The Haymarket Riot, aka the Haymarket Affair or the Haymarket Massacre, is one of the many interconnected events and people and movements that are all integral to defining the basic idea of what a full-time job is in the U.S.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Travelling from New York to deceive. Join me, travel, journalist and eager Raymond for roads. Tat will change your view of the fact that community from a hidden history, when unlikely dispute search for about the journey in your pocket that that's about the journey Pinterest is where you find a do. The thing you actually enjoy. It is just the opposite of the doom scrolling that can really take over other social media. He might start out just thinking what, if I learned it makes them historical costumes and then later what you're actually finding out is that you have a deep and abiding love for making historical pottery pinterest diverse creators help you find what you enjoy doing so surprise yourself with what you can do and two on Pinterest. Welcome to stuff you, minister, history, glass, a production of Iheart Radio, hello and welcomed the broadcast. I'm Tracy Wilson,
Holly frying. Lately I've been reading a lot of article about the purported labour shortage in the United States We, like you, maybe me to have been under a rock to have seen none of this discussion and this course I was gonna, make it a fake like what I haven't heard members states to Emma knows. Yes, father says I mean there's been a lot conversation about whether there is a labour shortage and whether it's not a labour shortage, ITALY, it's like a shortage of jobs that are paying a living wage and have decent working conditions, but then I've got it the other articles bitter about how even that idea is a little over simplified and its more that in the wake of the ongoing covert nineteen pandemic peopled us all across the socio. Economic spectrum are
re evaluating their lives and what they want to do with them and what kind of work they want to do. So all of that discourse have led me to just think a lot about how here in the reminded states. We arrived at a work week being at least theoretically forty hours long with a work day again. Theoretically, eight hours long and a weekend that falls on Saturday and Sunday, like all of them, just kind of random reimbursement, arbitrary, and yet it feels almost like a given. At this point, Rob s just how the world works yet, even even if you're at an end, three or a job where you work on Saturdays and Sundays, like I have been in those jobs before like Saturday and Sunday we're still the weekend, even though my weekend might be on a Tuesday and Thursday sure not even consecutive days Yes in Emmy conversations, because I too have had those jobs. People are always like. Oh gee, you have to work that we get like you are always clear,
the outlier, if you have a job that doesn't fall on that Monday to Friday rights, so you know I have to I've been thinking about that a lot and how, as a society, that became a thing and really there are a whole lot of different, interconnected people and movements and events that have all been connected to this basic idea of what a full time job is, and some of them particularly stand out. One is the Haymarket Riot, also called the Haymarket affair or the Haymarket massacre. I really feel like none of those three terms really encapsulate what happened. That's what I'm on our listener suggestion list for a long time and it's what we are going to talk about today. After all of my navel gazing, about what a work we do
here. We can get the whole thing. Maybe we will. On Friday the Haymarket Riot took place in Chicago in eighteen. Eighty six, during a period of widespread labour activism in Chicago and across the United States, workers were facing lot of the same issues that have come up pretty much every time we have discussed labour rights and the labour movement, so things big long hours and low pay and unsafe or otherwise. Poor working conditions is also clearly was not just in the U S, but that's where we're talking about today and the United States had also been rapidly dust realizing people had been losing their jobs in the wake of that industrialization. Sometimes whole positions had just been
lemonade as workplaces had become more mechanized and, in other cases, tasks that required some kind of specialised training or skills had been mechanized than away that allowed employers to replace those workers with once you have less training and could be paid lower wages. So the? U S, civil war had ended little more than twenty years before in eighteen, sixty five, followed by the abolition of slavery, except in punishment for a crime. This had contributed two huge shifts all across the nation as industries that have relied on enslaved workers having to adjust you an economy where slavery was outlawed. This also lead demographic shifts nationwide. As freed people from former slave states tried to move north to find work in eighteen. Seventy waiting eighties here,
the numbers of people had also emigrated to the United States from Europe, especially from England, Ireland and Germany. These are the same years that the U S was also trying to curb emigration from Asia, especially from China. We have talked about that on several previous episodes of the show, including our recent one catch on paying. Most of these new arrivals were fleeing some kind of financial or economic hardship, and so this all lead to even more competition for paying work, economic factors compounded these job shortages, including the panic of eighteen, seventy three and economic depression that followed it. for Chicago specifically, these changes in the economic conditions connected to them were massive in eighteen, thirty about thirty years before the start of the civil war Chicago had basic been a small outpost with the population of only about a hundred people and then over the
sixty years. It became the second largest city in the U S, with a population of more than a million people for comparison. just city in the world at that point was London, with a population of about five million. In the lane tenth century. More than forty percent of Chicago's population were immigrants at some points. That number as much as half so working and most of Chicago's industries generally involved low pay and long hours. Ten to twelve our work days. Six days a week were really common at packing houses were often between twelve and sixteen hours. Long and mills usually ran in twelve hours shifts. So the idea of a shorter work day had become a big issue for labour.
