After committing a brutal murder, William Kemmler was the first man to be put to death in the electric chair, at a time when a great deal of conflict and controversy swirled around the death penalty.
Learn more about your ad-choices at https://news.iheart.com/podcast-advertisers
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
The loser. Episode is brought to you by Maloney cookies work. Sometimes that longs in yoga class is just not in the cards, so maybe a cookie is peppered farm. Olano believes you should make some time for you self. Once in a while, I I have a particular space in my sewing room that I like to just take a few minutes. Every day I sit there. I think about things, it's kind of like meditation and munching at the same time being it that yummy beautiful cookie flavour, it makes it luxurious and delightful and I always feel recharge. Mulatto cookies are truly a treat worthy of your me time, their delicate and crispy, with luxuriously rich chocolate in the middle. You really want to keep these just for you so remember to save some
for yourself with pepper farm Olano, it seems like it should be easy, but it's not just getting out of bed and getting your days started. Trying to accomplish everything. You need to do in your day that to do list as a lot easier when you're getting news stories in music to lift your mood in preparing for the day ahead, get connected to the things that make you laugh and make you think or make you want to reach out and share with a friend every morning with us, it's Elvis Joanne in the morning show listen to us on cue, one or two or anywhere in the world. On the I hurt radio app. Welcome to stuff. You missed in history glass, a production of I radio hello and welcome paragraphs. I'm probably try and I'm Tracy Wilson. If you listen to the twenty two of two partner that previous Ho Sarah and Billina did about the war of currents. The plea that wouldn't Nikola Tesla
Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse at the centre of it. You may recall that it was a very competitive rush to establish the current type that would be adopted by cities to provide power. Thomas Edison was pitching his DC direct current, while Tesla and Westinghouse, or championing teslas, alternating AC current one of the things that comes up in the second part of the two parts. Is the execution of William Kevlar but the execution and what it meant to Edison and Westinghouse as well as society is only mentioned briefly, because to be fair, it is completely outside the scope of that episode and it's one of those things. everybody talks about Tesla and Westinghouse and Edison a lot, but two of the other part Mary players in that story, really don't get all that much discussion and that's camel hair and the man who invented the electric chair. So I thought that we would revisit that and focus on the invention
its adoption as a means of execution and some of the the legal things that are happening around it and the life of William Kevlar, who was the first man to be put to death in the electric chair and we are also going to touch a little bit on public opinion of the death penalty in New York in the late eighteen hundred's heads up that this episode. Is a little more gruesome than most we ve done lately. It includes discussion of domestic violence, animal cruelty and, of course, execution. There's a pretty horrifying murder in this one, That's what he twelve episode. The rivalry of Edison and Tesla has talked about in detail, and they mention that one of the ways that Edison was sewing doubt about alternating current was by mounting a lecture tour around the country where animals would be a lecture cute at using alternating current, really show how dangerous it was. One of the things that brought up as an example of this, sometimes as topsy
elephant who was electrocuted, but that was significantly after the war. The currents was really over. Wasn't really done as an example of how dangerous the current was. But it is a central plot element on an episode of Bob's burgers. It is, I will just say, right now, my personal p, I really don't understand why Kevin Incline hasn't gotten. Eighty two thousand words for that show and If you want to hear a whole areas, musical version of how this went down, you ship silly watch, it give em that all of this was playing out when the average person was not really accustomed to the idea of electricity in their everyday lives freely in cities Some people had certainly seen it in use, but right
we, as you got outside of metro areas, there was a sort of nebulous sense that electricity was very powerful and also somewhat scary. It was still associated for a lot of people with things like lightning, which was of course known to be destructive, and that's why I was so important to improve the relative safety of having current run through cities and why Edison was able to play so expertly on the fears of layman in smearing, Westinghouse and Tesla, and their alternating current in the years leading up to the specific events that we're talking about today. For the lot of discussion about the death penalty, which at the time was being carried out by hanging in New York and pretty much the rest of the United States as well, many critics thought that this was inhumane and there were hopes that the technological advances the day might eventually offer some kind of better alternative. Additionally, there was a growing movement to abolish the
