As man was looking to the skies and yearning to fly, two inventive brothers came up with an idea to set humans aloft. The Montgolfiers were among many inventors working toward flight in the 18th century, but they often get all the attention.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Here's. The thing saving money with Geico was almost better than playing pick up basketball, because there's always that guy who joined your game. He never passes the rock he constantly bricks theories and who completely you and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul with Geico. It's easy to switch save on car insurance. No, need to fake an ankle sprain because you're absolutely exhausted, so which, in save with back it's almost better than sport. welcome to stuff you, MR from how support stock allow about coming upon, can hardly fry, Tracy, Wilson Tracy. I have found Hastigt knew what is this It is not gravy
settling houses where but but but but but but but What I love about stuff, we very rigid the very sort of morbid and morose tasted many things, even though I giggly of everyday life, but the sun has none of that. It's kind of a key moment in the development of human technologies. hurray here, Europe, a third world disproportionately jerks there for a while. Yet these people not jerks to the best of my knowledge descent. Stick so back in October of twenty thirteen we had an apple about female balloonist, Sophie Bland charred and the balloon. Romania that was gripping Europe at the time, but it
we're gonna talk about the roots of that balloon o it's pretty close, because this is a very explosive moment in terms of interest and excitement about air flight and we're gonna talk about the inventive minds of two brothers that really shaped ballooning and we actually didn't talk about them. Briefly in the Blanchard episode, but their work, sort of deserves its own episode and the inspiration for this episode actually came from working on? My house have works article awhile back about drones that I was editing in our art department. Put together this really fantastic, interactive graphic about the ways humans have taken to the skies and unmanly over the years and one of the earliest points on that clickable timeline feature Joseph me, Jacques Etienne negotiate, and so I thought it might be fun to talk about them Joseph Michel was the odor of the brothers born on August, twenty six, seventeen, forty and Anna France. He would go on to go by Joseph,
Etienne or Etienne Jacques, depending on which document you're looking at risk. I just called Etienne and he was born about four and a half years later on January. Six. Seventeen forty five so far time line if you are a fan of our prior Sophie Blanche, art episode, as about the three decades before she was born, yeah and the discrepancy in terms of talking about it is that his name is listed different ways on different documents of his birth certificate and death, forget our opposite. One says jacket in ones as Jack, just a heads up there if you're like why and why are they flippity in addition to these two others, their father, Pierre, negotiate and their mother, and do they had fourteen other kids that's a lot of children and fortunately Pierre, was a very successful business man, so he was able to support that massive family and the way he did
was through a family business, because the monk is owned. A number of paper factories in France, all of which were doing pretty darn well Joseph attended I've at school, in a Jesuit college, but school just really didn't quite agree with them, mine was really busy and he had trouble focusing on one thing: sort of like some other people in the room right now, eventually left to start his own chemical business in Paris at the end, went to school to be an architect He was also interested in science and it wasn't long before birth. He and his brother continue to run the family business as adults. Etienne was bitter better at the business side of things he had become the head of the families paper factories at age. Mr Pierre retired, and their brother Raymond, who had been in charge of the business pass away. Just
on the other hand, was always interested and innovating and putting his chemistry knowledge to work to improve the processes in the mills that they owned. Yet every time you see any mention of Josephs business acumen. Like point. He was running his own chemical business. He was not good at that part of it. He tended to lose a lot of money because, as we said well will focus issues but the income from the paper factories would give Joseph and Etienne the financial freedom to explore and experiment in the science of ballooning. and it's not entirely clear why or how the two began thinking about air flight. There are so many apocryphal stories about how this happened. One was that one, bits of burning paper lifted, the air from a fire got them started. Another was that it was simply watching smoke arise from a fire. They gave them the inspiration to think about how air and smoke and lift worked
another suggests that Joseph was watching his wife's shawnees dry over a fire, and he noticed how the fabric billowed out is warm air was trapped underneath it, but we do not know if of those are true or not sound, like ballooning versions of being hit with an apple the very much depending on which biography you are looking at modern ones kind of acknowledge we don't know, but some of the older accounts and even accounts that the the gentlemen gave in their lives. They shift a lie, and you can tell it's kind of like we don't know so we're just gonna plots something here that that makes some sort of fence. So that's why we have a. we indifferent stories about it, but the important thing is they bid start thinking about it and seventeen. Eighty two, the brotherly, observed that when heated air was contained in a lightweight vessel made of paper or fabric that vessel would rise, they actually thought they had discovered a new type of.