divests coalescing around the idea that a day should be eight hours long. One popular slogan, basically divided the twenty four hour day in two thirds it was eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will, Robert When will we talked about in our episode on the new harmony? Utopia is often credited with coining this phrase as eight hours, labour, eight hours, recreation, eight hours, rest sober. Eighteen, eighty six labour innovations in Chicago and elsewhere in the US have been working to shorten the workday for decades and in theory they had some success on May. First, one thousand eight hundred and sixty seven Illinois Governor Richard James Oglesby signed a law establishing an eight hour day for workers in Illinois on June 25th. One thousand eight hundred and sixty eight Congress passed an act doing the same for some federal workers. Other government,
has similar laws as well, but our focus here is Illinois, so that federal law only applied to laborers, workmen and mechanics who were being paid by the federal government. So that was not everyone, by any stretch and the Illinois law, contains some really big loopholes. It applied only quote where no special contract exists and that many employers just completely get around it by getting their workers to sign special contracts. Employers threatened to close if their employees didn't agree to work longer shifts or they made new job offers contingent on the workers, signing a waiver that just required that person to accept longer working hours. Labour activists in I didn't think this law was good enough for obvious reasons, so they organized a statewide strike to begin on, may first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty seven. This strike partially merely shut down the city of Chicago and it lasted for about a week. But this
like eventually crumbled and the eight hour law, which was already full of holes, wasn't really enforced after that gap and conflicting accounts about whether the city of Chicago was just totally brought to a standstill or if it was more like specific sectors of Chicago you around to a halt for the next two decades, activists and organizers in Chicago and in the rest of the. U S: cap working towards an eight hour working day, even though he is too low. there are already supposedly guaranteeing that really some people, aside from the spoke as eight hour day, though a lot of these people who were doing this work did not share the same political perspectives. Some labour organisations were focused on my idea of collective bargaining and trying to secure, at our working conditions, shorter hours and higher pay for workers while operate
within the structures of capitalism, but there were also socialists, communists and anarchists, who worked more from the idea that capitalism with inherently corrupt and exploitive and of the capitalist system needed to be dismantled entirely. I'm just marvelling at the ongoing discussion that remains the same forever, yadda thing that led me to those opposite was this whole thing about like what's a work week? Why? Why is it this way? But so many of the things in this episode have parallels to discussions and events still happening now for sure, The markets in particular, were focusing on the idea of an eight hour working day at a ten, our pay rate, this something that employers were not likely to accept at all, and it was more of a tool to try to push workers to demand more ram all changes. People who oppose these groups generally saw communists, socialists and anarchists,
is indistinguishable from one another and as antithetical to so called american values. So we noted earlier, but about forty percent of Chicago's population were emigrants, and many of these immigrants were from. Germany, many of the labour movement, communists, socialist, an anarchist members were also german, but Chicago's german emigrant community it was not model with they get all. They represented the whole spectrum of the population of Germany. They had arrived in the: U S, for a range of reasons and in pursuit of a range of goals, but especially after the events that we're going to talk about german emigrants were also grew together as like one indistinguishable mass, regardless of their individual politics or backgrounds. What again under the idea that they were opposing american values in eighty before nearly two decades after the federal government in Illinois had each pass laws. Setting a work day is eight hours.