death penalty altogether in the United States enter Alfred, Southwick Southwick was born in Ohio on May eighteenth of eighteen, twenty six, he attended Heisel Well, but that was the last of his formal schooling. After moving Buffalo in the late eighteen forties. He worked as a steamboat captain and then became chief engineer of the western Transit company, which ran a large scale steamship operation on Lake Erie, but in the late eighteen. Fifty you Southwick Career trajectory James completely. He became a dentists apprentice. He went on to start his own practice in eighteen, sixty two, which was well respected, but not hugely lucrative to move up in the dental field. He started to specialise in oral surgery, Levin we becoming an expert in cleft, palette, reconstructions and enervating in the field through his introduction of artificial implants and a new surgical approach to that yet
one of those things where it was not uncommon for people to learn dentistry through an apprenticeship rather than what would need to happen today, which would be a lot of dental school so well. That tomorrow here's maybe like wait. How did you become a dentist completely normal time? Southwick was also completely fascinated by electricity. He got a few sites. typically minded friends together in the early eighteen eighty, so that they can begin their own experiments with it, using a small generator, ensure They wanted to test currents on stray dogs that they captured with mixed and often brutal results once they had their system refined the point that it consistently worked, though this was framed as performing a public service. They were ridding the city of its stray dogs in a humane way, and, of course, south. I got to thinking about how inhumane being put to death by hanging was that he wondered if electricity might offer a better option. This idea,
not go over that well had burst, but as he wrote articles about its viability that appeared in various scientific journals over the years, other scientists started to become curious about it. Southwick started sketching out exactly how and electrocution apparatus might work, and he eventually settled on the idea of a chair Yeah he had had tried out sketches where the person was standing on a conductive played and some other options, but one of the books. I read about this kind of hinted that be He was a dentist. The chair, of course, would seem like the most natural way to manage something like this, since he did all his dental work with a patient in a chair on January Sixth, one thousand eight hundred and eighty five date, be hill. The new governor of New York made the following statement in a speech quote the present mode of executing criminals by hanging has come down to us from the dark ages and it may well be questioned whether the science of the present day cannot provide a means for take.
the life of such as are condemned to die in a less barbarous manner. I commend this suggestion to the consideration of the legislature, and this is in line with a lot of the thinking at the time that there had to be a better way to handle death sentences and that science was the answer then eighteen. Eighty six is stories of botched hangings were becoming more and more common in the press. Governor Hill set up a commission quote to investigate and report upon the most humane and practical method known to medical science of carrying into effect the sentence of death and capital cases on that commission were Southwick Albert T, Gary the and you investigated mum were not his grandfather who invented gerrymandering and illegal scholar, Matthew Hale. There were no actual scientists
You could get into semantics about whether or not you can consider Southwick a scientist, but there was nobody that had really like spent their entire life studying science, a lot of the reports that they were putting together kind of laid out and sort men of other potential options, including lay clubbing people to death and stabbings, and very strange ways that people might die and whether that could be somehow modified to being an official means of death in the death sentence? Is alot take it, but as part of the commission's investigation into the matter Southwick. Who of course already was into this idea of electricity, for it sent Thomas Alvin Edison a letter that letter
was dated November eighth, eighteen, eighty seven and asked Edison for his thoughts as an expert on the best way to execute a human using electricity and Edison wanted no part of it. He was against capital punishment and he certainly did not want his knowledge about electricity used to end a human life, but Southwick wasn't dissuaded he could. I need his correspondence with Edison requesting again in December, any insights that the famous inventor had about how one might put a man to death using electric current. That's what made the case that he was trying to find something more humane than hanging and that Edison's expertise could help get that needed legislation passed a month after Southwick had initially reached out to Edison, he finally got the information that he desired from the inventor who wrote quote the most suitable apparatus, for this purpose is the
