The Foreign Mission School in Cornwall, Connecticut was founded with the plan that it would draw young men from world cultures, educate them, convert them to Christianity, and then send them back to their native lands to spread their new found religion. Read the show notes here.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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no need to almost any one who is even a passing knowledge of history that religious freedom was one of the primary ten.
Of the founding of the United States. But, as is often the case, that concept isn't always upheld in the truest sense. There are a lot of examples, certainly of contentious,
It's between believers of different religions, all over the world, of course, and the U S is no exception, but today's topic is actually gonna, be about a social exe,
remain in religious conversion, which really had extremely altruistic intentions, but it just didn't quite pay him out, and what we are talking about is what is commonly referred to as the heathen school. So first you'll talk a little bit just about where the United States was in terms of religion. In the early eighteen hundred
During that time, the christian revival movement was growing in Amerika. It was known as the second great awakening and enthusiasm for religion came a hand in hand with this idea that Christianity was the perfect tool for turning so called human peoples into civilized citizen
of the world, and, to this end, the foreign missions School in Cornwall Connecticut was founded on the idea behind this school was that they would draw young men from world culture that were not
seen through the lens again of eighteen, hundreds Americans, as properly educated
and the idea was that these these young men would cover the school. They would be converted to Christianity and educated
be sent back to their native land, to spread their newfound religion and serve their communities in this way. The revival movement expected that it with so called civilised world.
Through seated evangelism an corner
located in Litchfield County in its on the EAST Bank of the who's tonic river, and it was chosen as the location for the school because they had a reputation for fine upstanding citizens. It was a good community. They were willing to assist
by donating some facilities and land and also help with a little bit of financial assistance, and it was also a very beautiful- and I d like setting like the perfect place, to go and study and learn and guerrillas a person which was sort of the mindset of the people that were setting up this. This whole experiment was brings us to the schools. Ursus student, Henry Okochee higher, came to the United States from Hawaii working as a cabin boy on a trading vessel, and he was eighteen when he got to New Haven Connecticut. An eighteen ten had been brought there by the captain of the ship that he worked on and he was there.
If you'd be orphan, with no family to return to in Hawaii, and the little did the oh Papa, how you realise that he was kind of gonna become something of a poster child for the for admission school. It was really him that catalyze the whole thing. The story goes that Yale President Timothy Dwight son Edwin encountered the eighteen year old, who lying hawaiian just weeping on they gale chapel steps. Wendy Henry told Edwin that he was crying because he did not
education and the Yale President in his peers when they were told. This story were completely moved by this young man's desire to better himself and also the fact that he was an orphan. His parents had been killed. You know he really just was a person that they are wanted to take care of in any sort of sea to his best interests as a side, and so they also turns
seeing in educating him and over the next several years as they took care of this forum,
only shared share. Their knowledge and they share their religion with him. An idea really started to swim,
all socially among them and gained ground very quickly. I mean I point out for people who are not from the United States that he was a hawaiian and a foreigner
a. Why at this point, was many many many many many years away from becoming a? U S state. It was not part of the United States at this point. Yes, it was
only considered a foreign land and an exotic forum landed. That fell enthuse
them for missionary work connected to the protestant second great awakening was really continuing to swell and at the same time, church leaders recognised that sending Anglo Americans into other
cultures to spread. The word wasn't really all that effective a lot of times. These missionaries had trouble connecting with indigenous peoples who they were trying to converge
and so the idea of educating natives of these cultures to return to their homeland to thread their newfound knowledge and the christian religion seem like the
solution, and after all I mean Henry a book. A higher had seemed very, very happy to convert as part of his education. So this
William was really founded in what they saw as a successful test case, and that early success led to the American Board of Committee.