federation of organised trades and labour unions called for May, first eighteen, eighty six to mark the part of a massive nationwide movement for an eight hour working day for everyone, the nights, labour and the international working Peoples Association. I W P a which was an anarchist organisation, were also part of. Eight hour? Workday movement, the factory of organised trades and labour unions organised a national strike and huge demonstrations, rallies, parades and other events or Old all over the United States. The hay get riot took place just a few days after the start of this national events, and we will talk about it after a sponsor break racial tension, Covin cases, leadership, departures, the hit paramount, plus original series. The good fight is back
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So what you might do surprise yourself with what you can get into on Pinterest. before the break. We talked about activism that had been ongoing virtuous decades before this national strike started on May first of eighteen, eighty six, but we didn't get into how those same Decades were often very violent and general business owners. Political leaders and the public saw striking workers as a threat, so police militia, Pinkerton detectives, and sometimes even the National Guard, frequently tried to disperse, striking and demonstrating workers with force or to intimidate and terrify them into backing down
on their demands leading up to the Haymarket incident in May of eighteen. Eighty five Illinois militia had killed two striking workers in Lamont and today that's a suburb of Chicago three months later vice Anders were beaten during a strike at the West division. Railway company Amity I'm there was a labour demonstration of any size law enforcement tended to be on edge, regardless of who was there and whether the illustration itself was peaceful about parts of this movement were so employing violent rhetoric and actual violence. Dynamite had been invented in eighteen, sixty seven and had made it a lot easier for people to make and transport bombs. Anarchist publications in particular did everything from waxing rap Zadok about the potential political power of dynamite to actually printing instructions on how to make bombs August speeds, who was editor of the german language anarchist newspaper arbiters,
I tongue kept a pipe on his desk, but he said was a bomb in April of eighteen. Eighty five, the radical newspaper, the alarm printed, a peace that red in part quote dynamite is a peacemaker because it makes it unsafe to harm our fellows, although they were happening in this incredibly tense atmosphere. Firstly, events: Chicago around the May first eighteen, eighty six national strike proceeded mostly without incident, may first was a Saturday and about thirty five thousand workers walked off the job. That day about eighty thousand people per day. Painted in the March down Michigan Avenue. This march was organized largely by husband and wife team Albert and Lucy Parsons Lucy. Had been born in Virginia and enslave from birth, and her in slaver had moved his enslaved workforce to Texas Short before the end of the civil war. Albert had fought for the confederacy before becoming article Republican after the war was over Albert.
He had married in eighteen, seventy two and they moved Chicago together in eighteen. Seventy three Albert had become a type centre Had joined Chicago Socialist Movement later be coming editor of the periodical, the alarm so marches and demonstrations continued on May second, which was the Sunday Monday may third, would have been the first day back to work. May first had been considered a work day. Even though is a Saturday because Saturday, as were not considered a weekend day. Yet at that point, so Andy was the only they off the people typically had so on Monday, a third August speaker, spoke at a rally to support the lumber shivers union, which was on strike. and then after that rally, some of the attendees joined union workers from the nearby Mccormick Harvesting Machine company who had been locked out of their workplace since February. They went on Strike Mccormick, had brought in Non Union replacement workers, and so the striking members of both of these you,
and along with members of the eye, W P, who were, they are basically to support them. They all started heckling. These strike breakers at Mccormick as they left. The building and ass this I mean yes, this harvesting machine buddy, was owned by the same Mccormick family, whose fortune Catherine Dexter Cormick inherited. Part of that was me that she used to fund the development of the first oral contraceptives. So it's not entirely clear what happened outside the Mccormick Harvesting Machine company on May third, but at some point about two hundred police attacked the demonstrators, and at least one demonstrator was killed. I've seen sources say anything from one to two. All the way up to as many as six people. After this speech went to the arbiters I tongue office and rode up a handbill in both german and English. It read working men to arms. Your master,
sent their bloodhounds the police. They killed six of your brothers and Mccormick's this afternoon, they killed the poor wretches because they, like you, had the courage to disobey the supreme will of your bosses. They killed them because the dare to ask for the shortening of the hours of toil they, them to show you free american citizens that you must be as five and contented with whatever your bosses condescend to allow you or you will get killed how for years endured the most abject humiliations you for years suffered and measurable inequities. You have worked yourself to death you endured the pangs of want and hunger your children, you have sacrificed to the factory lords, ensure you have been miserable and obedient slave all these years. Why to satisfy the Satiable greed to fill the coffers of your lazy thieving master. When you