class of dynamo electric Machinery, which employs intermittent currents. The most effective of these are known as alternating machines manufactured principally in this country by George Westinghouse Change of heart was born of a desire to end this rivalry with one swift blue. If Westinghouse his company and its alternating current became associated with execution covered by the press across the country, since direct current would take the day and become the standard. Yet we are not digging deeper into that rivalry beyond this, since I was covered in that to partner by Surrender Billina, but this is just like to explain why suddenly Tommy Edison was like. Oh yes, you could do this absolutely use Westinghouse Current our to talk about the commission's report that came to fruition after this reply from Edison in just a moment, but first we will pause for a sponsor break. Support for this, podcast comes from
Pico is helping homes and businesses save money with energy efficient, our deeds last up to fifteen. Times longer than traditional bulbs, Andy's up Eighty five per cent less energy, so they're good for your pocketbook amby environment Ellie. These come in all shapes and sizes, and are available in a variety of light. Temperatures whether it's warm lighting for living rooms, dining rooms and bedrooms, or bright cool waiting for catches and bathrooms. There's an elite every socket and for businesses Ellie. Can help. You manage energy cos, prove your bottom line and reduce maintenance swap out oh bulbs for energy saving Ladys and get instant savings as a pico customer stock up, while discounts and incentives last forever on how you can start saving today is a pico dotcom, slash a lady
It seems like it should be easy, but it's not just getting out of bed and getting your day started, trying to accomplish everything you need to do in your day that to do list as a lot easier when you're getting news stories and music to lift your mood and preparing for the day ahead connected to the things that make you laugh and make you think or make you want to reach out and share with a friend every morning with us, it's Elvis Doran in the morning show listen to us on cue, one or two or anywhere in the world on the Iheart Radio, APP. So this commission, which is sometimes called the death commission in literature of the day, discussed their findings after researching all of these different alternatives to hanging including electricity and taking into account Edison's comments on it. Southwick inhale favoured current gear
he thought that poisoning was actually the way to go but conceded that getting a doctor to administer poison was obviously problematic because it went against their oath to take care of people. On January, seventeenth, eighteen, eighty eight, the commission submitted their final report to the New York state legislature. Southwick electric chair was the recommended replacement for hanging the builds up they. The law was introduced that very weak by Senator Henry Cockle Shell. From the moment it became part of the public record were endless opinion articles and editorials about capital punishment, whether electricity was a humane way to carry it out and a new law like this could be implemented in terms of infrastructure and responsibility for its use and maintenance yeah, whether that suddenly felt prison to manage or to the government to manage, became a big issue of debate as well, even though there were some outlines for how that could happen. In this recommendation report,
but in a lot of ways, this offered up a strange sort of compromise to people who thought that hanging was outdated. A lot of the debate around capital punishment at this time was careful. Worded, so that most people who were kind of middle of the road on the issue could say that they were not against the death penalty necessarily, but they just didn't think that the system of hanging was really working and so for a lot of them. Electrical current offered a solution, to their moral dilemma. This debate went on and on and depressed and in the court of public opinion, but the end result. After all, the legislation was done. Was it the Electric chair bill was signed into law on June fifth, one thousand eight hundred and eighty eight to take effect on January. First, one thousand eight hundred and eighty nine
Four hundred and eighty nine of the laws of eighteen, eighty eight of New York made the change the law regarding how death sentences should be carried out. Switching them over to electrical current is the means of death. This amended section five hundred and five of the code of criminal procedure of New York to include the following passage quote. The punishment of death must and every case be inflicted by causing to pass through the body of the convicts a current of electricity of sufficient intensity to cause death and the application of
