« Stuff You Missed in History Class

The Kerner Commission Report

2021-08-25 | 🔗

Half a century ago, a commission established by President Lyndon Johnson wrote a report that concluded that “Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal.” The reported listed widespread social programs and reforms to counter the problem, and Johnson refused to accept it. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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oh around through a bunch of us at work, suggests that one of us cover the Colonel Commission report at that point, the report's fifty anniversary with just a few weeks away, but the basic conclusion of this report- which is probably the most widely quoted thing out of it that still thought really relevant. That was quote our nation. Is moving towards two societies, one black one white separate an unequal to that point, Our episodes between getting this email from Christopher and the anniversary of the report coming out. Those were already spent the forest, so I didn't make it into the calendar and then last year, the report made headlines again in the wake of the international protests against racism and police brutality that followed the murder of George Floyd and, for various reasons, didn't get into the calendar at that point either in this. So why, though, just as past
I listened Taylor sent us a note after seeing a very brief, as in three paragraphs post about this on Instagram and tailor noted once again that this report, as just ongoing relevance this time in the context of the backlash against what some people are calling the core race theory. To be clear. The ban lashes not against actual critical race theory. It becomes catch all descriptor for any conversations about racism that somebody doesn't like. You condensed version of this report also came out just last month, so there's been some talk around it in that context, so it They might finally, finally time getting it into the calendar for real after three years of people asking about it. The current commission was formerly known as the National Advisory Commission, uncivil disorders. It was established. By President Lyndon Johnson during a period of widespread unrest in the United States, beginning in the early nineteenth sixties,
between one thousand nine hundred and sixty five and one thousand nine hundred and sixty seven. There were more than three hundred incidents in more than two hundred and fifty cities. They varied in how long and how severe they were. But they were mostly described as riots Today they are sometimes characterized more as uprisings because they developed in response to ongoing racism and oppression, to quote The report- the civil disorders of nineteen sixty seven involved, negroes acting against local symbols of white American Society Authority property in Negro neighborhoods wrath. Than against white persons. One of them well known. Incidents from the beginning of this period of time took place in the Watts neighbourhood of LOS Angeles, from August eleventh through sixteenth nineteen sixty five. This started after the Euro. Of twenty one year Old Marquette FRY for suspected drunk driving a crime gathered during this arrest and fry in police physically struggled accounts.
Lastly, what happened during this struggle are really contradictory, during the commotion that followed rumours also spread that police had assaulted. A pregnant woman, The details of this are also contradictory, although many accounts descrie one woman being arrested while wearing a billowing smock that made her appear pregnant regard. these arrests and the rumour surrounding them tipped off multiple days of violence and arson in Watts at Thirty four people died and more than a thousand were injured. Most of them, black residents of the neighborhood hundred of buildings burned to the ground. Incidents like this really seemed to reach it. Peak in the summer of nineteen sixty seven, which was nicknamed the long hot summer violence. gout and predominantly black neighbourhoods of multiple cities. In the U S, and sometimes this violence went on for days, escalating
intensity from things like looting and throwing rocks and bottles and vandalism to arson and gunfire, including sniper fire The national guard was called out in cities like Tamper, Cincinnati and Atlanta to try to restore order uprisings, where National news part of an ongoing developing story that character the whole country as being nearly consumed by rioting. It was there this period that Miami Police Chief Walter heavily used. The phrase quote when the looting starts: the shooting starts, but undulates wealth You work New Jersey, a black cabdriver named John Smith, was pulled over for a traffic violation and was beaten by police. Later. Witnesses saw him being pulled from a police car and basically dragged into the precinct headquarters. The apparently was able to walk on his own rumours, spread that he had been beaten nearly to death or even killed.
