« Stuff You Missed in History Class

The Great Vowel Shift, or A Brief History of English

2016-02-29 | 🔗

Language is alive. It shifts and changes; pronunciations and spellings morph throughout time. English is no exception.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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I think end of our recent episode on the honey war. We read a list or may offer of a need to tell it is about honorary transportation and hiring living, and that led us into this little digression about how hard it can be to figure out how to pronounce word languages. But nobody speaks anymore this random aside about how I had thought way back when following I first, but I guess, I've thought about doing episode about the great vow shift We have never gotten merely so much response to any other random weird. We spend on this as we have about the great vowel shift. I was asleep. most, where you astonished by one who knew? I had no idea that people were like rapidly excited for this contents. Yeah, it was standing member of people were asked us to talk about it, which we still we got another email over the weekend after this had already been like. The outline had been written and everything
when I mentioned on whether that an astounding number people had asked more people, ass, after that, only one person asked that we not do that. So I am sorry that person is outvoted book, but I can't get over how many people have asked where it, because this was the tail end of their show to be candid, we know there are people who have checked out by that point like we know there are a lot of people who don't listen to listener mail, but possible way people have to talk to us. They bid to ask us to talk about. without it. The eyes have it. Today we are going to talk about the great vouchsafed, but because, like, I said, a little imply baseball. Thirty entire minute, thou valves, I think, would be a little much for most people say we're going to put it in the greater context of the history of English of the english language, and that comes with a thumb caviar, which is that there are a whole about the history of the english language My alma mater had a semester, long literature class about it, and it wasn't even just like us,
like. It wasn't a one hundred level literature class re wreck with its and there's not a pot cast called the history of English than that has run for sixty seven episodes. So far Obviously we are not going to talk about every single thing. There is to mention in the history of English and we're not going to get too deep into the very technical linguistic terms that are used to this rival out of it, but we are going to about is how the history of English runs. inside a great story, which is basically all about conquering people and being conquered. So the history of English begins before the arrival of germanic peoples, who came to be known as the Anglo Saxons british isles, the English. accents arrived in. What is now England and Wales from the european continent. Some came. Peace
although others definitely arrived as invaders conquerors, according to beat the venerable, the Anglo Saxons included three distinct groups, the angles, the factions the chief their arrival in England started by the middle of the fifth century and the language that developed in the way of their arrival is now known as old English. Its roots come from we're of germanic languages in their dialects, with the primary contributors being West germanic, old Frisian, old Franconia in an old high german, Before the arrival of the Anglo Saxons, the people of the British Isles spoke a variety of Caltech languages. It's all of us. There's. Some people spoke latin since the roman empire had govern parts of Britain for about three hundred and fifty years from the year. Forty three to the year for ten, it's not completely clear Though how well Latin survived after the end of the room and rule in what the empire referred to as Britannia in four ten, nor
should all these different Caltech speaking peoples be lumped together in one cultural group. The idea The british Isles were once inhabited by a monolithic cultural group called the calves is really in the eighteenth century, invention the all these different celtic speaking peoples had their own unique cultures. Unique ways of living. They were not one sort of people known as the gulls several of the chaotic languages that exist, in the british Isles, when the Anglo Saxons arrive, which are classified as the insular Caltech languages, still exist today. Well, scottish gale, Irish Cornish and banks, which is spoken in the Isle of Man are all examples of insular chaotic languages. Helpless languages were one common on the european continent as well, but apart from Britain, which was really an insular Caltech language that was carried from the british Isles back to print
Caltech languages didn't survive well on the continent beyond the fourth or fifth century, while several insular celtic languages survive today. Some thanks to international efforts to preserve them all of the continental Caltech languages are staked insular tilted languages didn't wind up, adding very many words to English, though this is one reason why, if you do speak English, but dont speak a celtic language trying to sound out a word from a celtic language can be a completely baffling experience. It's possible the insular celtic languages have an influence on grammar and pronunciation in old English, but when it comes to the individual words and the letters and sounds used to make them, there really was
a lot of sharing going on. I'm sure there is somebody like a hilarious video somewhere that english speakers trying to pronounce wealth, not only those that, like the spelling of wealth words, doesn't follow a pattern that english speakers recognise really well. The letters themselves are pronounced differently than they are in English. The Anglo Saxons and their languages were firmly established in England by the sixth century, and there are lots english words in used today that came from these germanic languages, although they generally had different spellings than pronunciations at the time allotted words are really short and they describe everyday objects and things so. Baker, beer, sheep, bird eel book, father, world and rights are all examples of english words that exists today that were also part of these germanic, old english words. The words for England and English
they'll. Come from these dramatic roots. There were plenty of longer more complex words in old English as well, but the shortest words used for most everyday things and ideas, rhythm of commonly used and consequently had the most staying power in the evolution of the language. More than half of the thousand Most common words in old English still exist in the english language today, conversely, about eighty percent of the thousand. Most common words in English today came from old English, which have the delightful layer to random and Ruth Book thing explain her, which is a book that explains complicated stuff. Using the only lonely, the one thousand most common words in English. So like the idea of reading rabbit, pretending that you're reading old English instead in spite of the simplicity of the old english words that remain in English. Today, a lot the English was kind of complicated in a different way than how today's English is complicated.