current must be continued until such convict is dead. So that brings us to William Camel hair and kellers. Early life is not especially well documented. We know that he was the son of german immigrants born in Philadelphia on May. Ninth eighteen sixty and his parents had a total of eleven children, but William and four of his siblings three sisters in a brother were the only ones to live to adulthood. Kevlar spoke English and german, but he never had any formal schooling and didn't learn to read or write. He helped his father in the family butcher shop as well as taking on other side jobs to help keep the family afloat, Willing mother died of tuberculosis when he and his siblings were young and his father developed, gangrene after being injured in a brawl when he died when William was still very young. At seventeen
similar started working in a brick yard and he saved his wages over the next two years so that he could set himself up in a trade where he could be his own boss and so at the age of nineteen. He purchased a cart and a horse and he became a vegetable peddler and he bought vegetables from country farmers and then he would bring their produce to the city fill up his cart, and then he went about the streets of Philadelphia selling his wares. So we had a promising start, but Kepler was also an alcoholic and that ultimately doomed him. The peddler who did well at managing his business, and was good at his job became a totally different person when he drank and he became violent and unpredictable. It was allegedly during a time that Kepler was black out drunk that he got married to one of his neighbors sober gambler, was not interested in this relationship at all, and he attempted to disentangle himself from the whole thing, we already had a young woman that he cared for in his life. When you read stories of this, it's
and framed very much as his neighbor being like this sneaky tricky woman who dragged him to the courthouse when he was drunk and made him do the vows. We don't really know that's just how it's often reported, but gamblers new wife wanted to stay married. The woman that camera loved Matilda Ziegler, who went by Tilly, was also married to further complicate things, but her husband of eight years was unfaithful and choose very unhappy so William in his paramour Tilly both skip out in their spouses. They left Philadelphia together in aid. maybe eight before they left Kevlar sold everything he had for a total of twelve hundred dollars and he Tilly until his daughter Emma Whence a buffalo killers going by the named John Heart so that his wife can track him down. He started up the same business selling vegetables at a new city. Initially, everything seems to be going well. Williams. Brother saw the two of them. The following Christmas
then reported, and they were happy. It's interesting that named John Hoard appears on legal documents that Kevlar filed leg as part of his business licence and what not, but he did seemed to actually go buy it in its day to day life like everyone knew his real name, but it was just the way that he couldn't be traced. Should anyone from Philadelphia come looking for him through the law record, the room that, William until he rented at five twenty six out division street was small and their bliss turns sour in those tight quarters, particularly when William drank according to neighbours till he also had a volatile temper, and the two of them can often be heard. Arguing loudly on the morning of March, twenty ninth of eighteen, eighty nine neighbours heard the usual yelling and there had long been some suspicion that these are It would become physically violent and, while that was the subject of neighbourhood gossip, nobody had ever tried to confirm it or to see, if till he might need help after the particularly loud argument that took place on March. Twenty ninth subsided, William camels.
walked into the kitchen of their landlady Mary read any said you were quote: I've killed her. I had to do it. There was no help for it. I'll hang for the deed, either one of us had to die and Missis Reed was initially unbelieving until Kevlar brought her till his daughter Emma, who was four years old at the time and she told Mary, read Papa, has killed my mama the police were immediately summoned and, while Mary read was that a neighbours asking for help, Kevlar went to a saloon near by and ordered a drink, he was arrested soon. Thereafter he didn't resist a doctor black.
entered the room that William until he shared to examine the body and found eggs still in a skill it on the stove, potatoes in the oven and otherwise a brutal crime scene Lackman later describe it as the worst thing he had seen in the course of his work. Yet clearly they had been making breakfast or till he was making breakfast whim. Whatever happened took place. Other table was overturned till he was lying in a pool of blood. She was covered all over it. Blood her heart surprisingly, was still beating, so an ambulance was called for. Her examination at the hospital revealed that she had been hit in the head with a hatchet twenty six times. Her skull was fractured and five places and her right arm had also been dropped out with the hatchet She was taken in the surgery where seventeen broken fragments of her skull were removed from her brain tissue. Despite all efforts to save her till he died at one a m on March thirty S and her daughter.