Asked, but with wider than air, and they named that negotiate gas, theory was the Mongolia gas was contained in the smoke from the fire and that it possessed a property that they called levity, which brightens my day a little varied of course. Over time it would, you know, proved that it was. It was as the heat that was in making the regular arise, not activating some sort of hidden gas that was present in the air. and we should also point out that, while the Mungo fees are often credited with inventing ballooning- and while we are talking about them specifically at length today, they were, Certainly not the only people experimenting with the idea of flights, and they were not even the fur to be filling lightweight bags with air to make them float. Portuguese priest, Bartolommeo Lahore, inserting goose now, which I probably butchering was.
loading small balloons in the early, seventeen hundreds and he was working on designs for a much more sophisticated airship based on those bullion experiments when he died in seventeen twenty It appears, however, that the negotiations did not know about those ballooning experiments going on it. to go earlier in this century, filling balloons with hot air to lift them up was also employed in China Way before Europeans ever got. This idea rising. in terms of this nature were common in China as early as the third century, so this was a long time before her before billions or even thinking, hey. Maybe if I felt a bag with this, it would rise whenever I see like those sort of- and I I know, because we both work in Editing- and we do you copy that- sometimes you just have to like cut down extraneous stuff to make but whenever, if you see like a blurb or something that says the monk Alpheus first ever, you know achieved
balloon flight, like let me the whole lot of qualified linearly Nigeria and I urge you and during the time that Joseph and its yen were at work on their believing efforts. There were also so many other of their contemporaries in Europe, working on similar ideas ever mentioning all of this just to make- that, while these two gentlemen do get a lot of credit for inventing manned flight, it might be more accurate to say that they were of many who are working towards that goal. At the same time, and a bit of lucky timing happened to be on their side in April of sex. In eighty three, the monk Orpheus began testing their theories and earnest grading if models are balloons from fabric and paper and trying out their airworthiness? They also experimented with different flammable media to determine what would burn the best, the most controllable rate to heat the air, so that it didn't just become an alarming conflagration of burning balloon
There were some instances that happened in their testing, but on June, for of seventeen. Eighty three, the brother, do oh, went to the energy market place to present their work in heated air by way of demonstration so they set up the silk balloon was lined with paper. It was huge had a diameter of thirty three feet: that's about ten metres They arranged straw and carded wool beneath the balloon. They had determined that burn the best under the bags only opening so than they That's drawing the wool and heated the year within their vessel that this was stinky. Probably it seems like especially the burning. Will we be growth So once the interior air was heeded, the bag rose up off the ground. Estimates place it at an altitude of about three thousand feet, which is a little more than nine hundred meters at the highest that it reached. staying aloft and drifting for about ten minutes, the balloon drifted back down to earth
only landing about a mile and a half or two point four kilometres from the market place where they started out this demonstration- and this is pretty exciting to Everyone in the success of their Antony display led them to Paris, look at They see also wanted to hear all about the balloon experiments. So Etienne went to give a talk there about their work. Here were honoured by the economy. For that work and if you're wondering why only Etienne spoke with the economy in Paris, it was because the pair were hunted in many places at once. Once they had done this demonstration, so Joseph was being at the Leal Academy at the same time remain intact, briefly about how very not accidental the success of the monk obviate brothers was. But first we pause for a brief moment. Sponsored sounds great. Here's the saving money with Geico was almost better than playing pick up basketball, because there's always that guy who joined your game
he never passes the rock he constantly bricks theories and who completely you and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul with Geico, it's easy to switch save on car insurance known the vacant, ankle sprain, because you're absolutely exhausted, so which, in save with Geiger it's almost better than sports. So all of this attention and praise was not, as we mentioned a moment ago, a situation where two gents we're just goofing an accident we found themselves the toast of the country and keep in mind too that these were like super young guys they were in their thirties at this point, so they were strategic thinkers who were very smart man and they had selected this eight for their Anna exhibition to coincide with the meeting of local leaders, so that people with some influence could witness what they had been working on
At the end and Joseph were hoping to get the attention of the crown and launch their careers as scientific elites financially supported by the king and that plan to get the head of the country, interested in their billions. Actually word from the presentation in Paris. The brothers headed to Versailles, to repeat this balloon display for King Louis. Sixteen But this time they aim for a bigger, more ambitious experiment. They wanted to send a more structured balloon up in this time, have passengers and to execute the poor. Like the Mongolia, is needed help, so they call them and skills of wallpaper maker, Jean Baptiste, Bolivia, young. And with levy or help, they constructed a balloon that was slightly smaller than the previous one. It had a diameter of thirty feet about nine meters, but this bill and which has also made from taffeta, was varnished with alum to fire. Profit and it had a decorative painted finish, the selection of soldiers was also a significant step in the process. There are some serious can
