The practice of the monarch laying on hands to cure sick people lasted from the medieval period all the way to the 18th century in Britain and France. One disease in particular was so often "cured" it came to be known as the King's Evil.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Here's the thing: saving money with Geico was almost better than playing pick up basketball because there's is that guy who joined your game, he never passes the rock he instantly. Bricks theories and who can We have you and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul, with Geico its ease the switch and save on car insurance, no need a fake, an ankle sprain because you're absolutely exhausted so which in save with Geiger it's almost better than sport, Welcome to stuff you missed in history, from how support and welcome to the pot and I'm calling for today I gasped was originally supposed to be about after a ban Don't worry. If you are one of the many many people do asked for that
at our disappointed, by the words, the posts to be that episode is still in the works very early on in researching it. A book that I was reading was sort of setting the stage with the description of life during the restoration that was the return the british monarchy in sixteen sixty in the years that followed it, and why a bit of this description was that when he was restored to the throne files, the second brought back a customary treatment, for quote the kings also known as Scrofula, and that treatment was for the king that such people- I love it. You know medicine, yeah yeah. I knew I knew that the practice of monarch laying on hands to cure sick people had been around during the medieval period, but I did
No, it had gone all the way into the restoration, and I definitely did not know that a particular illness was so connected to it that people literally called it the kings evil. So that was compelling enough to put off after ban until little waiter, conveniently also gives me time to get through the immensely large book. The FIFA Holly saw that book last week with an Atlantic was quite big. I did Tracy was here visiting for work. She held up the book and said how am I ever give get through this because it is really a serious tone. It is, is I am glad that you have more time to work on that when me too, because having that moment where, like when you're in It'll school and you put off your paper to the last minute, except I didn't put off
Bert tell the last minute I just didn't realize, and so I got into it how colossal their research. I, like you, think that's a middle school thing and not say in your forties, Workin eight openly that Eddie you. It is for me, sometimes not on purpose, but you know we do let's stuff, so sometimes things fill in and I dont get as much time as I would like to write a thing, but today we know that scruffy law is caused by the same bacteria is tuberculosis, and tuberculosis has been around for at least nine thousand years. It is one of the oldest, if not the oldest infectious diseases, still existing on earth and most people
are probably familiar with tuberculosis in its pulmonary form, which has also been known as consumption or faces the huge list of historical figures. He were either known or beliefs to have had pulmonary. Tuberculosis is huge. It includes people like John Keats Elizabeth Bear it Browning, Emily Brandy and many many many others. It's come up a lot in episodes of our show that Holly and I have worked on including the history of the Grove Park in terror New England Vampire Panic Alan, and then, of course, Solomon walks
and the development of struck the mice and which was the first drugs successfully used to cure. It. Scrofula, which comes from the latin term for brood sow, is extra pulmonary tuberculosis, so it affects the body outside of the lungs. Specifically, it's an infection of the lymph nodes, that's cause by tuberculosis. Although lymph nodes, all over the body can be effected in general, Scrofula has been used to describe and infection in the neck and when untreated it causes swellings, sores and sometimes abscesses particular around the lymph nodes at the top of the neck and under the jaw, there's a little bit of debate about why a word for Soule came to be used to describe Scrofula and some accounts. It's because pigs were having tumors in their throats and others. It's because Scrofula makes your neck Pick swollen, like a pig's caches fuel
he was riding in the year for forty seven set. It looked quote just like the swollen neck of a sow and some thought that maybe it was that Swellings Emma sores brought on by Scrofula what like pigs themselves now. It seems like them the most unlikely to me, but if we, I read a lot of all medical documents of people, be arriving about why it was called that firm. Like the seventeen hundreds, you know it's worth examination, but today we have diagnostic tests to confirm a tuberculosis infection and thankfully we have the drugs to treat it, especially in places with reliable access to modern medicine. It's really rare for Scrofula to become a serious problem, with the exception of patients whose immune systems or compromised or occasionally in a drug resistant strains of the disease and when treated quickly,