For foreign missions to open up this special school where they can educate dozens of men like Henry, and they really thought is this great opportunity. So the foreign missions school, which was located in what's now Cornwall Village, open and eighteen seventeen and it had a dozen students that first year, more than half of them were hawaiian and the school with
quickly, nicknamed quote the Heathen school, and I did quite well in the second year in Roman doubled and the student body diversified of it. It also
men from China, from India, several native american nations and by the third year
Is it actually really shifted, whereas in the first year the majority had been hawaiian more than half of the students by years?
were native American, including Choctaws of Nazi and Cherokee men. So while the school is really often described as a conversion, school and teaching christian doctrine was definitely part of the plan. The curriculum itself was really focused on
education, yeah. They had seven hour days of study and during this
The men were taught geography, calculus, chemistry, greek, french and land
In addition to theology, but outside of class, they were still sort of in a structured learning situation. They are,
work to be done on the school grounds, and they had lessons as well. In practical skills like surveying, coopering, blacksmithing and, of course, church attendance was mandatory during this time, so they had to go to prayers every day and to church lectures jetted. I am Morse wrote about the heathen school in a report to the Secretary of WAR of the United States in eating twenty and one of the things said was quote ass. They say youths our desire for a higher education and is to be expected our mission, schools and healing countries. It is deemed of no small importance that they be
such as ours, of suitable age, of docile dispositions and of promising talents. Yet he was describing how they really wanted sort of the criminal cram like the the best and most bright and promising young men, and the idea was that these
would go back into their maiden lands and not just be preachers, but also leaders, educators, health care workers, translators,
as we said earlier, this was really set up to be pretty altruistic. They wanted these men to fill important roles and to be contributors to their communities. In addition to these gentlemen, from the so called heathen cultures, Anglo Americans could also go to the school as long as they were serious about their studies and could pay their intuition and before we get to sort of how the school fared in terms of its successes and and its reputation,
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So for awhile things really went quite well, particularly as far as converting the students to Christianity in that same report to the Secretary of WAR that Tracy spoke about before the outbreak. Morse rights quote. Nor has this instruction been communicated
vain of the thirty one heathen youths, including with the twenty six now at the school, and then I'm cutting out a little part where he can of details, the make up of those twenty six
seventeen of them are thought to have given evidence of a living faith in the gospel, and several others are very serious.
thoughtful on religious concerns. Additionally, the school
What renown was spreading outside of New England in eighteen? Twenty us with Baron set a donation to the school, along with his letter of praise for its work and one of the things that letter said was quote. What I have read of the for admission School at Cornwall has given me great pleasure, especially as human powers cannot of themselves produce the desired effect, but they produce it only as instruments of the hands of him, who is the source of all good of love and pure charity, and it is thus only that the mind is capable of being fully enlightened. I beg you to use the accompanying sum of a hundred dockets, according to your best judgment, as an ex
oh mean, which, by divine grace may impart these spiritual blessings inseparable from the attainment of supreme love. Here there was, there were people in high stature throughout the world that were really. You know pretty impressed the the kind of plan of this school innocent.
Or to really better the whole world through education and the principle of the school. At the time who is Reverend Herman Daggett wrote a note of thing.
the baron and then also to show how very effective the school was at educating pupils. He also had two of the Cherokee Students Naval Elias
No and David Brown write letters to the baroness well and both letters her a little bit florid in keeping with the time and also in keeping with you know, young men who were veto kind of just learning can to write letters of this nature. There full of gracious thanks for the Barents interests and also they include their thoughts on their schooling, for example, Embrowns letter he rights. It is a matter of joy to us who are heathens to contemplate the goodness of God,
in causing his children to have compassion on the poor benighted. He, the ninth nations, who are yet groaning under the bondage of Satan, the deceiver of mankind. Our hearts are truly to glow with praise and gratitude
heavenly Father in your taking such a deep interest for this institution and for the welfare of heathens universally. This episode of stuff you missed in history class is brought to you by earnest. If you,
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our own work and their own words, and they that they only had minor corrections of a few words. He seems extremely proud of his charges and the great progress that they ve made in their education
Letters from family members to Brown include new, and these are included in this report as it as part of an appendix. There is really great excitement at the adoption of the christian faith. A letter from Budapest, mother to her son is really quite touching. She indicates in it that she feels that his education is actually also her education and that she wants to try to follow his example as a new Christian and that when he returned home to them, she is going to follow his example and do as he says, and let him be her teacher. One of the larger messages of more says report, which was told by letters from students of the heathen school is the native Americans are a worthwhile people that are capable of learning and civilising. So, while this is pretty patronage,
Is it still really far ahead of the very common belief at the time that native Americans were so called savages? Who could not be educated? There are many please and the included letters that the President consider education for native Americans rather than removing them two reservations. Sulphur context. This report was filed about a decade before the indian Removal ACT of eighteen, thirty, which led to the forced relocation of many native american tribes,
yeah, that act was really the ideas behind it and the sentiment of sort of fear and just dismay.