them now to lessen your burden, he sends bloodhounds to shoot. You kill you if you are men, if you are the sons of your Graham sires who have shed their blood to free you, Then you will rise in your might Hercules and destroyed the hideous monster that seeks to do Are you to arm We call you two arms so when he was setting the type for this hand bill the type setter added the word revenge and all capital letters up at the top of the page, Meanwhile, anarchists George Angle and at all Fisher started planning and advertising a rally to be held may forth in Haymarket Square posters in english and German announced a mass meeting to begin at seven. Thirty, featuring quote good speakers who would be present to quote denounced the latest attack this act of the police, the shooter, of our fellow workmen
this also read and bold letters working men arm yourselves and appear in full force Fisher invited speeds to speak at this rally and speed actually refused. Unless that last sentence was removed from the poster and it was in, the posters were reprinted few that still have that line in mayor did wind up in distribution Although the language promoting this demonstration was deliberately incendiary, the event itself was relatively subdued. Only about thirteen hundred people attended a friend, none of the number who had attended other events earlier in the week and all started more than an hour late, Chicago Mayor Carter. Here Someone who was Pro union was in attendance both to verify that it was peaceful gathering into Incur to remain that way. As the speeches went on, he repeated
We re lit his cigar to make sure the assembled crowd, saw him and knew that he was there. Three men spoke at this rally. August speeds our Parsons and Samuel field in after awhile started terrain and people started leaving eventually, only three hundred people are so still remained. Speed, Parsons and the mayor all left before the rally was over a little after ten thirty p m as field in was getting to the end of his speech. More than a hundred and twenty five police officers moved in, and Captain William Ward ordered the crown to disperse at first, and told them tat. He was almost done with his speech and that the crowd was peaceful, so they should be allowed to stay ward, insisted that the crowd disperse immediately failed an agreed, but just after that someone through a bomb into the police ranks it detonated, an officer, material, J digging was killed instantly
Dozens more were injured and the police opened fire on the crowd. Some of the people in the crowd armed and returned fire, and this previously peaceful protests just turned into a riot or a malay like it was a whole huge and that, in addition to officer dig in seven, other police officers died, including one whose death years later was attributed to the injuries that he sustained at least sixty officer, the wounded, its estimated that about a number of attendees at the rally were injured and killed, but them there is a lot harder to determine Samuel fee. Then was shot, as was August these brother Henry, but both of those men survived
in general, people feared retribution for having been at the rally. So many of the injured people were patched up in one another's homes. This incident lead to a huge crack down against labour activists, anarchists and german emigrants, and we'll talk more about that after us. once a break in a world full of smart devices should ensure printer, be smart too. It is with HP plus these printers, no one there running love, so you always get the ink. You need delivered right when you need it. Plus you save up to fifty per cent on ink, so you can print whatever you want as much as you want any time you want, that is pretty smart gets six months free of instant ink when you choose HP, plus conditions apply visit. it feeds outcome, Flash smart for details in a word. Full of smart devices. Isn't it about time your printer about smart, too, now print is smart with HP plus and the aid p, smart app is how it all happens. You can print
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but it had been part of a much bigger apply, one that had been planned as a coordinated attack on police stations and on freight houses were strike. Breaking workers were set being labour meetings were banned and police raided, the homes and workplaces of anarchists, labour, organizers and german emigrants arresting people on mass this included a raid on the arbiter Zeitung Offices, Illinois States attorney Louis Grenelle was reported. This saying, make the raids first and look up the law afterward. Sometimes this response to the Haymarket bombing is described as the first read scare. Although the first read scare label is a lot more often used to describe the period that followed were one and included the Palmer raids which we ve talked about on the show before during these raids in eighteen, eighty six officers found radical Tex pistols daggers. and other weapons, along with explosives, bomb making materials and
structures on making bombs at various local and all around the city. Detective And should learn said that while he was trying to arrest anarchist Louis laying link cocked his revolver, try to fire at him shields said that he only stopped Ling by biting his thumb, while the two men fought, although labour, organizers, anarchists, socialists and others protested against this crack down. For the most part, there was a public surge of for police and approval of the wide scale, raids and arrests. They were not finding weapons that everyone's homes, but since they were finding weapons that ones homes people felt like it was a good thing that the mass sweep was being done this year, o business community generally approved this crackdown, as well, with some of the city's wealthiest and most prominent man vocally supporting it. People whose names people may still recognise today, including Marshall Field, George Pullman and Cyrus Mccormick Junior on me,
when he, seventh eighteen, eighty six, a grand jury indicted. Thirty one men on charges of rioting and unlawful assembly. The grand jury delivered a sixty nine count, indictment of nine purported ringleaders August fees, Albert Parsons, Samuel field in Michael Schwab, Adolf Fisher, George Angle, Louis Ling, Oscar Knee and rude optional about these nine men were charged with the murder of material J D, again even though other officers were killed, the men were not charged in their deaths, possibly because it wasn't clear whether they were killed by the bomb or by gunfire if it was gunfire whether they shots had been fired by demonstrators,
