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The Sepoy Rebellion of 1857

2017-08-07 | 🔗

The Sepoy Rebellion was the result of many, many influences and stressors on the cultures of India living under British rule. In Britain, it's called the Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian Mutiny, but in India, it’s called the First War of Independence.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
I thought you were leasing occurred today is an absolutely cigar and one that lets you LISA car right from your phone. So early, and it was so easy. Why not catch football? Yeah! I've gotta go it's worth down and I'm debating between us. At the end, we have to look into the future car leasing on the road where you can choose from hundreds of cars right in your area. We did you Crystal clear pricing and even drive your car off right, your house, it's easy! It's clear! Its roto will continue stuff. You missed in history, class from Housetop works, tat, come and look into the Pakistan Hollingford, and I'm crazy Wilson and the idea ever today episode actually came from fiction. Caper, Jules Verne, to be precise, his book, mysterious island readers, finally get the backstory story. Captain Nemo eyes you may or may not know
mysterious island came out after twenty thousand leagues over the sea and of ferns enigmatic villain is explained in this. As a runaway royal of an indian state imprints the car in the book, Verne weaves, real events, from history. In with his fiction in the book, the car supported and fought in the support, rebellion and ended up losing everything because of it, which catalyzed his running away from India forever and becoming captain but the simply rebellion was a very real events. Also part of the second Sherlock This novel called the sign of the four yeah which, in a weird confluence of events. I was listening to sign a before on the way to Seneca falls and back as you were stumbling across it in Ngos. Fern Santini asleep. This happened yet and I was like that's the thing we should talk about it's one of those incidents that when you look it up, it has many different
James we're gonna use support rebellion. But if you look at from things written from the british point of view. It's usually called the seaport, mutiny or the indian meal knee in India. It is called the first war of independence and the simply rebellion was really. The result of many many influences and stressors on the cultures of India there were living under british rule. At that point in time, the British EAST India Company was pretty much administrating in a lot of India's It and literally entire books could have been written about it, but today we're gonna break down the primary causes for the unrest that catalyze. This uprising going to talk about some of the battles, though not all of them, it was a particularly grisly series of engagements, but we to give you a general sense of this important moment in India's history and to start that I'll awfully We have to lay some groundwork and context by talking about the British EAST India Company from seventeen fifty seventh eighteen, fifty seven, the
fish is any accompany, became. The ruling entity in India and by eighteen twenty british interests- we're controlling most of the political and economic aspects of India and even the country's culture being heavily dominated by the imposition of british ideas. in India, unlike many other british colonies, wasn't really seen as a place for british people to move too. It was definitely more of a situation where a relatively small number of people there were white men from the british Isles, but they were controlling the lives of massive numbers of indian people and they were basically just train use all the resources there, rather than like make it a place. That would be a new home for for the Brits and the Indians lost more and more of their power and way of life through a very deliberate process on the part of british officials. EAST India Company, which was founded as the world's first limited liability company and sixteen hundred under Queen Elizabeth, the first rain,
men and India's, and sixteen o eight by the eighteen that had achieved a high level of power in the region through deals with indian royalty, the east, A company had overtime instituted agreements that enabled the company to keep military forces and british residence within each of the states and in exchange the company would support the royal families and their descendants. Yes, ever context. India. This point was not one unified country. It was a lot of different princely states or provinces depending on and what you're looking at some would call them states and somewhat call the provinces but they had to negotiate individual deals with each of these territories to work out getting their people in there and using the resources there, and these partnerships really opened the door for the British to have progressively greater influence in matters of indian politics. So to be clear, the indian princely states entered into these agreements under the premise that working with the icy was going to grow and improve them like they really thought it would be pretty benefit.