When civil rights lawyers were allowed to see Smith in jail, they felt that his injuries called for a medical examined. They demanded that he be taken to a hospital. Tensions between the black residents of Newark and the predominantly white police force escalated rapidly, with resin marches and demonstrations being met by increasing numbers of officers this as to looting fire? gunshots, with police, implementing roadblocks and mass arrests and the nest Guard being called out to try to restore order, at least twenty six p who were killed in Newark between July twelfth and seventeenth, including one white detective, one white, firemen and at least twenty four black residence. So of them. Were children or teenagers people who were killed were shot by police or by the National Guard. While they were in their own homes or vehicles, in some cases, these
stray bullets and in others they were shooting at places they thought snipers were hiding somewhere between Seven hundred in a thousand people were injured during all of this and hundreds of fires and other destruction around the city caused roughly ten million dollars and damage Then, in Detroit Michigan on July, twenty third police raided several after hours drinking clubs, which were known as blind pigs that make probably comes from the prohibition era, when proprietors would charge money to see an animal like a pig and then throw in the alcohol for free disk. The law we're not selling alcohol or selling doings of pigs police. arrested. Roughly eighty people in these raids, most of those people were black, so them had been celebrating the return of two veterans from the Vietnam WAR, much like what happened in Newark less than two weeks earlier. These arrests set off increasing confrontations between residents and police
Pressing to vandalism, looting and arson, civilian, snipers, fired from rooftops and the facts large numbers of firearms from looted stores made this whole situation seems even more threatening police started, making mass arrests. The national Guard was called out once again and President Johnson actually sent an army troops between July, twenty third and July, twenty eight at least Forty three people were killed in Detroit thirty three of them. Black and ten white some of the civilians killed whereby standards or were in their own homes or vehicles, many were either looting or fleeing from looting. later, analysis has suggested that law enforcement use of deadly force in response to looting became increasingly indiscriminate and random. As the uprising went on with report, characterising the deaths as overwhelmingly. Needless more than
thirteen hundred buildings were also burned down during those six days in Detroit, firefighters had two with draw repeatedly as they were, attacked or cotton crossfire or a pin down by snipers, while they were trying to fight the fires about five thousand Detroit residents were left homeless. These uprisings, in both Newark in Detroit also barks similar incidents in surrounding cities in New Jersey, Michigan and Ohio. By this point, the president, was under huge pressure to take action. On the morning of July, twenty eight nineteen sixty seven Johnson told his staff that bad night he would be announcing a commission to investigate these incidents The members of this commission were selected and contacted over roughly the next ten hours with the committee funding coming from the president's emergency fund, the following day. He issued executive order, one one, three, six: five, establishing a national advisory commission on civil disorders, which
specified that the commission will issue an interim report by March. First, nineteen sixty eight with a final report do not later than one year from the date of the order. The commission had eleven members intentionally selected to be by partisan, and to represent multiple viewpoints for women where's of Congress to weekends into Democrats. Business leader chow, I'll be Thornton known as tax was on the commission, as was labour leader. I w able who was president of the United Steelworkers of America, sentiment The questions that the commission was trying to answer were related to policing one of its members with Atlanta chief of Police Herbert Jenkins, The commission had only two black members, Roy kids, executive director of the end, doubly c p and Edward W Brook republican Senator from Massachusetts it also had only one woman can tell. Commissioner of Commerce, Catherine Graham Paden. The commission's chair, was Otto colonel.
Junior governor of Illinois and here. his name, of course, is the one that became most associated with the commission and its work, but the vice chair near City Mayor John Linsey became far more involved in setting the commission's direction and its scope, and we're talk more about the committee itself after we pause for a sponsor break.