In old english verbs could change their position in the sentence for emphasis or grammatical reasons and a number of elections, were to change the meaning of words inflection still exist today, adding an to announce make it plural is an example of inflection, as is adding an e to avert, to make it in the past tense Old English have a lot more inflections for a lot more reasons than modern English does and apply them to a lot more parts of speech- words, The were also often gendered in a way that they are not in modern English, germanic, language, also aren't the only route of old English in the late sixth century. So a hundred and fifty year, two hundred years after the Anglo Saxon Thaxton invasion, England began christian missionaries began arriving in the british isles as well, and they brought with them a language that was not entirely new to the real reason, which was Latin Lehne, began
influence old English, and the latin alphabet was also used to write old English, with the addition of a couple of characters to represent the TH sound, the most famous being the character thorn. The first latin english groceries date back to the year, seven hundred and scholars, argued that this is really the birth of old English. As language. We still have some literature that was written in old English around today. The most famous pieces are probably the epic poem Beowulf, which is one of my favorite things, and four prows, the writings of King Alfred, the great the next big just to the english language were also the result of invasions, starting in the a century Scandinavians made their way to England, all the folks, we broadly classifies vikings, and while there are definitely english words that have norse roots, most of this influence on the language itself didn't come along until a bit later after the next
shift in the language which were going to talk about the first we're gonna have a word from a sponsor. Hapag has listeners Have you ever wanted to share a love story with someone, but you may be wanted to do it in a really unique in interesting way, or you were struggling to get the exact rate words in place. Will you don't know, to worry about that you can put it into a book, and that is where love book comes in love books, help customers express their sentiments that there, working hard to make their own unique thing and each book is come. we customizable most customers use them to list the reasons why they love someone. But you can you kinds of things can create characters. It look like yourself and the recession redundant outfits and accessories. You personalized each page as much as you want. But you, so have the option of what they call the express option, which will create a complete book with just a few clicks. Love book even offers a membership programme. Now you will save immediately on your purchase today and then received percent on future purchases. Visit love
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program, or you ll, save immediately on your purchase today and also receive fifty percent off any future purchases. You can visit love book online, dot com, slash I heart to receive a special twenty percent discount only for our listeners. Once again, that is love book online dot com, Slash Iheart, to receive a special twenty percent discount only for our listeners How old English were spoken and much of what is now known as England and Wales from roughly the sixth to the eleventh centuries, from there it gradually shifted into little English, which is one of the languages associated with the medieval period in Britain as we talked about at the top of the show old english the language invaders and colonists from the european continent brought to the island after the end of the roman empire in Britain, this in the Middle English was the result of invasions as well. The Middle English came about thanks to influence
It is from the Normans, the Vikings and christian missionaries, then Norman invasion was famously marked by past podcast subject. But battle of Hastings, which took place in ten sixty six and the battle of Hastings was also documented in the buyer tapestry, which was also another path. Podcast, subject over the next one hundred years, or so following the battle of Hastings English through a number of ships and revisions. Sums college referred to this period as transitional English, because so many different influences on the language. We're still making their way through how people really spoke and wrote a bag shift was grammar the number of inflections dropped dramatically, particularly when it came to nouns and the more complex, lengthy words from old English that didn't survive until today were replaced by words from other languages. Basically, the language is being spoken by the various poles, who were invading England, William
conqueror. Who invaded at the battle of Hastings spoke Norman, French and the Dutch. Class that he brought with him did as well, because of this french info. for a time. Much of the litter written in England was largely an Anglo Norman. Anglo Norman also became the language favoured by the nobility. The court system and the schools as well, some of the most fame, works of literature from the middle ages were written in Anglo Norman, including Tristan, and I sold at the lake Larry the France, the next most pop you're scholarly language in England was latin thanks to the influence of christian missionaries, because it is prevalent in both France and Latin and the fact that France and Latin- lot in common. Sometimes it's really hard to tell whether a word that exists in English today really came from branch or latin. This is particularly true because them french words are borrowed from Latin and then the english words were borrowed from