All the British EAST. India company was building infrastructure and providing administrative leadership, but it was also stacking. The deck ever higher in its own favour, chipping away, the power of the indian people and improving its financial earnings. At the same time, and the lady in forties, James Andrew Brown, Ramsay, Marchesa and Earl of doubt. Housing arrived in India and under we're done housing. The reach of british interests in the country expanded significantly, and I should make a point cause. This was my note. The traits just read the Marquis S. Title will come into play later. He wasn't forecast when he arrived there, but he became that while he was working in India. So Lord DE how's came from a family that was distinguished for its long line of military and public servants, but it was not a particularly wealthy family and some of his career ambition may have been driven by a desire to prove himself, despite not being from a particularly moneyed lineage in
in thirty seven, at the age of twenty five, the housing who was then a newlywed became a member of parliament. He served as president of the war trade under Sir Robert peels Tory Ministry and made an for himself in that role as an efficient administrator when the whigs came to power after appeals for nation, thou how's. He took the position of Governor General of India and Lord Del House travel to India for his new job in eighteen, forty, eight and one of his first action in his new role was to send british troops to settle an uprising in real time that resulted in british annexation of the Punjab Province in eighteen, forty, nine although initially he actually neglected to take any action, he was pretty hesitant, and this resulted at once. It was all played out, endow how's he receiving that title of markets, but were rumours that he had actually allowed the uprising to go on and reach a critical level before step again, because he had hoped to annex pungent
and get a little accolade for himself all along the second. Means WAR also unfolded underdog houses term as governor General of India. In that instance, the fighting was mercifully brief. It lasted less than a year and casualties or minimal, but the end result with another expansion of the british footprint as Rangoon and the surrounding burmese province, where all annexed Rangoon developed and he met a massive unimportant port. So Britain not he took on greater land holding, but also ended up with a significant and important nexus of import export business. Yes, so for the breeze british eastern the company, that was like a win, win win. So he was in this regard really making some pretty big accomplishments for the british and one of the non military means that they'll housing instituted to seize more land and power for Britain was a system called the doctrine of laughs and though
of India was already controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the British EAST India Company there, we're still royal rulers in India's provinces As we mentioned earlier, there had been agreements in place that put Britain in the power seat and these provinces, one of the customs that grew out of these Emily, unbalanced agreements was that if a ruler had no biological ere, they could ask the british government for permission to adopt one this process of change. a successor when an air was not produced by birth, was a law. standing practice in indian princely states and prayer You know how these time the request to select and air was largely a paperwork formality, but under his management of such matters that religion,
the house. You realize that denying such requests and leaving states without airs would make it much easier to appropriate those states as british territories with a lapse in the line of succession. He could step right in an annex we're going it's hot bout. The expansion of Britain's territory in India under this new doctrine, but first we're going to pause, have a quick sponsor break Jackie. So you having found a little Patrick's work. They hardly yeah two year old son age. I'm really sorry! I have to go, though unleashing a car, so I gotta go to all those dealerships you now you should get the roadway rode out. It lets you LISA Car, where from your phone, oh wow, that's really cool, oh, but you know I still have to go in to negotiate raids and keep track of those taxes. And these sorry, but no you don't roto, does all that, for you too, they apply discounts calculate all the fees, the taxes, the praises rating.
Clear, shoe added sprinkle. They even deliver the Cartier House. It's amazing they delivered. Your house well. Well, I better get to house, then things, Great advice, Gray Party welcomes future of car leasing gives you access to hundreds of cars from dealerships all over your area online or on the roadmap. We give you crystal pricing that includes discounts, taxes Mps will even though The car right to your house so hit the road the easy way with road out. Sail under these, so called doctrine of lamps, the British EAST, any accompany acting on behalf of the british government could also determine if an indian ruler was competent in the role and if the company deemed that you not be the case, the state could be seized to be governed by the British. Brown. Several princely states were annex under this policy in the indian people were not happy about it. They saw the doctrine of lapse as complete
the illegitimate and as merely a means for the British to overstep their role and gain even more power. So, under the doctrine of lamps, the company was able to annex eight princely states when they were left with no heir but when Thou Halsey Annex the state of our aid in eighteen, fifty six, it was an occasion when the British EAST India Company had deemed the ruler known as the new tab incapable of governing and the new tab had errors, but based on the british, deeming the ruler, incompetent, the British EAST, in the accompany moved in two, control of the state, of course, that made the annexation and transfer of power to the British, a contentious situation and, in addition to taking part
from a living ruler, rather than absorbing a state, without leadership at also shifted the conditions for a significant number of people in a fairly unique way. So there were indian troops at this time serving in the british army. Those men were called two boys. That was a word that had its roots in the persian word for cavalryman and many of those men were from the state of our aid and were the two highest cases in the transition from being a high ranking citizen of a princely state, with landholdings to being a subject under british rule, equal to all the others, downgraded their positions of relative privilege and took away their land in the process, so that did not sit well and the unrest that