idea that native Americans were armies, lands that was brewing for a long time, and this was in early effort to try to connect sway that away from like. Let's not just push all of these people out of the places they live. Let's try to figure out a way to work together and student. John Ridge wrote in his letter to the president that was included.
Horses report quote. It is a known fact that those Indians who have missionaries among them and who live on this side of the Mississippi are coming up with faster steps to civilization than those who have been enticed to move where
The idea of evangelizing and civilising the world both on United States, soil and abroad through this education programme was really popular with church leaders and educators, but the Cornwall locals, weren't necessarily thrilled with the idea of a bunch of foreign people in their white puritan community
one of the concerns, whether these foreign men or going to come in and form romantic relationships with their puritan daughters and
eventually. That is exactly what happened at least in a couple of cases. A romance did
awesome between John Ridge, he was one of the Cherokee students. We talked about him just before the outbreak and the school stewards daughter, whose names Sarah North up and this courtship, which began
eighteen. Twenty four did indeed result in a marriage. They convinced serious family that they should be married.
but the wedding days. Joy was certainly not unexpectedly marred by racial tension. The couple had to make a hasty get away in a coach to get away from an angry crowd that had gathered,
but even once they had been carried away from the ceremony, they faced a really long journey of problems as they travelled to Georgia,
all the way to Cherokee country. The couple had this just basically stay on the DE l to keep from running into trouble.
Compelled the mentioning here that this is early eighteen, hundreds pre, civil war, America. So while it's very easy did
these sort of angered by the racism in play in historical context. This was such an unusual marriage and it was
equally the first time that any of the people that John and Sarah were encountering on the way had ever seen such a pair its. I say that they had never happened before, but they were not common. Just as the scandal over the ridge, Northrop marriage was dying down. Another courtship was brewing. That would really bring things to a few
her pitch about a year after John and Sarah married and left Cornwall jobs, cousin, Elias Food no became involved with a girl from a Cornwall family named Harriet gold. The two of them got engaged against the wishes of basically everyone around them, which just catalyzed Yuri
the locals. You're Harriet was from a really good family, which kind of made people even more incensed,
An Harriet and alliance had the hunker down at her parents house for safety and, as they were kind of seeking refuge there, a huge crowd which was actually led by Harriet brother,
burned and energy of the girl who they felt was betraying all of them by falling in love with a Cherokee man. Even though this had to have been terrifying for both of them. They went ahead with their engagement as planned, and the two of them got married in eighteen. Twenty six asked John and stare. I had done Elias and Harriet made their way to the Cherokee, nay
and after they were married, they all kind of all. Four of them ended up living in what is now Georgia for a while ass. He knew with it.
Community and after that second, marriage. The community really did not settled back down. There were some horrible news reports in the papers that really called the women involved, some really disparaging things and in some ways in adults, wedding bells and the second marriage sort of served as the death knell for the school. As pressure
continue to mount against it to shut down for fear that a third girl would be wooed away from her Anglo New England routes and that it would doom more women from their community to raise mixed race children. I think most likely. The irony of this was lost on the people who were angry. I am one hundred percent certain, that's it
There are also concerns on the part of some of the students, families that the climate in Connecticut was having an adverse effect on the health of their sons, considering how many of them were far more tropical locations entirely
rising and some of the young men attending school who had come from the Pacific Islands did die. Henry o kooky higher was one of the students who had died and while he had travelled widely to tell people about the American Board of commissioners for foreign missions
and the foreign missions school. You never got to go home to Hawaii as a missionary as they had originally intended. He actually died really early in the schools history on February, seventeenth, eighteen, eighteen,
yeah. So even though he had really been the poster child and remember, most of his education had actually happened before the school was founded. He never got to fulfil the goal that was kind of set up because of him of being able to go back to Hawaii
become a missionary and, in addition to being troubling enough setting, of course losing these students
to what is sort of often referred to as like a climate related death here. Is it sort of suggests,
that there is something like pneumonia or a fever that they basically just didn't deal very well with the cold. It was also a fiscal issue for this.