earns about what flight in a balloon might due to a body, assuming they are also worried about what would happen if it crashed while King Louis, the sixteenth, propose. But prisoners speaks for the test. The monk obvious, ready to go with a different plan this is kind of one of those things that you'll often see cited as a wacky but the reasons for it or pretty cool. So those first writers a month in among Gulfy, a balloon baskets we're not humans. They were a duck. a rooster and a sheep. In the logic, was it The duck was a naturally flying animal. It was considered something of a control elements rooster was selected because it was a bird, but it was one which who only short short distances very close to the ground, so it was like the next. level of risk up from the dock, in terms of what its body may be able to handle and then the sheep was believed to be similar enough to a human physiologically that its success or failure as a passenger would give a pretty clear into
a ballooning, was safe for human might, be the silliest criteria for an experiment. We have ever talked him I love it, though, there's a logic to address current, certainly, but I always wonder what kept the duck from flying out, but that's never come to mean, similarly to the one that we had about the volcano than did the people fought by spring water This whole idea of the balloon animals ass just sounds like child logic, to me: It's like a brainstorming offer of a kindergarten class. however, this occasion was anticipated with great excitement about, hundred and thirty thousand people, including the king and Marie Antoinette, were on hand to witness this historic moment and it's very odd cargo, and those three barnyard aeronauts were successfully launched on September nineteen of seventeen eighty three and they flew for eight minutes,
animal lovers in the crowd. You may have already guessed because I'm giggly about it will be happy to know that Third and Willie Trio made a perfectly safe landing although they had drifted approximately two miles. It's about three point, two kilometers. While they were making his in the air. I hope they weren't scared sure they were probably a little confused and possibly scheme. Like I said, I dont know why the duck wouldn't. Does me like about time. We, like I'm having your shenanigans, a world of to this bullet the animal experiments programme so well. The Mongolia brothers were eager to step things up and trial balloon carrying actual humans and, after a couple of months of prep on November twenty first, seventeen three. They made a history by launching the first man on tethered balloon flight and
the man who got to experience that exhilarating flight we're not among Gulfy Brothers, the brothers state on the ground and kind of set up the whole thing though the two people were high profile, balloon enthusiasts so, the man was gene transfer, pilato closure with who was a chemist and head of the county. Countess deplore Valses cabinet of Physics, chemistry, unnatural here, three who was known for his very flamboyant approaches to communicating science concepts. He would be a really fun topic for the future. A fly he might be. and perhaps the most senior had actually been in the balloon before so about a month prior on October. Fifteenth uncle fees have launched a tethered test flight with him as the human occupants, and that lasted just in it. The other gentlemen, was France, while Aura Marquis blocked Garland, who was soldier at a noble
Inclusion in the event is said to have been the result of effort on the part of the king to ensure that some one from the nobility, with part of this historic moment when human fight with achieved and the balloon itself was a rather spectacular looking thing if you- Do in internet search for it you'll see many many pictures and there are even modern balloons that have been designed to replicate it, because it's it's so iconic ballooning. So it was blue with intricate gold designs on the exterior, including symbols that were associated with King Louis, the sixteenth, remember. They were very into currying favour with the king in the passenger area. This is kind of the parliament that I really love. The passenger area was not a basket like you'd Sienna balloon today that sat underneath it, but rather a ring around the opening at the bottom of the balloon where he could be applied. here within so you have. The picture is sort of like a flange bottom and then the flange forms this little ring that the the human occupants could be in
There was also a red bunting around the passenger area. It was very festive faithfully less than half an hour about twenty five minutes, took them about five and a half miles or eight point six kilometers in the process as they were. Who's up into the air they doff their caps to the spectators below and their beliefs had started at its lifted. Chateau Adela Mew it on the far western side of Paris landed at love, youth acquire the crown Odd, which included Benjamin Franklin was completely wowed Ben Franklin wrote about them a bit in his his accounts of his time in France, so they are on record in his writings. looking to the next level of achievement. The next plan for the french brothers was harry larger groups of people by air and to that end, two months after that, first unfettered flight and after a failed start that they had tried to make, which is,
derailed by rain and a small fire. They did launch a balloon kid. Joseph and several passengers into the air in the all France on January. Nineteen. Seventeen eighty four this, but was massive. It was a hundred and thirty feet about forty metres in thy. her and their landing on this one was not ideal because the errand we'll cooled really rapidly, and it caused much speedier descent than they were planning. But everyone did make it safely, although they had only been in the air for about fifteen minutes, however, even with their increasing triumphs. The Mongolia Yeas and other ballooning enthusiasts having their own projects. That flight started running into the same problems over and over and for one thing they had figured out how to steer the balloons very pretty much go up and then be at the mercy of the air