The symptoms are usually limited to painless swelling in the lymph nodes, but before the development of antibiotics, scruffy LE could become incredibly painful and disfiguring. It was also often mistaken, for other conditions that also caused swelling or stores in the throat or neck, or those conditions were mistaken for scrap yellow and these included moms glandular disorders, various skin conditions and cancer. Prior to the germ theory of disease, physicians had all kinds of other ideas about what caused scrupulous under the ancient greek idea of the body being regulated by four Humours Scrofula was caused by an excess of flam Charles the Seconds royal surgeon wrote them
roughly came from the glands filling up with humor. Some positions in history believed it was inherited and not communicable and eighteen. Thirteen, William Turon, described it, as quote a genuine Eddie, a path EC hereditary diseases, and in eighteen, thirty, three John can't called it quote. An hereditary taint can't went on to say quote: the other causes of this disease are bad and unwholesome diet, insufficient clothing, neglect of exercise and want of proper cleanliness. I may also observe that it frequently makes its first appearance after an attack of measles smallpox, rheumatic fever or other debilitating affections, and it is often excited into obvious distance by blows, sprains, bruises or other accidents. According to Thomas spurned, he wrote a treatise on Scrofula in seventeen o nine. It was quote a preternatural,
a malignant tumor or humor produced by a particular acidity, of the serum of the blood either gland, muscle or membrane which it both coagulated and indoor aids were Emma marrow, which had always dissolves and also pewter five. The bone nobody's eating breakfast while they listen to this. There are several parts of Where is it if this were an episode of saw bones? It would be the part where, were you
then, as going, we can move on like that. You can tell us why Sidney to stop saying the gross part yeah. I know I do it just occurred to me that if somebody is a little bit delicate of tell me to these types of things, maybe pause until you're done with your meal, but inference treatise children whose parents had Scrofula, especially if their mother did, while nursing were more likely to develop it themselves and quote here. I cannot admit one observation by the bye that children also who are begotten and improper times of the moon, have been often subject to be afflicted with this evil
and, to the last degree to a virulent see let this be a warning to married people. So let us learn outside here. I pull a made me laugh a lot and link with those lights. That's if love the idea that, depending on what time of the the lunar cycle a baby is made, might make it more. You know led contract. This yeah food went onto list others who were more prone to Scrofula, including people whose blood was naturally to acidic children, who had rickets but we were generally weak people whose bodies didn't have enough quote heat. Forget digestion, living in places with air that was too thin or too thick, or was bad and also salt flower slimy meets or banks not getting it,
exercise according to him, was yet another way you could develop. Scrofula, ok, purifying, bow, is not a problem, but slimy meets is like. The word were creeping up to the edge of my like here. Some physicians did conclude that Scrofula and tuberculosis. Where relate even if all their other ideas about it were completely off base. John can't, for example, who had named its cause quote an hereditary taint, also wrote that consumption was quote neither more nor less than Scrofula of the lungs in an eighteen, thirty, three edition of a text on Scrofula and cancer, but it wasn't until eighteen, eighty two that medical science pinpointed the bacterial cause of tuberculosis and confirmed that Scrofula was caused by the same thing, even then
were Nay Sayers, who argued that scruffy LE was unrelated and not transmissible. Over the centuries, a wide range of treatments were used to relieve scruffy allow or try to be because the glance Western, were usually in the neck. Surgeries could be particularly dangerous, although some doctors did attempt them while still in the world of four humor theory to treatments were often meant a balance. The humours or drain excess through purgatives, diuretics and bleeding compresses, poultices and topical bombs were applied to the swellings tell em for those who thought that too much salt or too thin air those sorts of things where the problems Treatment would include a change of diet or James of scenery and we're going to talk about how Scrofula came to be known as the kings. Evil that could be cured of the king touched it, but first we're gonna pause for a little sponsor break
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gives you access to hundreds of cars from dealerships all over your area online or on the roadmap. We give you crystal clear pricing that includes discounts. Taxes in fees will even deliver the car right to your house, so hit the road. The easy way with road out. Yah. And Medieval England. The name that evil eventually came to be directly connected to Scrofula, but the basic idea goes back. You're than that and also connects to other disease is an ancient, whom the latin Morbus, ridges or Royal Louise was used to describe a number of different diseases, including jaundice and leprosy, which today is known as Hansen's disease. It's not in early clear where either of these associations came from one is the royal, was a reference to gold, so jaundice being called the royal disease is because the color of the patient skin