you're. So remember. One of the goals of this whole endeavour was that they were going to produce missionaries and if their investment in the education of these men never paid off because of premature death than the school was basically wasting its money in it couldn't sustain
these three factors which were community outrage, concern about the health of the students and fiscal considerations, eventually catalyzed. The decision on the part of the American Board of commissioners for foreign missions to close the
and mission school in eighteen, twenty six, only nine years after it was founded and in total
about one hundred men had been educated over the course of those nine years by the Heathen school and some of them
go back to their lives, some of
back their lives and kind of abandoned Christianity and went back to their belief system that they had lived with in their culture as before. So it is
an interesting experiment in it's not really something. You would necessarily call a huge success, but it did connects
furthermore, and this movement to sort of a bigger, socio political picture that was happening. You can put it in context of the the history of the time in a really important way. Earlier this year, a book by historian John Demos was published about the Heathen school and it was entitled the Heathen School, a story of hope and betrayal in the age of the early republic. In it he focuses a lot on the racism showed by Anglo Americans, the native Americans, and he characterizes the issue. This way quote for the civilising process imposed a complete renunciation of traditional life ways. As such, it was another form, a cultural form of remove,
in the case of Indians. It meant essentially this let them become farmers instead of hunters Christians instead of pagans, cultured and the mental manner of white people, instead of quote Savage, then maybe just maybe they can be absorbed into the national mainstream. However, by the eighteen, twenty that eighteen thirties, many whites had already given up on that possibility at best seemed impractical at worst dangerous and were coming to favour actual physical removal. This drive them out, send them far away across the Mississippi River, at least, and leave them entirely to them.
And then appoint the fees and let us have their land yeah. I mean I think that pretty deftly sums up kind of what was going on in America at the time, as they kind of struggled with this idea of whether or not they could absorber these so called savages into culture or just push them out, and that was you know a lot of what was at the heart of this school being very experimental in kind of seeming to some to really be a ray of hope and a possible solution to the problem and the body of the schools. First famous student, Henry
a poker high area was move in ninety ninety three from Cornwall Connecticut, where he had been buried when he died. Two greek alors cemetery in South Carolina and he's
There were the plaque pronouncing him. The first hawaiian to have converted to Christianity and his burial spot is cared
or in really held in very high honour by many christian Hawaiians, their festivals? Every year that feature it is considered kind of a hero in many ways,
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the thing: saving money with Geico was almost better than playing pick up: basketball,
there's always that guy who joined your game
he never passes the rock he
instantly bricks theories, and who can
We have you and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul with Geico its ease,
the switch and save on car insurance, no
need a fake, an ankle. Sprain because you're absolutely exhausted so
which in save with back it's almost
better than sports and twenty turned the corner, while historical society hosted exhibit called visions and contradictions before admission school. Eighteen, seventeen, eighteen, twenty six, the exhibit explored the racial and social tensions which caused the end of the school and the opening was intent, was attended by descendants of John region. Sarah bird
Rob and Elias Food, no inherit gold, and one of the reasons I wanted a kind of cover this today is that I think it's interesting that
a lot of times when you see this mentions just sort of an in quick drive by form when people talk about it like online or if you see articles, it's really focused on the religious aspect of it in converting people to Christianity, which is certainly a huge part of it. But what really shut the school down and made it kind of important culturally, where the racial tensions around it, and I feel it John De Mrs Book was one of the first two really address that and not necessarily make it so much about lake. The the conversion that was part of it is can we interesting, and it really does make it a pretty interesting kind of cog in the bigger wheel of racial tensions that was going on in the United States at the time yet, and I really I feel like in my public school education, especially all the discussions about this period of american history and relationships.