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establishing the National Advisory Commission on civil disorders was a strategic move for President Lyndon Johnson. The commission's stated purpose was to determine what happened, why it happened and what can be done to prevent it from happening again. But beyond that establishing a commission? Let the president look like he was taking. Action without actually having to take any specific action yet especially, without having to take any action that might jeopardize or pull focus from his existing agenda. After all, this commission's line for preliminary findings was months away when he announced it. So it was possible, maybe not likely but possible- that by point, things would no longer seem so urgent, even The commission was pulled together over a single day. Its members had also been chosen very strategically
Nobody on it was seen as particularly radical. Although Roy Wilkins was executive director of the and W C p p M, Laboulaye CP was seen as far more conservative than organizations that had arisen along with the black power movement. There were academics. There were no black nationalists, no militants. There were also know young people on average, the civilians who had participated in violence or vandalism in the uprisings were between the ages of fifteen and twenty five. But the youngest member of the commission was in his late thirties and most were decades older. The man I don't care. Junior was also a strategic choice to chair the commission. He was hoping that the president would appoint him to a federal judge ships, so Johnson thought corner would lead the commission towards findings that praised his, listing initiatives and programmes both included things like the Civil Rights ACT that Johnson had and into line nineteen sixty four and a set of reform.
programmes, known as the great society which also connected to Johnson's war on poverty, so he's hoping he's gonna get a report that praises things like the establishment of Medicare and Medicaid. The food stamp nineteen sixty four, the economic Opportunity ACT of nineteen sixty four project heads start, the elementary and secondary Education ACT of nineteen sixty five and living in Urban Development ACT of nineteen sixty five. This did not work out according to Johnson's plan, though, although the commission was named for Kirshner, as we said in New York City mayor, John Linsey took a far bigger role in setting its direction the president had hoped the commission would basically rubber stamp his existing agenda. The commission instead did what the president had actually directed it to do. It examined what had happened, why it had happened and what steps can be taken to provide it from happening again. Member
the commission personally towards cities where riots had taken place. They spoke directly to people who were involved and affected. They heard witness testament by hired investigators and built out of field team that worked under the guidance of social scientists, including about twenty graduate students. Researchers advice three panels, provided knowledge on insurance and riot affected areas and on private enterprise, while, members of the commission were mostly in their fortys and up the field team included a lot of young activists. A lot of them had been trained through or had otherwise participated in the civil rights movement. This work yielded hundreds and hundreds of pages of supplemental studies that were related to speak If it issues which the commission than had to work to distil down into one report that would be unanimously acceptable to all of them. It was pretty.
Really important to the commission that, like they have something they could all sign off on. Otherwise, they thought it would just be doomed to failure even though they were all generally mainstream figures. They definitely did not all agree on everything, so creating a document that they were all willing to sign off on, took a huge amount of revision and compromise a big part. This process was David Ginsburg, the commission's executive director, who was head of the commission, staff He used the skills that he had honed as a lawyer to try to mediate between commissioners, for example, between two stored, who came from a law and order mindset and thought. The basic answered to civil unrest was more policing. John Linsey, who was more focused on improved social services to it ass. Those underlying factors that had contributed to the unrest so allow Those lines
the commission identified some common traits and most of the cities that they studied. Most of them had seen an influx of black residence in the first half of the twentieth. Three and then, especially in the years after World war, two white residents had moved from these cities into the suburbs by the nineteen sixties, about a third of the town, Black population of the United States was living in the nations. Twelve biggest central cities, often them who had moved into these cities had moved from really impoverished rural areas. They were arriving without a lot of money looking for work that sometimes just did not exist there. the resulting predominantly black neighborhoods were desperately under served in Europe, or their referred to almost exclusively as ghettos. Rest of these neighborhoods, had ongoing serious grievances related to things like unemployment to end the inadequate housing poor