or by other officers. Now, there's been some debate over the decades, since this happened about exactly how many of the officers were killed by shots that were fired by other officers and not by the crowd. It's not a hundred percent resolved question. I think so. We have mentioned some of these men and their work already. Species and parsons had both been speakers at the rally, but both had left before the bomb was thrown parson. and his wife Lucy had actually brought their children with them, something you would not expect them to do if they knew about a violent plot that was going to be put into play during the night. The last speaker, Samuel field and had been wrapping up his speech at the time of the bombing, although those parsons and feed then all spoke at this rally. None of them was the involved in the planning of it. George angle and animal Fisher had organised the rally, as we mentioned, but also had not been there. When the bomb was thrown angle had
attended at all and he was home playing cards at the time, along with Louis Wing, who regularly practiced with a rifle, had learned how to make bombs and advocated resisting violence with violence. Angle and Fisher will probably the most radical of the men charged with deacons murderer. Michael swab had been at the rally, but had also left before the bombing police had also focused on his brother in law, Rudolf Snob out, as I suspect, in throwing the bomb, but he seems to have fled to Europe and, never seen in the? U S again of the nine men who were indicted in the murder. Snap out was the only one who did not stand trial. Oscar me was a labour organizer, Anti Communist and he worked wish bees parsons field in and Schwab pretty regularly, but he was involved with the rally at all, and he was not there. Although there were suspicion that Louis Ling had built the bomb. He also had nothing
do with the actual railway. Although she bees parsons, yielding Schwab and me were frequent collaborators date really know angle and Fisher that well and none of the other indicted men really had much contact with Ling at all of all of these men. Samuel Parsons was the only one: who had been born in the United States. Samuel field and had been born in England and have emigrated to the? U S and eighteen sixty eight, the other men who were embedded in the murderer were all immigrants from Germany, and most of them have emigrated to the: U S and eighteen seventies, early age eighties wish now belt having disappeared. The aid remaining defendants were tried as a group. There, too, he'll began on June twenty first eighteen, eighty six with jury selection stretching all the way until July, fifteenth nine
Dr Eighty, one potential jurors were questioned and the transcript of those proceedings is about. Four thousand pages, long ultimate Only two of the twelve selected jurors had a working class background. The rest were businessmen, clerks or salesman. All heading knowledge that they were prejudiced against the defendants but said that they thought they could hear the case impartially. In spite of that prejudice, the jury selection continues to be pretty controversial. Some historians of
included, but it was unfairly biased against the defendants, with the judge refusing to dismiss potential jurors, who were obviously and unchangeable biased against them. A special bailiff had selected the potential jurors, which has led to speculation that the pool itself was biased so like they started with people who were probably going to find the defendants guilty and then picks the jurors from there, but it was actually the defense counsel, who requested a special bailiff after the original pool of potential jurors, have been totally exhausted without finding twelve appropriate people. The defense team was headed by William organs black who argued that all eight men had alibis for the bombing. Only two of the defendants were even at the rally when the bomb was thrown. Both of them on the wagon that was being used as a stage, and one of them was speaking black all
argued that the violent rhetoric in some of the men's writings and materials confiscated from their homes was just that rhetoric. Though Rudolf now belt was not on trial. Black introduced evidence showing that he was not. at the rally when the bomb was thrown black, also argued that there was no these and to send more than one hundred seventy police officers to try to disperse a crowd of about three hundred people at an event that was nearly over but the prosecution led by Julius S canal. argued that the small crowd and the generally non threatening speeches were a trap, one that was meant to lure police into complacency and then bomb them. The prosecution also argued that this was an international anarchist conspiracy introduced by foreign agitators. The prosecution did not establish who had thrown the bomb, but this entire case rested on the idea that the eight defendants were part,
of a conspiracy with that unknown person. The trial continued until August eleventh by that point, two hundred twenty seven witnesses had testified, including fifty four members of the Chicago Police Department and four of the defendants themselves. the working man arm yourselves version of the flier advertising. The rally was introduced his evidence, one of the witnesses for the defense, was Mayor Carter. Harrison who described the rally as aim the jury deliberated for about three hours before finding all eight defendants guilty Oscar knee who had no clear involvement with the rally. In addition to not being there was sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor and the other seven men were all sentenced to death. On October, seven through the ninth of eighteen, eighty six, the men who had been sentenced to death
wow to speak before the judge, to give any reason why they should not be put to death. The most vehement of these speeches came from Louis Ling, who said quote I despise your order, your laws, your force, propped authority, hang me for it, In the end, the sentence of death was upheld for each of the men to raise money, for their appeals. The men supporters published their speeches insult copies of them, as well as printing and selling autobiographies, that the men had written from prison. Parsons also whittled a small wooden boat that was auctioned off to provide some money for his family from prison speech, had a relationship with meaning.