regardless, though, following the Norman invasion, lack of words with France or Latin route made their way into English, including peace, animal imagination and prison the Viking reads into England, pretty much stopped after the Norman invasion. However, by the time They did. There were a lot of people in England, particularly Northern England, who spoke one other scandinavian languages that leave that would eventually grow into swedish norwegian. Danish and the like. None of these laws, which has gained a long term foothold in England. But lots of english words come from. Ghana, Navy and routes that were started during his time. As with old english words that are still today many of them are short one or two syllable words that name everyday objects and ideas. Some of the nouns from Scandinavia Scandinavian. regions include cow, bull route and skin verbs include take scare, flit, and but the pronoun. They also have scandinavian origins,
Eventually, all of these fluency coalesced into a language that if you can read modern English, you can probably read as well, although it may be a bit more difficult themselves tend to be familiar, even though their spellings and pronunciations are often inconsistent by Thirteen hundreds Middle English had become the favoured language in England, and literature was being written in some of the most works in middle English. Include the Canterbury tales, Sir Gawayne, and night in the book of Marjorie Camp, which is of course the subject of a past podcast, First, complete English. Translation of the Bible was in middle English as well on a brief digression about Marjorie Camp. That was one of the first episodes that I researched for the pod cast. An eye had chosen to do it
That was something that I already had enough familiar familiarity with, that I felt like I could get into it and not be starting from absolute Square one and one of the first podcast I ever researched and I went to get my college copy of the book of Marjorie Camp often bookshelf and I opened it up and it was a middle English and I was like oh, I believe in fact that I don't know how times a puzzle my way through Little English, where this podcast, and so I had to order a modern english version of it. One of the reasons that I found it difficult with middling a lot of ways, not very standardized having manuscript from the era very a lot from one another, even when they are literally copies of the exact same piece of literature. In addition to lots of inconsistency in spelling and grammar, there were specific dialects This is our where the british Isles and many people still spoke a celtic language as their primary. you're, only language during this time toward the end,
the fifteenth century. English had its next big shift, and we are going to talk about that after we have another pause for a sponsor break. This episode of stuff, you missed in history classes, brought to you by Norton three sixty with lifelong what they are shopping online with a smartphone. Its super feels like ear. Personal information is just right there in your hand, but that's not always the case, because, as soon as you hit submit, your personal information could start going other play This is in fact, whenever you shop, bank or browse online, your personal invoking, get out of your control, and that can we be vulnerable to cyber criminals. More threats demand more protection. That's why Norton and Lifelong are now part of one company Norton
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Off this episode of stuff. You miss than history class is brought to you by W W, formerly wait. Watchers they have launched a new might be to be programmed at their most groundbreaking and customize programme. Ever I joined W W because I was really looking for something that was going to help encourage me to make healthier eating choices. They have really done that when you joined them W W program, you will take a personal assessment. It ask a question is about your eating. Habits in your behaviour is not scientifically matches you up with which plan is going to be the best for you, I'm on blue plan, and it has made such a big difference or me in terms of encouraging means, eat healthy foods join W. W, formerly wait. Watchers unlocked customize weight loss plan that can make losing weight easier for you had gone over to Debbie Debbie dot com, that's w w dot com to joint Debbie Debbie today, with a limited time offer after Middle English, came, perhaps not surprisingly,
early, modern English. The kings aims I have all in Shakespeare's, plays or birth and earn early, modern, English, and, as with middle English. If you can read a modern English today, things that are written right now, you can probably read it to, but it might take your brain a little bit more work in a lot of ways, the shift from old English to Middle English seems a lot more dramatic than from Middle English to early modern English, and it makes a lot of logical sense. The transition from old English to Middle English was brought about in large part by the IMF. it's a multiple other languages on old English, but the ship middle English to early. Modern English was a lot more about standardizing, a language that already existed. Englishman, February continued to grow, but mostly through inclusion of more words from languages. People were already familiar with or other its languages that had similar roots this well, the rise of pedantry in the english language, different scholars that about trying to set rules specifically,
or English, and the NIT picking other writers who broke those rules at the trend of it can news to annoy editors today. There writers, including seventeenth century writer and critic, John Dryden, decreed that English should follow the rules of latin and then effectively applied latin structure to English. So rules like don't and sentences with propositions are made up from during this time to try to make English conform to. Ladys, Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, little out of writing about the need to standardize English as well and consensus among linguists today is that you can try to permanently fixed a language all you want, but as long as people are actually speaking it, it will can you to evolve. beginning in the middle of the seventeenth century. People start. Proposing that there be a formal academy of English to document the language and make sure it stayed quote. Purer does did