schools, a lack of recreation facilities and other programmes discriminate. M M problems with these practices. Often, residents had tried to address those issues through the city's grievance procedures. have been ignored, LISA is also had overwhelmingly white governments and police forces. So a lot of black residents felt like their interests, were not being represented and that they were being excluded. and participating in the government. They also felt like that no recourse when they faced racist treatment from police and every person. The commissioner's talked too, who had participated in the rioting, had either experienced We witnessed police brutality. This for really didn't put a lot of focus on organizations that were working from within these communities to try to make improvements, but many of the issues at work also just weren't things that citizens could fix themselves lake. Community groups could distribute breakfast to schoolchildren or provide
job training and literacy programmes to their neighbours, but they could fixed sewerage systems that were literally crumbling and back of waste into their homes, so there of all of this together with just a year. Here's long sense of futility and intense frustration from cities, black residence a man in a pattern that repeated itself over and over again in the nineteen sixties, some kind of incident triggered a mass uprising. Sometimes these passivity events, were major like an uprising in Harlem New York and nineteen. Sixty four bit started after an off duty police, Lieutenant named Thomas Gilligan, shot and killed fifteen year old James Powell in front of witnesses, but in other cases the precipitating incidents aimed random and almost trivial, like on a particular
hot day in July, of nineteen sixty six police in Chicago turned off. Some illegally opened fire hydrants in a black neighbourhood, and then rumours started to spread that police were leaving the hydrants alone and white neighborhoods regardless of the scale of that initial incident. It tip We follow two months or years of building tensions, and it also typically happened during hot weather most of the homes in these neighborhoods had no air conditioning so residents, spend their free time on stoops in in the streets. Just a try. Get a little relief from the heat. That that when something happened, whether it was large or small people were already outside, so Great crowds of already hot and frustrated people gathered very quickly become. Also noted of the one hundred sixty four incidents they were viewed. Eight of them were major. Those are ones that they described as last.
For more than two days with fires. Looting reports of sniper fire and the use of the National Guard or even the army, to try to restore order. They described twenty three the incidents as serious. So there some looting, some throwing rocks and bottles some fires, but not merely as many as those eight major incidents and those serious incidents lasted a day or two Then they described the remaining one hundred thirty three incidents as minor. Only a few people were involved. They lasted for less than a day, with local police being the only law enforcement who were involved, others, sometimes with the help of police from a neighbouring town. The commission's view, these minor incidents only became national news, because the nation had already primed with this idea that there was an overwhelming tide of violence in american cities, one of them
Incidents directives to the commission had been to study whether there was a national organization or conspiracy at work, some kind of outside agitators who were stirring up trouble in cities all around the country and the commission found that, while some people and organisations did use violent rhetoric or even called for violence, there were No conspiracy and no organised national campaign for violence becomes and also reported that in each of these cities, the vast majority of the residents hadn't participated in the rioting and In almost all cases, there were other residents who had tried to discourage violence or to quote cool things down in some places. These efforts became an organised, official or semi official effort, for example, will count a riot squads made up of local residents in Dayton, Ohio and Sample Florida or nicknamed the White hats, because of the white protective helmets they were issued.
And pulled all of this information together and came to a striking conclusion, quote segregation and poverty have created in the racial ghetto, a destructive environment, totally unknown to most White Americans. What white Americans have never fully understood, but what the negro can never forget is there. White society is deeply implicated in the ghetto. Why institutions created it why institutions maintain it. white society condones it this time now to turn with all the purpose command to the major unfinished business of this nation. It is time to Our strategies for action that will produce quick and visible progress It is time to make good the promises of american democracy to all citizens, urban and rural white and black, spanish Surname, american Indian and every minority group ETA.
their point. The report, red quote race prejudice, has shaped our history decisively. It now threatens to affect our future white racism essentially responsible for the explosive mixture which has been accumulating in our cities. Since the end of world war. To this report, All the state of affairs in cities, black neighborhoods, a failure of all levels of government and called for a quote: it meant to national action compassionate massive and sustained by by the resources of the most powerful and the richest nation on earth. Those resources would include, if necessary, new taxes. We'll talk or about the commitment that the report was calling for after a quick sponsor break.