another theory is that particular royal or noble families were prone to certain diseases long after the time we're talking about today and in other parts of the world epilepsy, and he might feel you have been described as royal diseases because of their connections to royal families. There is some suggestion that people thought Hansen's does
could be cured through a royal touch, but there is the very little evidence of a king actually trying that, although of course, there are biblical and other religious references that are not about a monarch, there are a few very spotty references to monarchs in England and France curing people through touch prior to the tenth and eleven centuries. The first was Clovis king of the Franks, who reigned from four eighty one to five eleven other. The record on that one is very sparse. There are also reports of miraculous cures at the hands of Robert, the second of France, also in his Robert, the pious or Rebecca, the pious who was co ruler of the Franks, with his father from nine eighty seven to nine. Ninety six.
was the sole monarch until his death in ten thirty one, but the first widely chronicled event of the royal touch was under Edward, the confessor. You live from one thousand three to ten sixty six and he ruled England from ten forty two until his death, you ve called the confessor because of his report. For being a deeply pious man and he's the only king of England ever to have been canonized Edward, the confessor reportedly cured a woman of Scrofula, the woman had an infection under her job that was causing swelling a bad smell and multiple sores. She had a dream that if the king washed her with water, she would be cured. So she went to the court and asked to be given an audience. Might sound odd his ears, but asking for an audience with the king for something like this at the time was definitely not unheard of Edward.
investor, along with other monarchs distributed, alms and offered offered comfort to the poor sick, particularly on religious holidays, and in this, when the woman was brought before the king. He asked verbal of water there some variation in exactly what happened next, as described in later accounts, but in general it was more than just a laying on of hands or an anointing with water, combining the miraculous with the medical, Edward dipped, his fingers in the water and touched the woman's abscesses which opened up and dreamed with some of the descriptions of what came out being far grocer than others. He kept dipping his fingers and washing and pressing until all of the putrid
was gone and then he ordered the woman to be fed and cared for out of the royal purse until she recovered. I will repeat that if you go read up about this on internet, some of the descriptions are incredibly graphic. I originally had more graphic stuff in here, and then I was like you know where we're going to read this at ten o clock in the morning would who are both a little? You know still getting used to the day. Maybe this is the will to intense I'm ok with the the Abscess Drake, I'm still back on slimy meet her nervous, so there's something eight about whether this women's symptoms were
the scrapping or whether it with some other condition, but regardless this one of its solidified, the connection between the kings, evil and scrupulous and soon the royal ability to cure through touch was connected. Pretty much only to scrap Yola Thomas Fern, here treatise on Scrofula we referenced in part, one wrote quote, but I beg leave here to make by aggression by the way about our english term, for the stream out or Scrofula this additive, as it is now commonly called the kings evil in everybody's mouth. Before I begin to define what I hitherto only been describing by name and some writers, think that this name was given to any scrupulous or streamers disease long before Edward Confessors I'm but, however, all agree, at least that from his room
it was called. Nothing else generally, am, I may say, vulgarly too, but the kings evil in England. Fern also wrote that the ability to heal it through touch was quote a particular gift to him at first and to no body before him as a singular reward of his holiness, and it was from their hereditary through the monarchy, at least according to this guy. This event also comes up in the work of Shakespeare and ACT for of Beth Macduff amalgam are standing outside Edward, the Confessors palace and a doctor comes through and mentions that there's a crowd of people inside seeking the kings touch Malcolm then explains to Macduff what is going on quote two called the evil and most miraculous work in the sky
king, which often since my here remain in England, I have seen him do how he solicit Heaven himself best known knows, but strangely people all swollen and elsewhere is pitiful to the eye the mere despair of sir He cures hanging a golden stamp about their necks. On with wholly prayers and two spoken to the succeeding royalty. He leaves the healing benediction with this strange virtue. He hath a heavenly gift of prophecy and sundry blessings hang about his throne that speak him full of grace. Although this scene takes place outside the palace of Edward, the confessor, his treatment of this woman for Scrofula seems to have been a one time thing performed on one person, not a mass ceremony with a coin involved. However, it's a really good description of what this practice morphed into in later century.
