Once Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine, it spread from England, where he lived, to other parts of the world. Meanwhile, events were unfolding that led the Spanish Empire to launch a huge expedition to take the vaccine to its colonies.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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creative primary care. Welcome to stuff you, minister,. three glass a production of Iheart radio hello and welcoming the hard gas I'm Tracy. Well, then, I'm home, fry way. Back in twenty thirteen, we had an episode on Edward Jenner and the smallpox vaccine has also been a Saturday classic more recently. In that episode we mentioned generous effort. To send the vaccine to anybody who needed it. But we really didn't get into any kind of detail about what it actually took to distribute the smallpox vaccine around the world. We did briefly mention the voyage of Francisco Javier, the bombers who carried the smallpox vaccine from Spain, to the Americas, using a chain of young boys who acted as living vaccine hosts, and in that twenty thirty episode. I said I
to do an episode on that someday, given how much focused there is on vaccines, world right now and on the logistics of actually getting the vaccines to the people who need them. The seemed like a good time for it, but then, as I was researching this expedition, which I imagine does like a straightforward one part out of the show I kept going down a lot of rabbit holes like how the vaccine to other parts of the world
and how it went up already being established in some of the places that bomb is went on this expedition like he would show up somewhere and they would be like all, were vaccinated already. How did that happen? So this grew into a two parter. Today we are going to talk about the smallpox vaccine spread from England where General lived in other parts of the world and will set the stage for what led the spanish empire to launch this huge expedition to take the vaccine to its colonies and the next time we're going to talk about the expedition itself and its impact, and just as a heads up the process of vaccinating people for smallpox and for propagating that vaccine in the 18th and 19th centuries. That was gross. Like I kind of recapped the subject of this episode.
For some friends, and I was like I'm going to get into the details as we're sitting you're having this casual conversation cause it's kind of groups and a friend of mine who is a nurse was like. Oh, I know how they did it and now I'm upset. So I've tried to put most specific medical details into like one easily Schiphol part of the episode, but it's really not possible to talk about the details of this expedition and the challenges they face without referring back to that at least some. Why so things like sores and bodily fluids and needles really bother you. These two episodes might be a little more of a challenge you're not going to repeat the entirety of her. Twenty thirteen smallpox episode, but we do need to set the stage with a little bit about the disease and its vaccine, including some of the details that we're not in that episode. So Well, box is caused by the burial of virus. It has been around
needed in the wilds today, but while it was circulating freely in the world, it was a devastating illness in places that had a long history of smallpox outbreak It was typically fatal in about one third of cases, but when it was introduced into places that had never encountered it before it killed closer to half of the people who contracted it. The disease was also protect really deadly in babies with a much higher mortality rate. between eighty and ninety percent people who survived smallpox we're typically immune to it afterward, but often they had extensive scarring and long term health effects, as early as the eleventh century. Practitioners in Asia developed a technique called very elation, which used material from smallpox, sores or scabs to deliberately infect people with the disease and most of the time, people who contracted smallpox in this I had a milder and less deadly infection than they would have. Otherwise, when very
nation was about eighty percent. Effective very elation could still cause fatal complications, though it involved. transferring material from one person's body to another. So if that first person had some other illness that could all be transmitted along with the inoculation and some of these illnesses, were otherwise involved were serious. These are things like syphilis and hepatitis and violation was in use for centuries. Before people really made this connection about two percent of the but who were very elated died either from smallpox or from another illness or infection that they contracted during the process. is also possible for other people, too, develops full blown smallpox after exposure to someone who had been very elated so