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crumbling infrastructure pay asperities racism and other issues that had been affecting these communities as well as the city's either inability or refusal to address those issues. It established that riots and uprisings had developed after month, thirty years of ongoing, escalating tensions including long term social issues and serious, underline grievances. The report also said quote the events of the summer of nineteen. Sixty seven are in large part, the culmination of three hundred years of racial prejudice, and then it walked through an overview of that three hundred year history, it called for broad. Sweeping changes to try to address all of this This included seventy pages of specific recommendations based on three core objectives. Those objectives were quote: opening up all
opportunities for those who are restricted by racial segregation and discrimination and eliminating all barriers to their choice of jobs, education and housing. Removing the frustration of powerlessness among the disadvantaged by providing the means to deal with the problems that are their own lives and by increasing the capacity of our public and private institutions to respond to those problems. increasing communication across racial lines to destroy stereotypes. Huh two polarisation and distress and hostility and create common ground for efforts towards common goals of public order and social justice. The cost of all of these proposed efforts was: estimated at thirty billion dollars meant included the creature of two million new jobs over the course of three years, along with job training programmes and educational improvements as educational
events included, ending school segregation, which was still persisting more than a decade after the Supreme Court decision and Brown versus board education and, frankly, still exist. Today, there were all so early childhood education and proposals, adult literacy programmes, housing reforms and welfare programmes include a call to quote establish uniform national standards of assistance, at least as as the annual poverty level of income welfare forms also included. Removing requirements that we're forcing the mothers of young children to work the recommendations related to policing in the criminal justice system reckon did court reforms included plans to administer justice during riots and other emergencies. Both making emergency provisions to deal with increased numbers of arrests and trials, and seeking alternatives to making mass arrests in their report,
also made a lot of recommendations that were related to policing itself. To quote from the report quote we are not merely a spark factor to some negroes police have come to symbolise white power, white racism and white repression and the fact is many police do reflect an express these white attitudes. The atmosphere of hostility and cynicism is real enforced by a widespread belief among negroes and the existence of police brutality and- and I quote, double standards of justice and protection four negroes and one for whites, later on their report. Red quote: the abrasive relationship between the police and the minority communities has been a major and explosive source of grievance tension and disorder, the blame, must be shared by the total society. The pole These are faced with demands for increased protection and service in the ghetto. Yet the agreed
Patrol practices thought necessary to meet these demands themselves, create tension and hostility the resulting grievances, have been further aggravated by the lack of effective mechanisms for handling complaints against the police said, she'll programmes for bettering police community relations have been instituted. but these alone are not enough. Police administrators, with the guidance of public officials and the support of the entire community must take vigorous action to improve law enforcement and to decrease the potential for disorder. So the committee, recommendations related to police included. Things like eliminating abrasive practices, establishing fair standards for dealing with citizens, grievances, recruiting more black people to the police force and developing programmes meant to encourage community support of lime. Horsemen The commission also made recommendations specifically about policing during periods of disorder, include,
making sure police were trained in riot response, which meant responding officers and National Guard who were called out during these incidents were not the commission also recommended establishing methods to dispel rumours and spread accurate information and provide alternatives to lethal weapons for police to use in the field. The report also argued against the militarization of police quote, the commission believes that there is a grave danger that some com, these may resort to the indiscriminate and excessive use of force. The harmful effects of over reaction are incalculable. The committee and condemns moves to equip police departments with mass destruction, weapons such as automatic rifles, machine guns and tanks, weapons which are designed to destroy not control, have no place in densely populated urban communities. The coming These recommendations also related to the news media
it found that much of the news reporting of the uprisings had been generally accurate, though sometimes sensational, ized, but if, at all, focused, mostly on violence, without exploring the cause of the violence. and often the only news being reported about black neighborhoods was about violence. The report call for media outlets to have reporters on permanent assignment to cover she's related to black communities in urban areas and to make this coverage a standard part of reporting, what also recommended recruiting more black journalists at every level of news organisations. So the commission's final report, including that seventy plus page, was the recommendation which, of course, we have not read all of the recommendations here. Seventy pay the whole lot, the solar report. More than four hundred pages long, any