as monarchs in England and France started touching large groups of subjects at special ceremonies and holidays. Even though a Shakespeare was writing about Edward, the confessor here he was describing was what was actually happening while he was living when people went to get cured of the king's evil Louis Sixth of France. He rolled from no eight to eleven. Thirty seven. Viewed this practice, as quote customer and he treated whole crowds with laying on of hands and the sign of the Cross Edward, the first of England, who ruled from twelve seventy two to thirteen o seven touched more than five hundred of his subjects to cure them of Scrofula. In the, worse of a single month. By the end of his reign, he was touching more than a thousand people. Every year people travelled great distances to the Court of Philip, the fourth of France. He ruled from twelve eighty five to thirteen fourteen and the p,
who travelled the farthest to see him were also rewarded with large sums of arms or ie. The fourth of France he rolled from fifteen eighty nine to sixteen ten touched up to fifty
in hundred people in one single ceremony, I'm just gonna, energetic tier. That seems like a bad public health me that's. I was thinking about like the germs, that how did all of these monarchs not constantly become ill themselves, the great question because they were magical. Clearly it was Edward, the third of England who ruled from thirteen twenty seven to thirteen seventy seven, who first started presenting those he touched with a coin which was described in the passage Tracy read from Beth. These coins became an ongoing practice known as angels or touch pieces and we're sometimes strung through with a ribbon to be worn as a talisman, Edward, the third Father Edward. The second also started the practice of the monarch donating gold,
silver on good Friday, which would be made into cramp rings, said to have healing powers for the most part. The first few generations of this royal touch were viewed as an outward expression of the monarchs personal sanctity and if the monarch didn't have a lot of personal sanctity, a gift and go away. For example, fill up. The first was came the franks from ten sixty two eleven o eight, and he reportedly did practice the royal touch at first until he became too simple for it to work for him. He wound up having the nickname, Philip. The amorous but that connection to personal piety shifted a little bit after the protestant reformation and we're gonna talk about that after we pause one more time for a sponsor break. Here's the thing: saving money with Geico was almost better than playing pick up. Basketball, because there's ways that guy who joins your game?
He never passes the rock he constantly bricks theories and who can neatly hack, you and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul, with Geico it a switch and save on car insurance, no he'd, Facon, ankle sprain, because you're absolutely exhausted switch and save with back up. It's almost better than speed over the years since killer logic, grew up around the kings, evil and the royal touch Scrofula was the kings evil, because kings could curate and kings could curse, could curse, you're, because it was the kings evil. Following this, the same At our the monarch. Practice of the royal touch started to be used as evidence of the monarchs legitimacy as the matter. If the monarch bid thing clearly they were legitimately the monarch It sounds a lot like the Lord of the rings eleven from guy.