Is that who married him by proxy on January 29th of eighteen? Eighty seven, she was a daughter of a prominent businessman leading to fears that this relationship would skew public opinion against the convicted man even further nicely with his idea that he was corrupting the good daughter of a prominent citizen. The men's appeals were unsuccessful on September 14th, one thousand eight hundred and eighty seven, the Illinois Supreme Court, upheld the conviction. The defense petitioned, the Us Supreme Court for a writ of error, but the Supreme Court denied it on November. Second, one thousand eight hundred and eighty seven, a movement for clemency, had been growing throughout. All of this people increasingly started to see the trial as unfair and has a serious miscarriage of justice. Seal didn't swap those asked for mercy and Governor Richard Oglesby reduce their sentences to life in prison. Oglesby said he couldn't offer clemency
the other man, because they have not asked for it. This whole movement for clemency was also a kind of undermining when pipe bombs were found. Underlings bed in his prison cell. The execution was scheduled for November, Eleventh eighteen. Eighty seven on November tenth Louis Ling took his own life using a blasting cap that had been smuggled into his sell George Angle, Atoll Fisher Albert persons in August, bees were all hanged on the eleven November thirteenth. A funeral procession for the executed and drew enormous crowds. Estimates that you read will place number at anywhere from a hundred and fifty thousand two five hundred thousand people. By this point, the general public still largely approved of the trials and the hanging, but to the labour movement, anarchists, socialists and other supporters. Those men had become martyrs for DEC
After all, of this historians have generally interpreted the trial and executions as an enormous miscarriage of justice. But in twenty Eleven and twenty twelve historian, Timothy Messer crews, published two books on this. One is the Haymarket conspiracy, transatlantic anarchists networks, The other is the trial of the Haymarket Anarchists terrorism, injustice in the gilded age, and these two interconnected books. He argues that the trial would not be considered fair by today's standards, but that it was reasonably fair. Given this hundreds of the time, and he also argues that there really was an international violet anarchist conspiracy at work. Mr Creasy drew these conclusions after poring over the trial transcripts that had been digitized by the Chicago.
historical society, along with other primary source documents. However, critics of his work have noted that trial, transcripts and police records are not inherently unbiased, can basically can't use them to just correct the earlier record, without more contacts that analysis of that. I've also noted that his books essentially argue the same case that the prosecution argued and eight maybe six, which other historian some already poked various holes in in eighteen. Eighty nine socialist and labour rights groups designated may first as international workers day choosing the date in commemoration of the Haymarket incident that same year, s that you in honour of the police who had been killed was dedicated in Haymarket Square unveil. by officer deacons teenage son in eighteen.