No, the commission's goal was to produce a document that they could all agree to, and they plan to sign that document in a public ceremony that almost did not happen texts. Threatened not to sign it because he felt that the document was anti police and at that point John Lindsey said he would not find it either, because he had made a lot of concessions to make. That final report acceptable to Thornton am I am, though they did prevent their unanimously approved report to the president at the end of February. Nineteen sixty eight You may remember that the commission's preliminary findings were due by March. First, nineteen sixty eight The deadline for the final report wasn't until the end of July, but this The commission's only report president Johnson had realized that its work was not going the way that he had hoped and he had eventually cut its funding. The commission has reduced its staff to a skeleton crew, just we could finish your report with what it had left. The current
Commission report was dramatically different in its scope and its tone from other reports that had been produced in the nineteen sixties related to. The same topic so, for example, the MC The commission had investigated the nineteen sixty five watts riots and, while its report, note the existence of issues like unemployment and complaints about police brutality. It concluded that the riots were essentially meaningless. Outbursts started by quote riffraff. Lyndon Johnson assistant Secretary of Labour, Daniel Patrick Monaghan, had also produced the Negro family, the case for national action in nineteen sixty five. This report had put a huge focused on black families, Perfectly, how many black families had a single mother as the head of the household, and it had framed this as an almost pathological root of the problem, the problem, been quotation marks within black communities. So
with precedents like those in mind, Johnson did not expect the coroner commission to produce the kind of report that it did. One did not praise his initiatives and programmes and, in fact, barely even mentioned them and instead for massive new programmes. That would require huge amounts of money. While also repeatedly. Citing white racism as an urgent problem It did not help. The Daul report came out as Johnson was facing increasing backlash over the. U S: role in the Vietnam WAR, which had its own massive price tag. Such ass had refused to accept this report. cancel the ceremony where he was supposed to accept especially bound copy of it, he had established roughly twenty differ Commission's during his presidency and for each of them. He had personally find letters of banks to the commission's members, but he refused to that for the members of the current commission he did
point Otto Corner to the federal court of appeals, but he blamed Lindsey for the direction the commission had taken, and then this is a side note corners. Your came to an end and nineteen. Seventy four thanks to a corruption scandal, whose way outside the scope of this absurd. But I thought if we didn't mention that people would say why didn't you mention Otto corners, massive corruption, scandal Johnson had announced the creation of the Commission on National television in nineteen sixty seven, but when it port came out in nineteen sixty eight, he essentially buried in the Autumn the piece of legislation that generally connected to the report. Is the Civil Rights ACT of nineteen. Sixty eight also called the Fair Housing ACT of nineteen sixty eight, and that was revived after the report came out. The public response to them what was also divided bantam books, published the full court and it became an immediate best, seller selling, seven hundred and fifty,
thousand copies in the first week and one point Six million copies by June of nineteen sixty eight That is an enormous number of copies of books for any book about US actually for a government report. It also, though, faced a huge backlash because of its focus and white racism and its findings related to police thing beyond that, though, critics did that it mirrored parts of the Moynihan report it sort of framed single motherhood among black women is almost pathological. In fact, women were barely mentioned in the report, aside from being the victims of violence or mentioned as being single mothers, another criticism But the future goal of the report was really envisioning, quote a single society and a single american identity,
So in other words, this report was proposing that black communities assembly with and conform to white norms, which the report just took for granted as the one acceptable standard there, Lord also focused only on cities that it had experienced some kind of civil disturbance and other ones that didn't So there was no examination of why those cities didn't see similar disturbances, even if they had similar underlying factors at work similarly, this report was focused almost exclusively on disturbances in which the civilians committing crimes were black. The chapter of the port that summarize three hundred years of U s- history mentioned various incidents of violence that white mobs enacted against black communities. But there was really no suggestion that that violence needed a thorough investigation into its causes, and it could be done to prevent that in the future. Since Jonathan didn't accept this report, or specifically
at its recommendations to his administrations goals in his final months in office. Sometimes the colonel reports impact is summed up his kind, none of its recommendations were ever enacted. It is absolutely true, that there was no massive bill that tried to put all of these recommendations at the play at Wyant spit over the decades, of its recommendations, did come to pass through other legislation. For example, this report had a big focus on training programmes and the creation of new jobs, the comprehensive women training acts. The sea was enacted in nineteen. Seventy three and tax credits were path of the nineteen seventies and eighties that lead to creation of about seven hundred thousand new jobs. The report also called for things like more funding and power for the equal employment opportunity, commission and that did get a bigger budget and more oversight.