very election was safer than an uncontrolled smallpox outbreak. It still had some very serious risks, the practice of very elation first from Asia and Africa and its possible than enslaved Africans practiced it. Amongst them. Helps in the Americas, but Europeans and european colonial officials didn't really start to become aware of it or involved with it until the eighteenth century, one of the biggest early proponents of regulation in Europe was Lady, Mary Worley Montague, who was the daughter of a duke and survived smallpox when she was twenty six a couple of years later? Her brother died from it Sheila, bout very elation, while her husband was serving as the british ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, she had her I'm very late in one thousand, seven hundred and eighteen and her daughter in one thousand, seven hundred and twenty one and she became a vocal advocate for this practice
Also in seventeen twenty one very elation became more popular and more widely known in North America. After a small pox outbreak in Boston Massachusetts, the Reverend cut rather learned about variation from an enslaved man named only see Miss Mapp and physicians Abdul Boyleston used violation to try to control the outbreak. Very elation was introduced into lay as early as the seventeen sixties, but for the rest of the spanish colony, The Americas came a little later again. This is like the colonial authorities, knowledge of it not necessarily whether enslaved people were performing it among themselves Esteban Morrell administered the first documented variolation in New Spain, and what's now, Mexico and one thousand seven hundred and seventy nine and the practice was introduced into other parts of the spanish empire in the 1770s and 80s as well,
Oh so we noted earlier that very elation was still a risky procedure and efforts to introduce it as a preventive measure could have tended and devastating effects beyond complications for individual recipients in seventeen. Eighty nine smallpox break in Australia spread to its aboriginal peoples, who had not encountered the disease before the source of this outbreak might have been smallpox material that british doctors brought to Australia for the purposes of inoculating people, although there is some debate about whether that material would have still been infective by the time the outbreak started in the late eighteenth century. Various people in Europe noticed that milk me. It seems to be immune to smallpox. The connection here was another viral illness called cow pox, which is much milder and less lethal than smallpox
Edward Jenner was one of the people who made this connection and also one of the people who tried to intentionally expose people to cow pox with the hope of giving them immunity to smallpox. The word vaccine actually comes from the latin word for cow. For this region, Jenner did this for the first time in one thousand, seven hundred and ninety six, and although he wasn't the first to try it or even the first to do it successfully, he did devote himself to it. Afterward later he published a pamphlet, called and hurry into the causes and effects of various lay vaccinate which detailed his work with the vaccine and became a man. your source of information about it here, LT in immunization clinic in his garden, which he called the Temple of Vaccine IA and he sent vaccine samples to anyone who asked for it as Tracy mentioned earlier. Although it is still possible to try many other diseases during the vaccine process intentionally exposing someone to cow was far
less risky than variation was so here is what this process actually involved, which will be the most squeamish part of these episodes. You would start by draining and collecting the limb from an active com HAWK sore, and then you would use the lancet a needle or some other instrument to pierce the skin of the vaccine recipient typically on their arm. He would introduce the limp to that opening and then have everything went well. The vaccine recipient would contract cow parks and nine or ten days later they would have a sore that was ready to be harvested to make more vaccine, but then having recovered from cow pox, they would be immune to smallpox for years, afterward Jenner actually thought this immunity was for the rest of their life, but that turned out not to be true Jenner and others worked out some ways to preserve cow, pox, limb for future use. This included impregnating, silk threads with limb
and allowing them to dry or ceiling lymph in vials. Another method was to dry the limp and seal it between glass plates to be reconstituted before use, eventually People worked out ways to preserve viable lymph on the ends of land sets, but none of these methods were perfect. The lymph lost its potency over time, especially in hot or humor whether it was extremely common for Jenner and others to send vaccine samples that just did not work by the time they got to the recipient, so the most reliable way to keep a viable supply of smallpox vaccine, especially for alone time or in hot weather, was by propagating it through. The people who were being vaccinated was also known as the arm to arm method. Nine or ten days after being vaccinated people would need to return to the practitioner, so their lives could be used to make more vaccine. seems then those recipients who do the same thing and that would go on an I'm like a chain keeping a vaccine