already brewing because of british rule in India became even more pronounced in what the citizens of our felt was basically a hostile takeover thou how's. He actually left India later in eighteen, fifty six leaving a very tense situation in his wake, in addition to the outer take over of ours. The social structure of India had also been up ended by the british. Many men's historically Hindu, India's highest social cast, had lost portions of their wealth and their power as Britain and the company had placed there, people and prestigious positions, and had taken away opportunities for most people to build their fortunes. Furthermore, the western innovation that thou housing and the company saw as a huge achievement, was seen much less favourably by India's people. There
Missionaries there then trying to convert Hindus to Christianity, and it was rumoured that forced conversions might be enacted. There was also talk that the company wanted to get rid of the cap. System, additionally, thou how's. He had backed efforts and women's rights, including education for girls and legalizing remarriage for widows, and while these we see these as great strides to the modern Linz. All of this was a huge shift in the culture of the indian Sub continent, and they were too does that were being made by foreigners who had moved in and taken power. All of this really, contributed to growing unrest and the Bengal He was a whole other story. The Bengal Army, in particular There were three armies that were run by the British EAST India Company, but the Bengal Army had inherent prestige attached to it
had been in the Service of Britain. For some time and had really distinguished itself in sequoias who served in the Bengal Army, they made up. The vast majority of the soldiers were very attached to the sense of honour that came with their service, but they also felt that they were in a position to make their own demands about how they ran things both because of years of history and because we in the higher tiers of the caste system, they required a large staff of camp followers, they travelled with them and they also wouldn't overseas. They would only go to places that they could march to, and while these stipulations were met for a time by Britain, the whole set up was really wearing thin by the MID eighteen. Hundreds with an supply ranks of the army. There were problems as well. The hindu and muslim soldiers serving the British were given lower pay than expected, because nepalese and punjabi men were willing to serve for less money and without the requirements that the Bengal sepoys made. This also meant that the
ass, the sun demands were less and less honoured by the british sepoys were passed over. promotion in favour of white soldiers hindu soldiers, which made up the largest group had been recruited from the two highest casts and their cultures that they felt. credibly insulted to then be treated as though they were lesser than the british soldiers as they were annex seeing all of these additional territories, if they had idle there, they were no longer considered on foreign soil, so they would not get this additional pay that they would have normally gotten a foreign engagement like they, basically all of their their stuff, was getting chipped away. but even though there were all of these multiple factors mean there are cultural issues going on. There are some financial issues going on there. Even some fears that western ASEAN is going forced on them in certain ways. The actual cause of this
Rebellion is often reduced to one thing, which is a new rifle being issued to the troop serving Britain in India, and this is sometimes even uses. A trivial, you will literally see it on my kind of quizzes about. Do you know history that will say what single gun cause the boy rebellion- this was the Enfield Rifle was, food and have lubricated cartridges. The ends of the cartridges had to be bitten off to load the rifle and a rumour and he began to circulate the catalyzed a whole new level of discontent within the ranks. Word began to circulate that the cartridges lubricated, with a combination of lard from both pigs and cows so Hinduism, and Islam were the two most common religions in India, then, as they are now in these made up a lot of the supply ranks. Islam forbids the consumption of pork and Hinduism sees cows. A sacred and eating beef is completely unaware
double so the sequoia serving the british military of the EAST India Company were suddenly faced with the idea that they had just been handed weapons that were insulting to their religions. It's actually unknown whether this information was correct and where the rumour began, but regardless they were seen as just another step. The British were taking that made it crystal clear that they have no regard for India's culture, some We believed that the British have purposely tainted the cartridges and that it was absolutely not an oversight or an accident and said part the larger intention to destroy India's religions, and it seemed that the british not really grasp just how problematic the situation was. Yet there are stories of lake in, the dual officers trying to leg work with this problem and billing. Okay, what? If we change
the way that we do things. So you don't have to bite the cartridge and off. You can tear it with your hand, and so it won't be touching your mouth and it won't be quite so problematic and and other suggest, even There were some officers that we're like. Well, maybe you guys could use a different weapon, but none of those sorts of efforts were made at anything other than a pretty small local level, like they never filtered out to the larger army as liquor and actual decision that was made across the board. So there were really way more people that were still dealing with this problem than those that were trend of you worked with by their british officers, and so all of this led to the first incident of the support rebellion which took place on March twenty ninth of eighteen, fifty seven, and at that point, twenty nine year old supply named Mungo Party, who was a brahmin attacked to british officers,
He had joined the sixth company of the thirty Fourth Bengal Native Infantry for what he saw as a path to a successful career, but this situation with the end fields was simply to horrifying for him to continue his military ambitions, the actual attack and how played out is really difficult to know because accounts of this event, just very all over the place, ponds tried to get several other men in the company to revolt with him, and he may have first refused to use the Enfield Rifle as a less violent protests. What we do know is that he made a solo attack on the two officers and may also have tried to turn the gun on himself. There are stories that he fired and that one of the shots miss the officer and hit his horse and the turning of the the gun on himself. Israel. Awkward like it sounds a he had done