for another, the altitude that a balloon could reach and the distance that it could travel were limited by the air in the balloon, which of course, was cooling off over time and cans about fire, initially lead people away from the idea of keeping some sort of onboard flame going to stay in the air. and so alternate gases were considered. This is part of why, just ten days after the negotiate sent pillar floods of closure and long aloft for the first time Their inventor Jacques, Alex endless, says our Sharm launched the first man. Hydrogen filled balloon the terrible idea. Well, I've had its plus or minus thirty folks, you rightly yes for the folks. You remember our hindenburg pursued here, Charles had been working with hydrogen throughout the time that, among all these had been developing their balloons, he actually started doing this because he thought that was what they were doing and
the brothers barely beat him to manned flight. His December first, seventy Three large flew twenty seven miles, which is forty three point. Five kilometers in it lasted two hours. This is quickly recognised as a superior away to get people into the air. Yet so, at that point, everyone was like hydrogen is where its at June. Fifteen, however, of seventeen. Eighty five tragedy struck the ballooning world when John Francois Pillar the closure died in leaning accident. He was crossing the english oh in a balloon which was filled with a combination of hot air and hydrogen when it exploded, and so less than two years after he made history and unfettered flight, the hobby for which he held so much enthusiasm, claimed his life and also made him. It's for. Brutality. Next, we will talk a little about how all this balloon business was affecting the fashion culture of four
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the answer? They want you to be successful, so you too can set your website apart and to do that, you can start your free trial. Today. It squares these dot com enter offer code history to get ten percent off your first purchase again, that is square space, dot com offer code history to get ten percent off and make the beautiful website you deserve and have always wanted all of this amazing stuff was going on and it was incredibly exciting to Europe, but especially to France, since a lot of the the big steps were happening layer soon balloon themed items were popping up everywhere. There were balloon mode. If some, almost everything that you could imagine, including clothing, I would totally go for a t shirt with that. First, animal crew, F, balloon
to everything from embroidered motifs. Two hats designed to look like balloons, became really trendy and fashionable the Harrison how's that women started wearing, especially if they were Bands of ballooning were sometimes styled into these bulbous shapes to look like balloons, people or, in short, knowing sort of bananas with balloon fashion. To the point that a satirical cartoon entitled low oh. By long who love only de jure, that's the man of balloons or the folly of the day was published. And this illustration features a gentleman wearing basically balloon everything His shirt and pantaloons are drawn to mimic the shape of balloons, and his coat is adorned with both balloon, cuffs ambling buttons and his epaulettes and shoe buck and here adornments are all balloons and in lieu of a cod, a mini balloon sits a decorative element on his hat
and, while all of this vast nation, with balloon fashion, started in France, it quickly started to spread to London and New York over the course of seventeen. Eighty three and seventeen eighty four, but of course fashion is pretty fickle the more outlandish. The tram often disorder its lifespan, so by the time balloon Everything had become popular with the middle class, the trendsetters who had initially adopted it were done with balloons balloons over next. We would under ships it sort of fabulous there, sir, if you there is actually a hack called among Gulfy HAT, which was inspired by ballooning, has kind of a big goofy crown on it you're into it, but going back to them on Gulfy, specifically the issues that they were encountering in their balloon development efforts per day. It will be. The flight control eventually led the brothers away from ballooning the kind of filling they had done as much as they could do
their careers and science and invention did not end there. Alongside Balloon development among off here also been working on parachute ideas, which sounds like a good companions ballooning just Joseph eventually designed one that consisted of a dozen fabric panel, stick together and attached to a basket which was cushioned within wait. Awhile pig bladders. They tested this parachute by dropping a sheep from from a tower in. It would maybe not most humane, my labor I may already I'm a little, both both termed an arms to upset by sending here up in the balloon but more upset by throwing a sheep off it out a tower actually was too. When I was researching this Emma, I did not see anything definitive about how the sheep fear
and all of that, but in their minds, since it is already established that sheep or similar enough to humans to abroad sort of comparison terms of safety. I guess that was the most plausible here. I think when we're done recording- and we just make a little comparison chart of sheep and human figure out. How exactly are we that similar, but after this, the way from ballooning. Etienne went back to the family business. As you recall, he was the one that really had a head for. Business was quite good at it and he made drive in the paper industry when he invented a vellum production process. He was also recognised as a leader in the field of paper production and he was given the title manufacture coin, which basically man he was at the top of his field, and perhaps it greatest achievement, though, in this period of his wife was keeping their business running. successfully throughout the turmoil of the revolution in the economic tumult, the grip France, in the wake of the power
shift, he also got involved in community and government and eventually became the paymaster of the french Ward apartment. He was serving in that Happily, your office when he became ill and decided to travel homes, a name and en route he got so ill that he decided to stop and he actually died on August. Second, seventeen. Ninety nine yeah, your salary air at the time and as for you if he went on, to invent a liquid distilling apparatus that could function at reduced pressure in temperature compared to others, and he also invented in application of that device that could be used to dry fruits. and he also invented a hydraulic ray of that was used for raising water. So keep really was doing a lot of interesting things and for those accomplishments he was made a member of France's Legion of honor and he was appointed to the east.