Graham going with this process required some planning numbers very based on the skill the practitioner and the cow pox or itself, but most of the time you could get more We'll doses of vaccine from one cow, Pox sore so at least in theory, three. The number of people you could vaccinate would grow over time, even if you were also trying to serve some lymph as a backup. But if people stopped, Turning to have their lymph collected or if a community ran out of people to vaccinate the chain would break cabin is also rare enough in the wild that it could take some time to find a new source if the human chain broke at one point, general had to stop his work for two years because he ran out of lymph and no active cases could be found in cattle. So air was relatively easy to introduce smallpox vaccine into places with mild, whether that were geographically com. to each other. But beyond that, I got a lot harder talk about that after a sponsor break
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scouts berry and are not available in all states, and situations Edward Zennor spent so much time and energy spending people smallpox vaccine that he started calling himself the vaccine clerk to the world, but a lot of People were instrumental in introducing the vaccine beyond Britain and Ireland, and some others inferred. Actions were pretty complicated. Joe The Cairo was a swiss physician who move to Vienna because of its prominence in the world of medicine in August seventeen ninety nine he performed the first smallpox vaccination in the Austro hungarian empire. He got his limb from another swiss physician Alexander Andor, BAR Marcel, who was living Edinburgh and had become close friends with Jenner and after his first successful vaccination care
aggressively distributed the vaccine into Central Europe, Russia and Eastern Asia. Zander Kara was also involved in introducing the vaccine into the Ottoman empire. He was at a banquet with Harry and Wm Hamilton Nesbitt, whose daughter Mary was married to Thomas Bruce, the seventh Earl of elegant, yes, the same Elgin that we talked about in our two partner on the Parthenon Marbles. After this banquet, the Nesbitt told the elegans about this vaccine Elgin wrote to Cairo in September of eighteen hundred to ask for a sample when he got it. Elgin used that sample to vaccinate his son and then use his sons vaccine site to start vaccinating other people, the elegans introduced a large scale. vaccination programme in Constantinople, and they also carried the vaccine to Greece. Meanwhile, two english doctors, Joseph a Marshall and John Walker, worked with Jenner to get passage
or the item s and Demi in where they introduce the vaccine to Minorca, Gibraltar and Malta over the last few months of eighteen hundred ass. All this was happening. The vaccine was also being forest in in North America, sent sent samples of smallpox limped Newfoundland and early eighteen hundred at the request of his friend John Clinch clan she's, the threats that he received to vaccinate his family and then from there to vaccinate roughly seven hundred other people in Newfoundland. Benjamin Waterhouse, who was a professor at Harvard Medical School, also requested Jenner's lymph in one thousand eight hundred, which he used to vaccinate his son. Then he used that son's vaccination site to prepare the vaccine or another sign after these and other successful vaccinations, Waterhouse gave some of the vaccine to then Vice President Thomas Jefferson. This actually took them. A few tries the vaccine.
Kept breaking down in the Virginia heat until Jefferson, devised a nested boxes, the layer of water to keep the inner contents cool once he had working vaccine Jefferson tested it on his family and his enslaved workforce after Jefferson became president. He and Waterhouse started plan. mass vaccination campaigns and Waterhouse tried to maintain a monopoly on the vaccine for his own financial gain. This did not really work out for him, though. Getting the vaccine from birth two northeast North Amerika was relatively easy. A packet ship could make the journey in roughly twenty two three days, and during that time it was in the cool climate of the North Atlantic. So when Waterhouse tried to make himself the sole source of vaccine in the United States, people just started writing directly to general to get it from him. Instead,
I love that during all of this Jefferson also started using the vaccine as a diplomatic tool with indigenous nations. Europeans introduction of pox into the Americas has been absolutely devastating to indigenous peoples. So then, you the vaccine as a diplomatic gesture, is really horrifying from a human rights perspective Jefferson, also ordered the Lewis and Clark Expedition to carry a supply of the vaccine with them, but in Louis His words, their supply had quote lost its virtue by the time they got in and there is record of the expedition, actually vaccinating anyone in eighteen, oh line. Empress dowager Marie Fared Rona, the widow of Tsar Paul. The first requested smallpox lymph from pressure, and then that was used to immunized orphans in Moscow. The first to be vaccinated was a young boy from Moscow, foundling home who the empress renamed backs and off Maxineff was then
and in a lifetime pension have mixed feelings, are now holding me to all the successful vaccine introductions that we have talked so far have been over relatively short and relatively cool distances for longer hotter trip. things became a lot more complicated than just putting some threads of vaccine on a packet. Ship Jenner tried to send multiple samples of vaccine to the indian Sub continent by sea.