happen, but through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries dictionaries did flourish, English gradually became standardized, perhaps income immediately this exact same time that people were riding dictionaries and standardizing rules without speaking spell English what's happening at the same time as people were completely shifting how they pronounced things right. At the same time, the people were literally documenting how to spell people were starting to say things differently from how they were spelled. To be clear, this shift did take hundreds of years to play out. Pronunciations were shifting back in the twelfth century, but just as the language was finishing vouchsafed into the sixteenth century, people were writing dictionaries based on the old spelling of words that no longer matched how we say them, and a piece of the Was the great vowel shift essentially where people pronounced long, vowels moved up and back in their mouths, and the reason that Tracy
describe this as being a little too inside baseball is because it's really difficult, both research and describe without king knowledge of linguistic. Since analogy for going to sleep, to most of our listeners don't have that an answer We take an extremely simple basic approach to explaining this. If you ever, point of secrecy to most of our listeners. Don't have that an answer. I'm going to take an extremely simple basic approach to explaining this. If you ever had the memorize, the prologue to Chasseurs Canterbury tales and middle English an English! That's! When April, with his shower sweet with route, the drought of March has pierced to the route. So during the Greek vowel, for example, Rota became pronounced his roots apropos became April,
Look at it with some other words. The word height like how all you are today would have been pronounced more like heat and feeds the things at the end, the people's legs would have been pronounced, fat and hates like really disliking and three would have been pronounced more like hot, and these were not the only shifts in pronunciation that went on in early modern English. There all other val pronunciations that used to be unique, but now sound identical people also stop pronouncing a lot of confidence. As you can, we here in the Canterbury tales example, but there are limits period is also when we start produce pronouncing hey the g and eight in the word night, so sweet don't think that event monsieur complicated word. We also I'm saying the bee in Lamb in the tea in diesel. quickly a lot, but not all of the complete discrepancies between how we spell
things and how we see them in English arose and early modern English, apparently for all the listeners at home. Who cannot see the outline? This was where I also had discrepancy, typing all lot of theories for why all this happen. There are scholars who blame migration that followed the black death others to stay at the natural rift in how we pronounced things that is still going on today. The general consensus that was made we have the mystery. We don't really know why everybody chain Sally said their vowels they're, all some may say, airs among linguists. You say that this whole thing is extremely of exaggerated, in that it wasn't nearly as pronounced or important as people position it ass the day and to be clearer, people did figure out the van Sift by examining things like verse, like what words rhymed with what other words, and misspellings and documents with the idea that if he were spell
something the way it sounded. Giddy misspelling that you make would change over time as the vow pronunciation sifted. So to some extent, our very understanding of these pronunciations here is kind of an educated asked toward the end of the early modern period. People continue to be very concerned with standardizing and perfecting English in the eighth. Hundreds professionally printed materials became increasingly standard in their spelling, grammar and style, but people's personal pay We continue to be all over the place. People have made much of the fact that Jane Austen handwritten drafts are full of water. Errors, but really that's Ordinary non pedants wrote at the time people were much casual in their personal correspondence than the increasingly standard professionally printed work, and of the early modern period. English progressively became more and more like the language that we recognise today, it's probably safe, to say that most people find Jane off
in France, victims who were riding in late, modern English, easy to read than William Shakespeare, Alexander Pope, who wrote in early modern English and much much easier than Marjorie Camp. Who is writing and middle English? and a million times easier than the epoch of Beowulf as written an old English with I'm not sure I could make out without a dictionary. I definitely could knots while the development of English into a modern language is most about who invaded England and then an effort to standardize the result. Today is also defined by where England went. After that, the most Obviously, the variations in slang, pronunciation and dialects and places that were or are still part of the british empire. English does not sound. wait: the same in Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, the United States, India in each places. English also has its own loan. Words that are, you need to. The language is being spoken there before English arrived bad. It's not
about the new and what's considered standard English and all of these different countries. There are also crucial. An dialects that have involved in that have evolved in tandem with English all over the world. as an example in the Americas and the Caribbean, their English based creoles, that, if the evolved as a result of the transatlantic slave trade, they draw from English, west african languages and sometimes the language of native peoples who were living in the area. Gala jamaican patois came increase oh and bahamian. Creole are all creoles that draw from english african languages and sometimes each other Austria. In Creole and Pick Kern are examples of creoles that draw from english and native peoples languages in the Pacific, pretty anywhere english speakers of colonized. There are also dialects of English that have their own rules about grammar and pronunciation. What ample is african american vernacular English, which is a lot in common with southern english dialects
