't they team ninety nine, as he departed Devils island. He reportedly said quote my confidence in the justice of my country is the same. It will be the honour of this,
noble France, the honor of our dear Army, to finally arrive at a solution to this horrific judicial error and to its reparation, Dreyfuss. A second court martial ran from August seventeen September, ninth eighteen. Ninety nine. His here for Non Gustaf. Guess stone was shot in the back on August Fourteenth, but the proceedings continue on September, ninth by a vote of five to two Dreyfuss was again convicted. This time found quite guilty with extenuating circumstances. He was sentenced to ten years in prison. This was inside
The fact that Esther has he had confessed to write in the border row and re had confessed to forging documents that have implicated Dreyfuss. By this point, the Paris exposition of one thousand nine hundred was eminent, and the french government was worried about boycotts by american and british visitors, especially since the prevailing sentiment in both the US and the UK was way more pro Dreyfuss Parliament to censure the Anti Dreyfuss government and, on September nineteenth eighteen, ninety nine President Emil Lou Bay, who had become president after Felix far as death. The previous February offered Dreyfuss a Pardon Dreyfuss is health had really suffered during his years of imprisonment at doubles island and his subsequent voice? and incarceration many
His family members were worried that he simply would not survive long. If he stayed in prison, they encouraged him to accept the pardon, even though being pardoned did not clear his name Dreyfuss did and sundry facades were disappointed in this too many become an almost mythic murder figure. One said quote: we were prepared to die for Dreyfuss, but Dreyfuss wasn't Alfred. Dreyfuss was freed on September 20th, one thousand eight hundred and ninety nine, the Dreyfuss family went to carpentry and then to Switzerland as Dreyfuss tried to Rick and the family tried to just get some peace, but meals Allah had been given clemency and return to France in eighteen, ninety nine and he died of an accidental carbon man. Side poisoning. On September, twenty Eightth nineteen o too, it is really grieved. Over his death his widow, who had survived the same accident, initially asked Dreyfuss not to attend the funeral for fear that it would bring detractors the Dreyfuss
really felt that it was his duty to go and it turned out that those fears were justified. Demonstrators shouted insults from outside the cemetery gate stirrings, alas funeral when Lucy this is father died not long after this, the family prepared for similar demonstrations at his funeral, and while these didn't materialise, all the worry about it and having to have a funeral with the presence of armed guards at just lead Dreyfuss to avoid public ceremonies. After this point, including not attending later funerals of other prominent supporters in nice. You know for the case against Dreyfuss was reopened and on July twelve Nineteen o six, the civilian high Court of appeal finally acquitted him here, turned to service in the army is a major which was a rank below where we would have been under normal circumstances.
He was also named Chevalier in the Legion of honor, with his needing ceremony at the accord military on July. Twenty first Picard, who had try the clear his name years before was also reinstated. At the same time, I'm a lot of people in France did not believe. He was really innocent Nineteen o eight after an announcement that emails allows ashes would be moved to the pantheon Louis. and found Gregory attempted to fascinate, Alfred Dreyfuss and Dreyfuss was wounded in this attempt. Gregory was acquitted with the court, noting that he had quote dissented with Dreyfuss exoneration although Dreyfuss retired from the army, not long after his one thousand nine hundred and five return to service, he returned to active duty as a lieutenant colonel during World WAR. One at that point he was nearly fifty five. his son and several other members of the Dreyfuss family also served. Many of them
including Matthew Dreyfuss. His son Emil were killed in action. Alfred son, Pierre, was promoted five times. During the war and awarded the quad, together with palm and out Fred became an officer in the legion of honor. his daughters also married a doctor who served in the war Alsace Loretta. Was returned to France after World WAR, one towards it of his life Dreyfuss was called on to speak out about the Sacco and bends Eddie case. He said he supported french efforts to ensure that there was no miscarriage of justice and he called the possibility of theirs to men's execution quote the greatest moral disaster of many years. This true criticism from people who claimed that he was allying himself with anarchists am from people who did not think that his statement was merely strong enough, considering his own wrongful conviction. At this point, though, he was near
seventy. He was in poor health and he was just trying to avoid a spotlight that he had never wanted. In the first place, the dream This affair continued to spawn controversy. Long after it was over a play called le FAB, glacis pioneered in nineteen thirty one, and that play was targeted. demonstrations, vandalism and intimidation. Throughout its run, the performances were interrupted every night, including with people throwing stink bombs, but this is one of many many dramatization of the affair, which started with a series of one minute shorts by George Melies in eighteen. Ninety, nine Alfred Dreyfus died on July 12th, one thousand nine hundred and thirty five after a long illness. His brother Matthew had one thousand nine hundred and thirty Lucy died on December 14th, one thousand nine hundred and forty five at home. Having spent most of World WAR Ii in hiding with a group of nuns, most of the Dreyfuss has fled south to areas that were not.