All of which were either lost in shipwrecks or lost their potency before arriving. So he started trying to persuade Lord Hobart Secretary of State for war and the colonies to send the vaccine using twenty on vaccinated people who would act as a living chain of hosts when Hobart didn't really seem interested in doing this jenner offered to pay for it himself, and he only let this subject drop when he learned that the vaccine had been successfully introduced into India, which was also thanks to John to Cairo, who we talked about earlier Carol had started getting his vaccine limp from ITALY rather than from Britain. He sent some from Vienna to Constantinople, which is now Istanbul where somebody was vaccinated with it that
so then travelled to Baghdad where their lymph was used to emulate someone else that person travelled from Baghdad to the port city of Basra from near the vaccine was carried by sea to Bombay now known as Mumbai on a ship appropriately call the recovery with vaccines administered on the ship to keep the chain going, the first successful vaccination record on the Indian Sub continent was administered on June, Fourteenth eighteen o to the recipient was Anna dust off aged three. Who was the daughter of a servant in a british captains household more than one thousand other people vaccinated in Bombay over the next four months and for mayor the vaccine was introduced to other parts of India. Beyond this, the vaccine was introduced into several other parts of the world,
again using these armed to arm chains of hosts in the early nineteenth century. Sometimes this was, after other efforts had already failed, for example, the first shipment of vaccines, since you Batavia, which is now Jakarta, Indonesia had lost its potency by the time it arrived A second successful attempt in eighteen o four involves twelve children who formed an arm to arm chain during the sea voyage. The first successful smallpox vaccinations Australia were also administered in May of that year. Although it's not totally clear which of the attempts to send the vaccine, there was the successful one, in eighteen hundred portuguese authorities called for vaccination to be introduced into its colony in Brazil. But it's about way of doing so took five years, a group of enslaved children was transported from via too he's been so that they could act as an arm to arm chain on the return trip back to Brazil in
and in March of one thousand, eight hundred and four that plan was activated at the Prince Regent, had his sons vaccinated in Lisbon to form the first lane. In that arm to arm chain, as they travelled back to South America got about the same time. Britain was trying to introduce the vaccines of Fort Marlborough in western Indonesia, and this involved chain of four and five year old children from the Bengal military orphan society. Many of these were either the orphaned children of british soldiers or they were the children of british soldiers born out of wedlock. Indian mothers, these children departed aboard the car market in December of one thousand eight hundred and three when the care of two indian nurses and they arrived at the fort in February of one thousand, eight hundred and four after successful vaccinations at the Fort Lee. Brain were returned back to the orphan society. You have probably notice that move to the arm to arm vaccination chains that we have talked about use children as hosts, and there
Several reasons for this one was that widespread smallpox outbreaks tended to recur with several years in between so young children were the least likely to have already been exposed. If you tried to vaccinate when he was already immune, no cow, pox or would develop, and that would break the chain then another was more of a publicity angle and many parts of the world. There was a lot of resistance, to the idea of injecting people with something that had come from an animal and There were just a lot of different social and cultural and religious objections to the whole idea of vaccination, so children often seen of innocent and pure, and often when the vaccine was introduced into a new location. The first recipients were intentionally chosen to be children, from quote good families, to sort of serve as an example for the rest of the community. Before we take a quick break that we have a couple of other quick,
to no one was that, even though it was geographically close to other places where the vaccine was already in use, Japan was it's lovely late in receiving the vaccine Japan's borders. At this point, close to most of the rest of the world, and even the Chinese and the Dutch who had trading privileges with Japan were not allowed to bring children into port. Various efforts to send preserved lymph to Japan failed before viable vaccine finally arrived in eighteen, forty nine, but is that they're just really does not seem to have been a meaningful effort to introduce the vaccine or knowledge about the vaccine into Sub Saharan Africa. During all this, there was such an effort, I sure, did not find it in my search, as we noted earlier. Very elation had been established in many parts of Africa for centuries before generous started, propagating his vaccine, most documented efforts to try to control smallpox in Sub Saharan Africa.
Focus on very elation rather than vaccination. The shift to vaccination seems to have followed the scramble for Africa in which European nations divided the continent of Africa up amongst themselves in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The earliest clear records of smallpox vaccine campaigns in Sub Saharan Africa really start with european colonial administrations and the early twentieth century, rather than when we are talking about decades. Before that we'll talk,
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of making a lot of you out there get its fingers right now. So what are you waiting for download best beans for free from the app store or Google play? That's friends with the are best beans, France are going to be talking about Baines efforts to vaccinate its colonies against smallpox and want to touch on a little bit about the diseases history and the amount Europeans introduced smallpox into the Americas in the 16th century and the likely earliest case was on the island of Hispaniola in one thousand five hundred and eighteen. The first documented transmission on the south american continent was reportedly from an enslaved African who had been transported there by Penfield Dinar vets
in fifteen twenty, because the indigenous people of the Americas had never been exposed to smallpox, they had no natural immunity to it and the results were especially devastating and destructive. For example, the Aztec Empire numbered at least twenty six million people at the start of the spanish conquest of the Americas. By one thousand, six hundred and twenty their population was reduced to roughly one point: six million with smallpox being a leading cause of death, this happened long before the development of the smallpox vaccine, and while there are reports of enslaved Africans practising variation in the Americas, it was all before european and colonial governments were really aware of the practice. In the late eighteenth century, multiple members of the spanish Royal family contracted smallpox can Carlos the Forts brother Gabby l and his sister in law. Maria Anna Victoria, both died along with their newborn son,
queen, Maria, Luisa and one of their daughters, contracted smallpox and later recovered, but their daughter, Maria Teresa, died of it in one thousand seven hundred and ninety four at the age of only three. In response to all of this, the king and queen I have the rest of the royal family very elated, and on November 30th, one thousand seven hundred and ninety eight, the king, decreed that the general population should be very elated as well, then, in Quincy. Ninety nine and italian doktor said the king a copy of Edward Generous Book on vaccination. Many of the people, who had been very elated in Spain. After that seventeen ninety decree had experienced scurrying and other complications, so the king was in vested in the idea of moving to a safer way of preventing smallpox within a year of the king, getting a copy of generous book vaccination was widely available in Spain. At the same time, multiple smallpox outbreaks were affecting Spain's colonies in the Americas
summer of eighteen o to the city government of Santa FE de Bobo tie in. What's now Colombia wrote to the king warning of this outcome. in asking for financial help and fighting an epidemic was probably was not the only such communication the king received, but it's the one that's most often cited as inspiring him to figure out a way to get the smallpox vaccine to this colonies. Part of the king's motivation for all of this was definitely humanitarian. Smallpox was contagious and deadly any did want to save lives, but there were also huge political and economic benefits to controlling or eliminating smallpox. It is also clear that there were business people and advisers to the king who thought that vaccinating the colonies most at risk- people, including indigenous people, would all definitely bring more wealth to the spanish empire, the napoleonic wars.