an extremely extremely condensed history of the english language of thanks in part to how many people wanted us to talk about the great If you are a linguist, this was probably the stuff that is way like you no way more stuff. It that I suddenly found myself mired in cash. What things my really pedantic about visually, only one really funny not funny it's more annoying. To me is that sometimes will put like, let's say, for example, will put an article on our Facebook page, and the article will end the headline with a proposition and some one will come and make a comment about how one should not end sentences with propositions, and then I will provide numerous sources about how that actually fine and then ninety percent of the time the person just doubles down into how that that is the right way
You should make sure that one not to apply made up to roast English and I but the yours or been waiting about is made up of yeah like there is definitely great value in learning how to speak and write. Well. These are important skills to have in life then you also really should think about how the way that people talk in the language they use in the way people speak and write also reflects. Where they are from their upbringing and how much education they actually had access to the class there at like there's a whole wipe. It goes into how people talk and right so pedantically NIT picking strangers on the internet about how they spoke. Something wrong is perhaps not the best use of anyone. Unless you are literally that person's english teacher and the thing you are nit picking on internet is literally their class assignment, that they did
I you know for some people, that's their windmill, but they took their. I, though, I fine- and I thank you I've do as well like people are surprised that I am not one of those that I put an editor and only Campbell, long enough. You realise that even really fabulous, well educated people make typos and mistakes when they're, putting together manuscripts lake. It did you you're saying what they were getting it like. You can evaluate our stuff if you're doing you know along the guidelines for like publication. That's you, we might criteria are, was the meaning. understood, but that's all we got the criterion. Somebody is gonna write about anyway. I have the listener mailed, it's not about pedantry it's about the honey war, which is the same episode that inspired this whole podcast and it is from. I am not sure if you sell her name Tamar or tomorrow, I have known people who spell their names. Swain have
Both ways- and she saw this- might be a little late, because I tend to hoard episodes for a few weeks before listening to them, but Lilburn bargain very governor with the dispute with Iowa has another claim to fame and eighteen thirty, eight the Missouri executive order, forty four, which made it legal to drive Mormons out of the state and, if necessary, through them, and then she quotes from it We therefore agree that, after timely warning and receiving an adequate compensation for what little property they cannot take with them, they refused to leave us in peace as they found us. We agree to use such means as may be sufficient to remove them and through that we pledge to each other. Are bodily? Powers are lives? Fortunes and sacred honours basically get legal to steal their land and kill them. If they object was order was an effect until nineteen seventy six hundred and thirty seven years later, classy man thought you might be interested in that TED Bit of information and then send some thank yous and some other cool stuff, so
Thank you so much Tamerack Tamar was one of several people who wrote about Missouri executive order, forty four, which we didn't mention, and that episode for several reasons. One of the reasons is but though it was selected because it, its actual events, are kind of comical there. plenty of other things that were going around the world at that time, that we're not comical, and there were also plenty that we're going around in Missouri. I wish that we're not comical, but that particular thing is kind of a comedy of errors and we had been in a series of dark episodes that waste came out it. So
The reason we chose that story would it was the share, something that had a little bit more levity and eight, which was why we didn't get into all of the other ancillary things that you could talk about. That were horrifying an awful, but I did want to mention it since we did get several mails from both mostly calling governor bogs, a jerk which suits. So I would like to write to us, but this or any other pike S where History park ass, it has to work. Sakharov were also on Facebook, Facebook, Doc,
I'm slash, missed in history and on Twitter. It missed in history, are tumblr, is missed in history. That tumbled icon are also a picture. Is that countries that complex missed an history you would like to just have a little, but have a lot of fun with your day is related to this by gas. Come to our apparent companies, websites, I'll stop works at camp, but the word comma in the third part, you'll find an article called fan completely wrong ways to use a comma. So if you want to enjoy that beer own personal gloating about language, you are well, maybe don't Ben. employed at information at strangers on the internet. If you would like to come to our website is missed industry that can we have shared efforts. We have an archive very soon with every day and we have some tips on how to search search the archive for old episodes. We also have a newly written epic you because we get asked a lot, the same questions, and so I made it up they answer them all. You can do all that and whole at Moor House networks or miss in history,
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