or about the hands of the king or the hands of a healer, and so shall the rightful king be known. This shows up, especially in the post reformation reign of Queen Elizabeth, the first, who was queen from fifty fifty eight until her death in sixteen o three her first attempts at the kings touch seemed reluctant. However, after papayas, the fifth excommunicated her and declared her a pretended queen and a heretic. She revived the practice in part, because her detractors claimed that God had taken the gift away from her for her heresy. In one account, a catholic woman came to her and begged to be cured, and when Elizabeth Touch was successful, the woman announced that the people bull was clearly no because God was still working through the queen. Today's episode of the pond cast was inspired by this description of Charles. The seconds revival of the practice during the restoration under the ray
Charles Seconds Father, Charles the first form for healing at the hands of the king, had become a part of the book of common prayer. Charles the first had also had touch peace coins minted that were does inscribed in Latin translated. To quote the love of the people is the kings protection he got executed. So apparently, love was not enough protection for him. Charles. The first was king until he was executed for high treason and the monarchy was abolished. Oliver Cromwell then became Lord Protector of England, Ireland and Scotland. Cromwell was not a king and did not practice the royal touch, but Charles the second, while in exile continued the practice in part as evidence of his place on the throne. When the monarchy was restored, Charles the seconds touch pieces were inscribed with the Latin, for
pray to God alone, John Evelyn wrote about Charles the seconds reinstatement of the practice of the royal touch after the restoration of the monarchy in his diary for July six. Sixteen sixty here's what it said his majesty began first to touch for the evil according to custom, thus his majesty sitting under his state and the Banqueting House, the surgeons cause the sick to be brief. Or lead up to the throne, where they kneeling the king, strokes, their faces or cheeks with both his hands at once at which did a chaplain and his formalities says quote: he have he put his hands upon them and he healed them. This is said to everyone particular when they have all been touched. They come up again in the same order and the other chaplain kneeling and having an angel gold. Strong on white
been on his arm, delivers them one by one to his majesty. You puts them about the necks of the touched as they pass, while the first chaplain repeats quote. This is the true light who came into the world then follows an epistle at first, a gospel with the link with the Liturgy prayers for the sick. With some alteration. Lastly, the blessing. Then the Lord Chamberlain and the controller of the household bring a basin you're towel for his majesty to wash Samuel peeps wrote about it as well. On April thirteenth, sixteen sixty one rating quote: I went to the banquet House and they are so the king heal the first time that I ever saw him do it, which he did with great gravity, and it seemed to me to be an ugly office and a simple one. Parent Charles second also had to set up a system to keep people from coming back four seconds, basically, but that that caused the second
the kings touch on ninety thousand subjects between sixteen sixty in sixteen eighty two. He and his court also tried to put a stop to any one else, treating scrupulous through the laying down of hands Charles the first taken, similar steps and his reign, and they had both also taken steps. Key people from coming back repeatedly. In sixteen thirty seven, a father and his seventh son were investigated for their use of the sums, purported healing powers and now bird had had Scrofula and the child's grandmother. Held the biggest hand up to the neighbors neck, who had then report we been cured, and son, went, aren't, treat many more people but were told to stop it. They were, however, spared further punishment, because folks were basically afraid that,
Their followers word would be angered if they were treated too harshly. Similarly, a Valentine, great rakes, also known as the stroker, had met a lieutenant in Oliver Cromwell's army, but went on to become something of a faith healer in sixteen sixty two. He was suddenly struck by the knowledge that he had the power to heal the kings evil. He started healing people with prayers and laying on of hands, and eventually his fame spread far enough that he was summoned before the court in order to stop after repeated orders from increasingly more powerful figures within the church failed to get him to stop. The ecclesiastical court decided that they were risking the eyes of his followers and they gave up here. Emily wound up being summoned to Whitehall to appear before Charles, the second, the results of which did not make it into the historical record. It's it's. There are so many different ways that conversation could again because he and sorrow