became in eighteen, o three, which made this whole situation even more urgent. Smallpox was already known to devastate these and navies during wartime, so Carlos. The fourth directed the Council of the Indies, which govern Spain's colonies in the Americas to assess whether it would be possible to introduce general smallpox vaccine there. The council's Chief Minister, Francisco regain a saw the advice of guatemalan doctor a forest. In addition to being an experience, Doktor Florence had seen the devastating effects of smallpox in the spanish colonies first hand, and over, seem very elation campaigns in Guatemala in the seventeen Eightys and Ninetys. So even before the king had started his very elation programme in Spain floor, as is deregulation campaign had focused primarily on my communities, especially those lit in densely populated areas outside the capital city, the wave of Guatemala HE priority
I'm killing, people who are too young to have been exposed to smallpox and earlier epidemics. He also seems to have tried to be sensitive to the needs of the people. He was inaugurating when it was reported that children and their parents were frightened by the medical instruments that were used for the procedure he developed in alternative that used poultice made from beetles to irritate the skin, rather than using instruments to cut or pierce it yet sometimes as sensitive as he. I would say got to the point of almost being patronising, which is an entirely the browsing but like he. He did consistently take care to be like don't traumatize people while you're doing this. If you make them too afraid to be inoculated. None of this works right so far as have left Guatemala in one thousand, seven hundred and ninety six, and then he had studied
in all over Europe and when he learned about generous vaccination that used to cower pox, he had written to his colleagues back in Guatemala about it. These colleagues conducted a systematic surge of all the cattle in the region and they found no active cases of cow pox among them. This is a really surprising that they looked at all the Catalan didn't And a cow parks, as we noted earlier cow pacts as relatively rare in the wild and its also mostly found in Europe and Asia, and not in other parts of the world, so when they, also the Indies asked for Flores to give his advice. His thoughts were based on both his exceed
sciences in Guatemala and from what he had learned while he was studying in Europe. He suspected that a broader search for cow, Pox elsewhere in the spanish colonies would also turn up nothing. He knew that preserved vaccine lymph was not likely to survive the voyage from Spain to the Americas, so he proposed to voyages one to the caribbean and Central America and the other to South America. He recommended that each ship use multiple redundant methods to carry smallpox vaccine so with preserved lymph with cattle and with an arm to arm chain of vaccinated children floor, as also recommended step for keeping up with who had been vaccinated and who had not. At this point in history, the Catholic Church had enormous influence over everyday life in Spain and in its colonies
and clergy were already responsible for documenting things like baptisms and death. So far has recommended that priests be the ones to keep vaccine registries. As part of this whole project, he also recommended framing vaccination almost as a sacrament with vaccine limb, being stored in churches, along with consecrated oil and other religious items. At this point, medical schools, hospitals were already well established in Spain's colonies with the first medical schools having been established by the dominican order in the sixteenth century, so Florence recommended training these existing doctors in administering vaccines and collect preserving and distributing the limp to keep the cycle going. He also recommended that the vaccines be given at no cost to the recipients, and he repeatedly stressed that anyone who is administering vaccine should take great care not to fall.