In the Anglo Americans and the native Americans, or between Anglo Americans and slaves, and people from Africa really didn't talk about a sort of obvious part of all of that now, which is that the people who are in power, regardless of whether they actually the majority, are the people who kind of set the standard of what is quote civilised and what is quote educated yeah like what is ok to be on the spectrum.
I dont think I really grasped until much later, but that's a really subjective measurement and hid it evidently set by whoever is in the most power. So when we talk about
how these people really did. They were working with with good intentions, were not trying to excuse things that they did that were racist or patronising bits of really put it into context at the time of like they were part of the group that was in power and so the rule
but they followed were considered to be the right ones, yeah, and they were to at least in it. In the case of this school, they are trying to use their powers in a good way. It was just misguided, but in context it was the best they could do so the fan Dorie sort of. Similarly to when we talked about the treaty, a white hanging like it was also in some ways an impasse.
Men and some of the more horrifying and terrible things that went on in relationships between european european people of european Descent and native Americans yeah, I mean you can certainly make the case that it at least these people were sort of considering these people, a native Americans, as maybe not potential equals, but closer to it than they had been viewed by most people. At that point, that least more like human being yeah like animals,
we hear the case with a lot of people. Do you have some was female to move away from this topic, so little heavy. It's one of those properties talk about for a long time, because it's it's big big issues that continue to reverberating. We continue to discuss,
both locally and globally. In oh, it's in there is never an easy answer. Unfortunately, so I have a fun piece of listener: mail from our listener- andy- and it is about our klondike- begins land promotion. Prague cast nieces high, just listen to your truly fascinating Prague calves
on the Quaker Klondike began, slain promotion and I thought the entire thing was great. Loss will material, and then you mentioned something I literally studied on the first day of my contract class in law, school, the Pepsi Harrier commercial law suit, which was Leonard versus Pepsico, and it was filed by someone who acquired seven million points, mostly through purchase and attempted to trade them in for an actual harrier. As you can imagine, Pepsi told in the commercial was meant to be fun,
and not an actual offer. He surprisingly, or not. Surprisingly, the court held in Pepsi favour with the following language in light of the Harrier jet.
well documented, well, documented function in attacking and destroying surface and air targets, arm, reconnaissance and air interdiction, an offensive and defensive anti aircraft warfare depict
if such a jet as a way to get the school in the morning has clearly not serious. Even if, as plaintive contains, the jet is capable of being quite
in a form that eliminates its potential for military use. I found the commercial on Youtube and have linked to it below will include them. Show notes
He goes on to say it's a shame. I didn't get to study the Quaker Klondike Land Promotion is, there must be fabulous cases in both the property and contrast the areas that have arisen over the years
nice, that we get a lot of letters about this Pepsi promotion and I'm so glad because I dont think Tracy was, but I was completing it in my head with, like the cook, rewards things, I was kind of confusing to promotions that were not the same thing.
Oh yeah. I was so glad because that was the thing I remembered spontaneously, while we were literally in the studio when I got back to look it up to the fact that so many people immediately knew what it was and told us meant that I did not have to go. Look it up, and now they me really happy Yet- and I was
really really pleased that, because Andy's email included the quotes from the court on the judgment in the manner which I really really loved.
I also wanted to give a shout to another listener whose name is Zoe and Sheemale. Thus, a beautiful postcard from TOP Copy Palace Museum
and she was trained by her dismay during her trip to Turkey that when they were on their museum tours, the
The tour audio was always really brief and sort of perfunctory, and also that they never talk
any of the fabulous women in history. So it's a beautiful postcard. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you, so that we are keeping that one at my desk tracing. Invite me for it. If you
It is, if you like, the right to us, you can do so.
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history that spread sure dark com, there's some really fun stuff there. If you would like to learn a little bit more related to some of the topics we talked about today, you can go to our parents site has to
Since I've been missionaries and he will find an article called how missionaries work after the failure of the heathen school things were pretty
back to England, Americans being missionary- and you can also go to our website list in history, dot com and shone out, we will include links to reach a truly absurd. One of them has a cool linked to a.
with our paper cut out craft project. You can do you where you build your own model of the heat in school. They had to point that out and shown it, and if you can think of anything,
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