was placed in the care of Mary read. Kepler was still intoxicated when he was taken into custody and initially refused to speak to police. Then he confessed to the crime, saying that he was not sorry, and that quote, I wanted to kill her and I am ready to hang for it. There were the next several days attitude changed. He wanted the modest amount of money to his name, which was five hundred dollars to be used for till his funeral expenses and we're about to get into the details of Camelot trial and how this whole thing turns out. But before we get into the next phase of rather heavy stuff Pause for a little sponsor break, the only way is through an opaque ass in partnership with our radio under all join us. As we hear from, was greatest Athens, coaches and trainers. They discuss how they utilised training competition recovery to improve their performance and push the hall of Fame women. football coach Muslim, a graph has established a culture of when, through her historic, thirty policies and Korea noted. But this
in Kosovo. Team are trying everything. Is there flow against losing reckon here's? Cultural growth, I've never been in this situation before of having lost five starters, and I was just thinking the other day, you know how, when you're going through things in and the stress of being number one being the team to beat been every game, no one you're supposed to win that that really is heavy on your shoulders, and I I think I said at one point when it to be the underdog again in my house Be careful what you wish for, and here we are listen to the only way is through level now on the radio or wherever you get, your pockets during his time in jail am during his trial, which began on May Seventh William Camel Arusha,
more details of what had happened on the morning of March. Twenty ninth Kevlar had believed that till he was having an affair with his business partner and he had become violent when he was drunk and confirm, at her about it. During the trial district attorney, George T Quinn be made his case pretty quickly, pointing out that similar had repeatedly confessed. He then said quote: there is getting to be a frightful number of homicides, and the punishment meted out to the murderers does not seem to check the crime. It is time that such a salutary lesson should be taught, as will have a deterrent effect, so he was king for the steepest penalty available for Kepler, which would have been death. The jury was given all the details of the crime scene. The surgeons who worked until they were called as witnesses and even produced the skull fragments that had been removed, firm, her brain as evidence that offence focused largely
how pretty till he had been how completely believable it was that she might have had an affair. Even the testimony of Missis Reed was a little dicey for the prosecution. As she said, the Tele started most of the fights with Kepler unused quote unladylike language, the defenses made the case that, because of his drunkenness, Kevlar should only be charged with manslaughter instead of first degree murder. They didn't waste. four acquittal, because they knew he had confessed, but they wanted an acknowledgement that someone with a drinking problem is chronic his killers, which they evidenced by describing. A series of other events that had exhibited his poor judgment couldn't premeditated anything they called of his drinking cohorts to the stand to talk about their binges together, which often started versing in the being and went on all day, even as they worked. There was also testimony from a doctor who examined Kepler there.
said he was an odd man, even when sober, and that quote he had suffered from private diseases. Presumably that meant some sort of sexually transmitted infection. This witness doctor, crusher others mostly pronounced kevlar, quote morally irresponsible way. Yet that phrase came up, again and again in his testimony, ultimately after requesting that some testimony be read back to them for additional deliberation, the jury returned their verdict guilty of murder. In the first degree, when the judge said that he would issued his sentence later, that weak, it started dawn on people who knew about the new law regarding capital punishment and electrocution. That Kepler was the first person in New York found guilty of murder since that law came into effect and suddenly his trial, which at that point had been reported in the papers but kind of his like this, Station all type headlines about a grisly murder trial