There were also changes to policing which started long before the report was finalized. Johns had declared a war on crime in nineteen sixty five and established the commission on law enforcement and administration of Justice also called Katzenberg Commission, whose report was delivered in nineteen. Sixty seven Johnson had established an office of law enforcement assistance became the law enforcement assistance administration in nineteen sixty eight and in June of that year, Johnson signed the omnibus crime, control and safe streets ACT of nineteen sixty eight. So it's hard to trace one for one path from the current commission report to the way policing has evolved, because there were so many other laws and programmes. already in the works before and during the time that the commission was working. One of its recommendations about police reform or really all that radical, either butts.
missions argument against the increasing militarization of police was obviously not heeded at all one how about the commission's recommendations about law enforcement, the having consulted numerous members of law enforcement when doing its work, three of whom were big enough contributors that the commission them by name. One was: narrow gates, deputy chief of the LOS Angeles police Department, who had been the commanders in the field during the Watts uprising gates later came chief of the LAPD and his tenure, was incurred, We controversy on everything from founding the ubiquitous but ineffective drug abuse, resistance, education programme, making racist comments about black people's physiology to how he led the LAPD in its response to the ninety. Ninety two uprising, in LOS Angeles, whose personal eating factors included the acquittal of foreplay, officers in the beating of Rodney King gets its it's weird
that somebody who wound being that notorious is one of the people personally thanked in the footnotes of this about a month after the current commission report was released. The assassination of Martin Luther King Jr sparked a wave of raw its and other unrest. All across the United States and then, in November of nineteen, sixty eight Richard Nixon when the presidential election had run on a law and order platform focusing on increased policing and a restoration of order, rather than the types of widespread social programmes and reforms that the colonel or had really been advocating Nixon, took office one sixty nine. So, even if Johnson had like really tried to push all this very hard in the last few months, this present the full pessimistic would have been continued into the next presidential administration. every ten years since nineteen sixty eight various organisations and institutions have done retrospective on the colonel report, looking back
what's changed and what hasn't enough changes. What worked in what didn't and generally those reports have been mixed both in terms of the changes and whether those changes led to overall positive or negative outcomes. but regardless of the details, they generally known how much inequality and how many of these social conditions outlined in the report still is Today, the other. There are definitely aspects that you can see some improvement. Like a lot of the communities that were looked at our not ass, Heaven, segregated, as they were a lot of times, though, is still a community of like it has begun instead of a an almost exclusively black community, it has become as a community of law black and hispanic immaterial people still
under a city government that is overwhelmingly white. So it's it's a lot of the changes that that these reports look into have like that degree of nuance like here. Here is a change that has happened. Not Missus really something that that addressed core issues that were at work, yeah, a bit of listener meal for ass. I do something completely different from all of this business from Sonya who says tracing holly. I recently wasn't the swill milk scandal episode and was tickled how'd. You kept and to reassure the audience how spent beer grains being fed to cows was safe. I thought you might be Interested to know that spending beer grain is not only a great nutrition thirst for cows, but also humans. Company Like re, grained are part of the growing up. Cycled food movement specializing in creating delicious, nutritious food products from spent beer grains, apply
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Transcript generated on 2021-09-02.