occupied by Nazi Germany during the war, but Alfred and Lucy's ran daughter, Madeline, Dreyfuss Levy remained behind to work with the resistance. She was arrest, and died of, typhus that outfits Dreyfuss affair had enormous and wide ranging impacts on the nation of France that lasted into and beyond, were to it promotes additional efforts to separate church and state which were finalized in nineteen o five, the response from But like a meal, Zola refine the idea of what a french intellectual was and the role of intellectual ISM in public life the affair also stoked nationalism and Anti Semitism with a far right, Prato, fascist move, rising in the immediate wake of the affair and growing into the french Popular Party in the nineteen thirty's. This rising anti Semitism connected to the Dreyfuss Affair also sparked eyes and Zionism, drawn from the idea that the jewish people should have a homeland, was free of Anti semitic, persecution and
January of ninety. Ninety, eight, just before the hundredth anniversary of the Jack Use letter, french President Jacques Chirac wrote a letter to Dreyfuss descendants that called the Dreyfuss Affair quote a dark Spain, unworthy of our country and our history, a colossal miscarriage of justice and a shameful compromised by the state. On January thirteenth of that year, a plaque coming rating Dreyfuss ends. Allow was unveiled that he called me. The tear and Angela twelfth of two thousand sex, which was the centennial of Dreyfuss exoneration Chirac, gave an address at echoed military air, which was attended by the descendants of Dreyfuss End Sola, and this address he called Dreyfuss an exemplary officer and also spoke about the dangers of Anti Semitism and hate. Saying quote the combat against the dark forces
intolerance and hate is never definitively one. It feels like a bug Gillian years ago, but back when I hosted another podcast called this day in history class. We think that an episode on this, which was of course much shorter, because that show was five minutes long per episode. Our colleague, Christopher Hussy Otis, did some research support on that instalment of the stay in history glass, and so I just want to note that some of those sources found their way into this. These several years later, this is one of those episodes that every break that we ve had Tracy. I sit here and go around yeah. Do you have
but a listener mail that makes us feel less grumbling and angry. He took her. Perhaps it may or may not do that its from Corina. Thank you Corina for sending this note, and also thank you Corina for telling me at the bottom, how to say your name, that has a big help. Corina wrote high, Tracy and Holly. I've wanted to write and for a long time it somehow never have you cover. So many under appreciated topics on the show, and you really open my eyes up to history that hits close to home. Listening to the paper, clipper say it. I had to pull over and call my mom and then my grandmother this time, though You hit my family right on the nose. My grandfather was an engineer at Redstone Arsenal and then at NASA, his career highlights include the Saturn five and the lunar Rover VON Brown picked my grandfather to go to an article for a month to use that desolate environment as practice for the buggy. My mom still has the penguin card from that time,
I've chatted with my grandmother about this than she remembers having german engineers over for dinner after work, there isn't apocryphal story of my mom's, in which she saw one of them, topple off the ottoman and then whisper to her that that was how gravity worked before dusting himself off and sending my mom age for back to bed. I wish I had had been able to ask my grandfather about how he felt working with the german scientists and how much he knew about paperclip since it was such a poorly kept secret. He passed before I was born and, as my parents are mid move, I can't take out the NASA yearbooks for you I'll, find them Send you a scam meeting you at the live show in Seattle was the best I enjoy getting to hang out with you both as I go about my day. So here is my puppy. Serbia's best Corina man Belarus has the acute is that's it.
weapon ized puppy like I would do anything for that dog or big yeah yeah. Of course you can drive my car whenever I find what everyone else great. We ve heard few people here either our descended from folks who are part of operation Paper Calabria, who had family Where is our other loved ones? Who worked with various paper clippers than other of those messages? May make an appearance at some point during the show, but thank you everybody who has who has written and a kind of share those connections to your own family. I wanted particularly read that one, because I love the story about them. Gravity works and also the puppy picture. If you would like to write asked about this or any other podcast great history, podcast that I hurt radio dot com, then we're all over social media at missed in history that three minor facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram, and you can subscribe to our show
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Transcript generated on 2021-07-29.