second we're both touching a whole lot of people to drag your their scrofula? So it's it's hundred percent clear, whether Charles second, it was like. Do you gotta lay off? This is my territory or what was more like a meeting of the faith dealers or maybe they touched each other. An event horizon opened up a things got really crazy. No So the idea of the royal touch of being evidence for you with the legitimate ruler, appeared once again during the glorious revolution and the Jacobite attempts to return the stuarts to the throne A third also known as William of Orange and his wife Mary became joint monarchs and sixteen eighty nine
William, only proof only performed the royal touch once sang afterward quote, God give you better health and more sense. Meanwhile, the exiled stewards, including Bonnie, Prince Charlie, kept up the habit, and Queen Ann last monarch of the House of Stewart, touched hundreds of subjects. One was writer, Samuel Johnson who sheet when he was just two years old. In the words of John Kant's eighteen, thirty three treatise on Scrofula, which we read from earlier in the show quote- it appears Queen Anne was the last sovereign who practised such a ridiculous and superstitious imposition and Successor George, the first put an end to the practice in it. after becoming king in seventeen fourteen, because he thought it was just a supercilious hid in France. The Frances
we should put an end to the practice by overthrowing the monarchy in seventeen. Eighty nine see what you did and how we can have the kings touch there. of course, lots of debate about what was really going on here from both a medical, Anna, religious. Since there were doctors and clergy alike who viewed the practice with a lot of scepticism, it wasn't like everybody believed that this was a legitimate healing practice, in spite of the fact that speaking out against the royal patch got it. One person convicted for treason. Much like all of the other people who were told to stop being faith healers with scrupulous the sky was ultimately pardon because they were afraid of angering has found one common cause, graph Yola, then medieval and early modern Europe was contracting a bovine form of tuberculosis.
There are drinking contaminated milk and this comes up a whole lot in modern treatment of this phenomenon. This forum, The condition didn't typically leads you other symptoms of tuberculosis, and it often resolved itself lay you're, giving the patient a heightened immunity to pulmonary tuberculosis as well. So there If people who were like, maybe because so many we're getting as bovine form of tuberculosis through contaminated milk, and then it was, resolving, coincidentally after the monarch, touched them. Maybe that explains it all, but that's really, really not quite an adequate explanation for something they went on, but that many central he's a very long time.
and thousands of people the YAP. I wonder if there's much on the record about the time line of the healing re lake and other than the one where it there's discussion of the pressing of the obsessive and draining them you know it's is it as though people magically walked away with a while in necks ends, were instantly healed according to the record, or is it a case for it probably was just it running its course, and there, like the king touch me three weeks ago, and I feel much better now. Yeah or people selectively, remembering the people who got better rights, not remembering the hook suited. Like I said at the top of show, I knew that this was a thing among medieval marks I had no idea that it continued on and on and on all the weight of the french We should invest
really for a little bit of a loop hang if you liked. Today's episode of our show. You also like a podcast I'll have a whole lot called saw bones sovereigns as a show about medical history. That is not met a very vice, an opinion. It is very fun by Justin and Doktor Sidney, Mcelroy, really, Doktor Sidney Mouth Mcelroy, who is the doktor and just than is kind of her comedic foil? I love them so yeah this month, you may notice On the internet, there are a lot of podcast talkin about trying other podcast. It is a rising tide lives, all boat kind of initiative called tripod, I said, as an we're all in the same one, which we kind of art so we will on our twitter. We, we now know about about substance with the hashtag tripod. You can learn more about them
out there, so I really really enjoy it. They have done a lot of stuff. That is both very funny very informative, sometimes very growth, which is when just like this and you also can participate in all of this. You can tell your friends about park ass. You enjoy in hashtag them tripod, so folks can find all of these cool recommendations at one place have us was near me crazy. have listener my first about a thank you, I'm gonna think Listener Nicole, who sent us a card and a postcard and some Laura see cord chocolates. I ate them, they were delicious thanks. Oh thank you, about two percent of them, and then I also have an actual email. Murmured, nay and Renee is, has written about executive order. Ninety sixty six on the internment of japanese american stirring robot to Renee, says hello, Tracy and,