you to France and he basically worked constantly as both an inventor and a lecturer until eighteen, o nine, when he retired, due to failing health in June of eighteen ten, he travelled to Bela Hook labelling. In the hopes that the curative waters there would improve his condition, but in fact he died there on June, twenty sixth and paper company that in the Mongolia. Family is actually still in business, although after changing names to Council and Emma Gulf yea, and now it is just cancel your kind of love that its going on. I rather think that didn't verify it so don't take this fact that it is in the midst of possibly being purchased. So, by the end of this year, it might be owned by a different company, and I dont know if it will change names but right now it is on paper and it still exists and has been around since the early. Seventeen I was going to say Unilever because it seems like every consumer product we talk about, ultimately ends up
it's an italian company that is, is allegedly buying a big. They primarily focus on making art papers. It's not like a business paper manufacturer nice if it's a little bit different kind of business, not quite not quite what you might think. I, when you think of it, this is being bought by another big business is a little bit o Brien delivery and plus, if you feel like art supplies, then then AIDS, who doesn't like article I do you, even though I am bad at are known. Automatically. Very few people are automatically really good at arms I know a lot of artists, actually did an interview for house of works. This'll, be my art proselytizing moment that I think everybody should try. It we did an interview with brains, belfries, who is a well known, comic book artist and is now working on the black Panther Comic and one of the things came up in our interview when I asked, if he just the ever, has at moments like Madam super good. At this end he said you know what I don't have natural talent
here's a brother that is very, very talented, me said minors just years and years of this and skill in learning that masquerades as talent to people that do not know that I have put in all that time, but he's kind of like the tale of. If you love something and he really work at it, you can just become skilled at it. Here is what happens to me at arts. Beautiful paper and pen, I bring them home and then they go in a drawer You are or an artful consumer that kind of an expert, but we also have some listener mail. I do and it's really cool- and you haven't seen it yet so here we go, it is for our listener. Erika is awesome. She says dear Tracy, and how we ensure that, in a beautiful little Fox guard, I was catching up on podcast.
was thrilled to hear your mention of now, bending in your history of knitting episode, I am allowed under and also teach it to my students, along with knitting at the college that I work at I learnt now. Bending ETA Guard school in Iowa and the teacher told us a lot about our history of the craft now been items, felted are very warm and virtually waterproof fishermen would wear now been stockings to keep warm and dry. For example. Another neat thing about now, bending is that if you cut or tear it it will unravel, which is very different from knitted crochet items. I wanted you both to be able to see and feel now bending, so I made to phone posies or whatever you want them to be. One is not felt in so that you can see the herring bone, stitches and one is, is felted so that you can see what more finished peace looks like I hope you enjoy them now. Building is off
I warmly because Tracy's Freaking out now building is a fun inflexible craft, so I enjoy spreading the word. Thank you for the very pod cast. My students will be listening to the knitting when, Megan is so. These are really cool. I'm actually gonna use. Mine is a glasses case because it's perfect signs for that as well in my phone Frankie there are certain of the evil, He lay outside interests. I feel it. But I dont think you would like that at the moment it is What do I look tired and excited It is so cool. These are absolutely beautiful, beautiful, beautiful it's one of those things that, as I was opening the partial I was like one. What is anything
the card and they got even better. So thank you. Thank you. Thank you it. These are so cool. I am actually borderline speechless, which everybody knows is rare and free gdp. Thank you so much erika I will put a picture of those upon our social. They are amazing. Like I said, mine is getting duty use amazed. That is the glasses case. So we'll pick one of each fats will decide if we want the felted one of them. Felt at one and tracy- and I will do it out- not really we just chat and agree. We can work it out when we see each other for our upcoming life shows, which may have already happened by the times. Episode comes out. Cosette soon if there's a lot of stuff going on If you would like to write to us, you can do so at history. Podcast at Helstone works dot com. We are also on virtually every
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