Me three. Another monument to the executed men, known as the Haymarket Martyrs Monument was dedicated, waldheim. Cemetery in forest Park, Albert persons Albert Junior unveil, bat statue Next Day, Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld, Pardon Samuel field in Michael Schwab. An Oscar need MECCA several of the men who were tried in the wake of the Haymarket bombing, had all been involved with the knights of labour. That organization was viewed with increasing suspicion. After all of this, a lot of its chapters ultimately moved over to the American Federation of Labour, the bombing also stoked Anti union sentiments and xenophobia, and it really fuelled a perception that anarchism was intrinsically connected to violence and terrorism, although, as we noted up at the top of the show anarchists were kind of all over the map in terms of what they thought about violence,
the Haymarket Riot also caused a temporary pause in the national campaign for an eight hour workday about forty years, passed after the bombing before the American Federation of Labour renewed its calls for an eight hour work day. Although workers in some industries and places did wind up secure that eight hour day at this point, but still not universal. The core labour standards, ACT passed into law in nineteen. Thirty seven sets of forty maximum for some workers with work beyond forty hour, requiring overtime, pay the fairer labour standards ACT applies to most, but not all businesses and some types of employees are exempt from the overtime rule, including executives professionals, administrative employees and highly compensated employees. In more recent decades, the Haymarket area of Chicago has been
poems about pro labor and pro police rallies after weather, underground bombed, the police memorial repeatedly in nineteen sixty nine and one thousand nine hundred and seventy that memorial was relocated to the Chicago Police Department's Training Academy, a new Haymarket designed by Mary. Brugger was unveiled in two thousand, for this was judging by the city of Chicago. The Illinois Federation labour history, Chicago fraternal order of police, ambitious cargo Department of Transportation, it depicts figures with on and under a wagon. That is a nod to the wagon that was used as a stage at the rally slept the Haymarket incident or the Haymarket riot. or the Haymarket affair. Again, as I said at the top of the show, I don't make. Any of those terms are perfect terms for it at all. The complicated hey market
I don't know what to call it. Yeah, I'm gonna run completely work. In my opinion, the year yeah. Do you have email that works frivolous? Nor perhaps I blew I actually have two short emails on the same subject, because we ve gotten, we ve got a couple emails. Both subjects like this is really interesting and I don't I don't think, there's enough info on it for it to be an episode or maybe even a six impossible episodes entry. So I just thought we would have. It is listener mail, so the first ones from Natalie Natalie says high. I was listening to the stuff. You mustn't history class classic about the Crystal Palace and I thought you guys would get a kick out of one of the exhibits. A copy of which you can see at the wit me Museum in Yorkshire, the tempest prognosticate her it's a barometer. It predicts the weather using leeches. It is, in fact, a lead.
barometer designed by the curator of the period George, Merry, whether it's. What are my husband- and I say it- exhibits at the whip me Whitby Museum, which also who's the hand of glory a bottle ship collection that includes a merry Celeste, some very creepy wax stalls and plenty more beside it's a very old fashioned museum in the best way, with all sorts of treasures cram together and if your ever in North Yorkshire, I thoroughly recommend a visit loved the pod cast and I've been looking for something worth a mailing. You about for a while, so I hope you get a kick out of the tempest prognosticate, her all the best Natalie and then the other EU mail is from Iva or perhaps EVA that just came in this morning, but the high Holly and Tracy. I hope your both well is there. An episode about Lee
whose and barometers? I recently read something brief about George Merry, whether see, for example- and there is a link to a brief excerpt from an ATLAS Obscura book that that the atlantic- I thought you had both by this interesting to I'd, love to hear more about the history and how it works. If you would consider making this an episode sincerely from your longtime listener, Iva cat. This leads, Amateur does the really interesting, but that also for amino, for my, for my poking around seems like most of the whole story. This guy had an idea to make a barometer using leeches and the idea was that if stormy weather was coming, it would change the leeches behaviour, and that was like what the barometer
relied on. I do not think scientists generally agree today that this works, but man is so weird and interesting and relying on leeches, which are just kind of I dont, want to call them whose cause animals are just do in their bang re, still a very particular kind of Anna All right I mean I theirs. Heard of me, but has to applaud and recognise the insight that comes from recognising that animals are sometimes sensitive to things that we humans are not perceiving in the natural world. So there's parties like I totally get,
This came to be at the meeting in Michigan, but also that also comes with the unpredictability of animals and other factors. We might not understand about how they behave for sure. So thank you both for your emails about the tempest broke nasty gator, which has also just a great name in general. It could give a tempest prognosticate her and there it will be various things about it and if you would like to write to us about this or any other pod gas were history, pod task, that I hurt radio dot com and were all over social media Miss in history and that's real, find our facebook and twitter in Paris and instruments, and you can subscribe to our show at the hurt radio, app and apple pie task than anywhere else. But you get your pod gas stuff. You missed in history class the production of a heart radio for more pod caps
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Transcript generated on 2021-07-03.