I am firmly riding into share an interesting family story that connects to the recent podcast on japanese internment growing up my grandfather always told my dad. If anyone asks what you are aware you're Frahm tell them you're an American. We My father, my brother and myself assumed that my grandfather insisted on being called an American because of the discrimination he faced as a mexican American Cannibal engineer in the nineteen fifties many of the companies that hired him only did so because, as white colleagues vouched for him, about ten years ago that my family learned that my paternal grandfather was half mexican have to happen ease. We were shocked, to say the least, my father's, but the first fifty years of his life thinking the hysteria. Ancestry was mexican and german, the german ancestry coming from his mother's side. In addition to this astonishing my father, and I learned more about our family history at my great uncles, one hundredth birthday, they are my father and I spoke with
We members about the secret of being Japanese. We learned that during World war to the family have changed their surname privacy a regionally hyphenated surname that contained a part. That's recognizably Mexicana part: that's ripe, recognizably, japanese and change it to just being the part that is more Mexicans origin. Additionally, the family for Ngos that the mexican in her ten children were actually take him to a processing centre to be sent to a concentration camp, However, the mother and children live in a mexican neighborhood, in LOS Angeles, and the japanese Father was deceased long before the war. Supposedly them can neighbours resident support and wrote letters and signed a petition. The family have no connection to Japan or japanese culture. After this, the family was released from custody and returned to their mexican enclave and change their last name, my grandfather and one of his brow,
There's one onto servant, roadwork too, that my grandfather was the only want to see combat and then she goes on to talk about his being wounded and set back into the field. And then his medical discharge papers are clearly stamped with race mexican. I apologize for the drawn up. Anecdote, however, am fascinated by the story of a mixed rates: family during World WAR, two haven't verified the story being taken to a processing. their eventual release. It may be an exaggerated story of elderly family members, for I know I do know is that my grandfather and the majority of his siblings refuse to acknowledge the japanese ancestry until very recently, due to prejudice, many of them were called derogatory, slurs, spat on and be up. It was apparently particularly hard on the sisters, although I think this is a pretty.
really illustrative example of how immigrants and the American born children navigate what it means to be an american which many times means denying their cultural heritage and changing their names have been a constant listener of documents in history. Since twenty fifteen, when I worked in a university library archive where I spent hours scanning newspapers into an online database. Needless to say, I needed some mental stimulation to get through them, the monotony truly appreciate the research and heart you put into the pot cast. I hope you find the story interesting and feel free to use it on the pod cast all the best when Renee. Thank you redeem for that story. We talked it a little bit about people who
whereby racial or multiracial, but not a not a whole lot, and we definitely did not go and see people who had shared mexican and japanese emphasis Risa. Thank you so much for writing to us about that. We also have got quite a number of people who have told us how to say Tooley Lake, yes, which, if we had been able to see. allegiance thus far we recorded their shows we would have. It is one of the many things that I looked up and did not find any of the sources that we normally use have say. So, if you would like to write to us about this or any other party ass, where history park ass, it has two weeks dot com Ross on Facebook. If a spectacular flash must in history it on Twitter, it must in history our tumblr is most in history, that tumblr com or on Pinterest painters outcome. Flash missed in his
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or, if you can come to our website, which is miss them history, dot com and you will find an archive of every episode we have ever done, which is thirty bowl, and you will also find our shared out for themselves highly, and I have done they could do all that and a whole lot more at house the horse, dot com or missed in history dog. More on this and thousands of other topics is, it has to work stock. I'm pretty sure I'm America's number one gossip colonies, to tell you about my new celebrity podcast naughty but nice with Rob. Shooter Every Monday, three thursday I'll be joined by some of my fellow gossip reporters and maybe even a celebrity or two to serve up the fridge t listen
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