Look on all new meaning in importance. If the judge handed down the death sentence, Kevlar would be the first man purposely killed with electricity on May thirteenth. That death sentence was announced. Westinghouse covered the cost of a very good at attorney for similar, and he knew that if Kepler was electrocuted with alternating current as Southwick Chair had been designed to do, It would be difficult, if not impossible, for him to recover from, and this went all the way to the Supreme Court. Thanks to that funding on May fifth of eighteen, ninety Roger M sure filed a petition on behalf of commissioner with the Supreme Court, and that petition read in part quote The petitioner is under sentence of death in the northern district of New York under a statute of New York, which imposes the punishment of death by the passing through his body of a current of electricity sophist, in the opinion of the warden of the state prison to cause his death, which current is to be continued until it kills him. The statute also leaves it to the
Gordon to fix the day and our of his death and contains other features which he here asserts are in violation of the fourteenth amendment. These features a bridge his privileges and immunities, as a citizen of the EU it states and deprive him of his life without due process of law. After a quick initial hearing, this petition was denied but associate justice. Samuel and Blatchford had also receive an application for a writ of error regarding killers case. That's a request to have a superior court review the case and make sure no legal error happened that might require a correction blatchford put forth that the application for appeal should be made to the full court, and a hearing was scheduled for May nineteenth of eighteen. be this sort of seemed like a ray of hope and that hearing
didn't actually begin until May. Twenty of their dhaka had some other stuff that pushed back a day and cobblers legal team argued that he had been sentenced to cruel and unusual punishment, making it unconstitutional and outside of due process. In response, Charles F Burstin Warden of Auburn State prison, made his statement that nothing involved in Kellers case. outside of due process and unconstitutional and that the sentence was in line with the new law Thurston and his team also submit as evidence of due process, copies of Camelot indictment, judgment sentence and execution warrant, the warrant read in part quote now: For you are here by ordered commanded and required to execute the said sentence upon him. The said William Kevlar, otherwise called John Hoard within the walls of
Auburn state prison or within the yard, or inclosure adjoining there too by then, and they are causing to pass through the body of him. The said William Kevlar, otherwise called John Heart, a current of electricity of sufficient intensity to cause death and that the application of such current of electricity be continued until he said William Kevlar, otherwise called John Heart be dead. The petitioners response was a death by electrical current quote is a cruel and unusual punishment within the meaning of the constitution, and that it cannot therefore be lawfully inflicted and to establish the facts upon which the court can pass as to the character of the penalty at the conclusion.
none of the appeal hearing. The court headed by chief justice, Melville Western Fuller, gave its opinion, which was not what killers team wanted in an earlier appeal. The court system of New York had issued an opinion with the following. As its conclusion quote. We have examined this testimony and can find, but little in it to warrant the belief that this new mode of execution is cruel within the meaning of the constitution, though it is certainly unusual, On the contrary, we agree with the court below that. It removes every reasonable doubt that the application of electricity to the vital parts of the human body under such conditions and in the manner contemplated by the statute must result in instantaneous and consequently,
in painless death on reviewing the previous hearings involved in Camel s case, the? U S, Supreme Court did not find anything illegally, Rony, as in the previous verdicts. Their opinion outlines that the New York Courts did concede that the manner of death could be said to be unusual because it was new, but that there was an every reason to believe based on scientific evidence and information available, but it would not be cruel and that they trusted the new law. Adopting this method had been made. Based on that information, the Supreme Court's opinion concluded quote in order to reverse the judgment of the highest court of the state of New York. We should be compelled to hold that it had committed an error so gross as to amount in law, to a denial by the state of due process of law to want accused of crime or of some right secured to him by the Constitution of the United States.