nor traumatize their recipients, particularly indigenous recipients, who were likely to be suspicious or fearful of spanish authorities, justifiably so really link the Council of the Andes, agreed through a plan on March. Twenty second of eighteen, o three, the king, find a royal edict for the Spanish Royal philanthropic expedition of the vaccine. A few months later, on June twenty ape on September. First instructions were sent out to the right of the empire informing authorities in all these colonies, that the expedition was coming and giving them instructions on how to prepare and what to do when the expedition got there, the whole thing, was extremely well planned and organised with one exception, the instructions did say anything about how to pay for it. This led to a range of disputes about everything from establishing a budget for a newly created vaccine board to offering lodging, while the expedition
was there. Although the royal philanthropic vaccine expedition did not wind up following all of Florence is advice. What followed has been described as the world's first global public health campaign? Are those who talk about in part two and as we are to kind of It was an entirely global. It was about mostly Spain and Spain's colonies, and we'll get into more about that next time. In the meantime, d of listener mail, I do have a female business from Karl, and this is the sub,
emails from a while ago. I have some emails from a while ago that I've I flag to read and then that I didn't actually read them. This goes all the way back to our episode on Jim Thorpe firm last November and Curl says Dear Holly and Tracy as someone who has lived in Oklahoma since two thousand one and works for university that started as a Cherokee women's Seminary school, I wasn t or three part Jim for episode with great interest. I thought I would reach out and share a curious piece of information connected to Thorpe that you might appreciate from two thousand one to twenty thirteen. I worked at one of the busiest public libraries and Tulsa. Shortly after I started working there, I was asked by a patron to find books about Jim Thorpe.
the prize to not find any on a shelf, so I steered them toward some databases to find other resources. Later I ask what am I coworkers about the situation and they informed me that this was a problem that has been ongoing for many years. The library continually bought books on Jim Thorpe, but some unknown person would routinely vandalized the books soon after they had the shelves blacking out Thorpe Name and defacing photos of him, of course, the books than had to be withdrawn. This happened across all twenty five branches of the tells Us City County library system and it continued through most of my tenure there. As I was transitioning my career into academic libraries, they were finally
starting to be able to keep the books on the shelf. We assume that the vandal Hetty their moved out of Tulsa or passed away. As I listened to the pot gasped, I kept wondering what the vandals motivation might have been, where they carrying a grudge about Thorpes position on the sack and Fox Constitution matter where they upset about the Olympics, where they connected to the family. Beat over his remains, or they simply acting out of racism, since they were never cod will remain a mystery. I remain a faithful listener and hope you still have the knitted postcard. I sent you a few years back. I also continue to hope that you will put out an episode about the sand. Petruchio a k, a saint Patrick, spectacular on your list. They were american soldiers, mostly of irish descent, who defected and fought on the mexican side during the Mexican American WAR, keep up the great work and Happy Holidays tee when yours causes rail email is from so long ago. This is firm, Carl, so thank you Karl, so much worse,
miss for a couple reasons: one: what a fascinating and weird mystery about: the fate of books, arms and forbidden the tells a library system. I am deeply care Yes, if any of our other whisperers have worked in libraries and our like. Oh man, we started having this problem with books on Jim Thorpe that it's just weird, as is the thing that a person would take it upon themselves to do, and also I just I also wanted to know I do have. postcard. It is fitting over with by have that postcard- and I don't remember the person's name, somebody centres, the postcard where they at them. They drew a picture of a fictional ban named Margie and the lover Bonteen
amateurs, after our bread or versus Marguerite Episode, and I have both of those displayed in my little home office because above them so thank you Karl. Thank you for this email. I am glad that the books are no longer being defaced, because that sounds like an upsetting thing for everybody and Having worked in a library, this is my whole side. Note, France, for it. Aside from all of the lake racist and social implications of its life, we budgets are not expensive. That really stakes have the expenditures. Be defaced immediately would be incredibly frustrating. Yes, please do not debate Lambert. Ebooks, though again, thank you Karl for that email. If you would like to email us or about this or any other progress where his
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If you thought you had to travel far to say that the patent bankers to taste the pastries parents taken out alone with two times total points, a grocery stores, your same kitchen can come with marked within the sapphire preferred from Chase make more. What's yours alone at the one doesn't always and purchases per month from November. First, one point able, through twenty one, wanted concept, credit approval, Cardoso Budgeting monetary spend any member of the opposition. While we are desperately ached for escapism, Richards The chandelier smash on Netflix came streaming along, now we wait for a season to, but in the meantime, you can hear- How this show came to life with the cast. The production team creators of Britain. Listen to read your ten of the official broadcast on the hard radio app Apple podcast were
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-09.