We have no hesitation in saying that this we cannot do upon the record before us. The application for a writ of error is denied and with that similar fate was sealed, August. Sixth, eighteen. Ninety was scheduled to be the day that the first person would be executed by electric chair that morning, Keller woke up got dressed and was escorted by the prison Warren to his end in the Auburn state. Prison, and it was, wired by love the date and the time of the execution be secret. Everyone found out anyway there because Auburn was a pretty small town. Yet I was while town- and this was huge news. The last thing that Kepler said was gentlemen-
I wish everyone all the good luck in the world. I believe I am going to a good place. The papers have been saying a lot of stuff that ain't. So that's all, I have to say what he was prepared with electrodes that were attached to his head, which was then covered with a black cloth. He was strapped down in them. The execution began. Current ran through his body for seventeen seconds and at that point to doctors who were in attendance as consultants who were easy, spits, Gaza and Carlos Mcdonald both believed him to be dead, so the current was cut off, but then Kevlar groaned he had a pulse and a heartbeat newspapers reported that someone yelled great God. He is alive. A second round of current was immediately called for to end kevlar suffering, but there was a problem. The apparatus had to have power restored to it to run again, and that cycle took another two minutes before the current could be turned on that second round, once they did get. It turned on the current state
active for a full two minutes and after that point, Kepler was indeed dead. So this entire event was, as you might expect, reported with revulsion and horror at how it had played out. This was, incidentally, illegal, but the sensational nature of the event meant that newspapers took the risk and went to print with their accounts anyway. The New York Times or industry, with the headline quote far worse than hanging yeah. It was illegal for them to report details of this whole affair. They could report like the the basics of lake when it happened and why he said, but not sort of the gory details, and they all did exactly that. Just the same. Naturally, both Edison and Westinghouse were asked for their thoughts on the matter by members of the press. Edison commented that this first time had been bungled likely because of the excitement of the situation, but that he
leave that subsequent efforts would lead to instant death. He also suggested putting the sentenced man's hands in water and running a current into the jars as an alternative approach to it. Westinghouse simply replied quote: it has been a brutal affair. They could have done a better job with an axe. Autopsy was performed on camel hair and the results indicated that he had lost consciousness instantly and the problems in the execution had come from poor contact or a voltage that was set to Oh, the warden at Auburn was raked over the calls in the press as a consequence, and while this very first poorly handled said the electric chair, let a lot of people to believe that this was never going to be used again in July.
the following year: New York put four men to death by electrocution on the same day July. Seventh, today, electrocution is still authorized as a means of carrying out capital punishment in nine states. In the u dot S, although all of those states have lethal injection as their primary method William gambler. It's a weird story with lots of Gore. We did not go into the gory details. If you are wildly curious and want to read them, a lot of his newspaper reports are pretty readily available online gap. I have way more a beat listener. Male up, this is from our listener, Timothy hearing
dear Tracy and Holly I caught up with your January six. Twenty twenty pack has shown Struthers Karim and radar countermeasures several days before a visit to the Smiths Sony and advise hazy. Irids face Museum near Washington, Dc Dulles Airport among the exhibits, which include the Discover space shuttle fighter jet blackbirds biplane and conquered supersonic passenger jet. I found a display of world war, two rate, our chaff, attached our photos, along with the display signage. Your podcast put the significance of this small display in the context and highlighted its importance thanks and people. great work. Thank you so much to him not so sweet, I'm glad that that that's kind of added a little extra layer of of knowledge and enjoyment and engagement for that for you. I actually have not seen that exhibit. I did not know it was later so now I have another thing on my museum list. If you would like to write to us, you can do so at history pie cast it
heart, radio, dot com. You can mindless everywhere on social media, has missed in history and you can subscribe to the pod cats the the her radio app apple pie, gas or wherever it is that you listen stuff. You missed in history class. The production I hard radio for more pod cats for my heart radio visit by her radio app added my cans or wherever you listen to you he returned.
I am also remarries and others. The daily dive Daily NEWS, podcast about the biggest stores of the day on the dvd you'll, hear everything from stories about new tech and its potential to change our lives to the latest in politics and how new policies, if that you, those around you every morning, I'll connected with the writers and journalists who know the story scene, can keep up to date, make informed decisions. A new episode of the package is posted every Monday to Friday, listen to the daily died pot, cast an eye out radio aft apple pod cast or wherever you get your party. I'm here just, then a chef, a restaurant or a traveler, and now in the host of the passenger people. Ask me all the time you know. What's that list of places to go in this city in that city, and this show is dedicated to that idea. Mercer yourself in that car. And finding out what's intriguing and what resounds and what we think about the future of that place as a visitor as passenger. Subscribed now in the eye. Radio, app apple pie, guess
wherever you go about, guess.