there's literally an account I read that says he tried to pull the trigger with his toe because it was a rifle he wasn't dealing with a small pistol. So it's a little crazy and heard pieced together when really really happened, but he was arrested for this attack. He was tried found guilty, and his sentence was death by hanging an initially. His execution was scheduled for April eighteenth, but the British wanted to handle the matter quickly in the hopes of a vote a larger rebellion that my girl grow. If party was sitting in a cell for several weeks so to speed things along, they moved his hanging up by ten days to April eight, which was very shortly after the verdict had taken place. Next, The events after the execution will unfold really quickly, but first are going to take a quick break to hear from one of our sponsors logic, welcome to car leasing, one o one. Today's lesson is price negotiations. First, take out your phone and go on the road o k pick a car
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releasing later on in April subway station at myriad refused to use the end fields. They didn't attack anyone, but they still faced a steep punishment for their insubordination. They were fettered and put in prison with a ten years, since, in this treatment stirred the rest of the already uneasy boys it near it weeks later. The uprising began in earnest when the mere at sea poise shot the british officers in command of their company on May tenth. While some see poise escorted the fail. Of european officers from their quarters some officers in their families, or instead, rounded up and massacred and included women and children, the Sequoia next March to Delhi one of the few places without any weight troops and they rallied the subway station there to their cause. Both hindu endless I'm soldiers March together, united in their frustration and anger. Delhi was
either in this. The boys put everyone you're old by her to show the second in power as emperor butter shy. The second was Lugo Emperor and had allowed the east in the accompany to run Delhi's tax collection in exchange for a pension. The supplies were to convince the elderly man to side with the rebellion, with the goal being to take back independence from Great Britain and the east and the accompanying. it's a matter of debate whether he truly signed the proclamation of his and statement as emperor of India of his own volition or whether he was coerced or even forced the supply rebellion. Had officially begun, and it unfolded ITALY over the next thirteen months. What was truly surprise to the British was how incredibly violent the supplies were in their efforts and this really crazy
a desire for vengeance. There is a lot of retaliatory darkness, as well as the rebellion gained momentum fighting broke out in more places, not just within the military and in some places the civilians gotten. laughed at, for example, off duty. British officers they were seen in the streets would sometimes be attacked by civilian groups. The british response played out in three stages for They fought Delhi, Camper and luck now, all of which had been taken by insurgents, threw out the Weltering summer heat, the seeds of Ellie alone lasted from July into September. By the time the British had concluded their efforts to reach Delhi. It was completely destroyed. Barbershop, second was exiled and his two sons were killed civilians who had been captured by the british during the siege of Delhi were punished and truly horrific ways. The truly terrible acts that have been carried out by the Savoy's elicited
and even more brutal and savage retaliation from the British, so suppose in some cases were just killed in massive numbers, like hundreds at a time bayoneted, while others were shot out of cannons to kill them because really troubling think about british troops were really really motivated by revenge. also kill. Indian civilians. Second came the winter effort at look now and the end of eighteen. Fifty seven in the early part of eighteen, fifty eight this took place stages, as a relatively small group of british forces, was able to chip away at the larger support numbers in the early autumn in October, a much lower your group arrived and they first evacuated all women and children. Then the remaining noncombatants. After pulling back to regroup the british Army, vast again in March and was able to retake the city,
Finally, Sir Hugh Rosing lead and effort to finally put down the remaining pockets of resistance in the second quarter of eighteen. Fifty eight and some of those pockets are actually made up of men who had managed We look now. There were more battles and more atrocities of war throughout the rebellion, but they played out more or less the same as these the supposed to mean cities and killed many british citizens, and then the british military would slowly advance and eventually we take them more through practice strategy. You ve been through an actual numerical advantage. We do want to say, like these were really really horrific on both sides, like the fighting was just so brutal and so inhumane in so many ways by its. We also need to point out that there were in each of these instances sepoys that remained loyal to the british army.
they fought against their fellows, who had led the rebellion and additionally, there were also men on both sides who spoke out against their fellow soldiers. Treatment of women, children and civilians and the brutality that they were willing to employ on July, eighth, eighteen fifty eight, the rebellion was declared to be over and by the time the fighting ended. Both sides had suffered a huge losses of both p what resources the portion of the Indian Sub continent that were under the rule of the east. India company were in shambles, and while this rebellion was in and of itself a failure in its goal to rest power, Britain. It is seen the beginning of the end of british rule in India, and most of this we should mention happen kind of in the northern part of India. I was reading one account that said, like the southern part, was almost completely untouched and it was pretty quiet just in terms of of reference for geography but
their rebellion, ended Great Britain decided that the EAST India Company should no longer be serving as the authority in India and the british government assumed direct control. There was also a significant amount of financial fall out from all of that fighting and it took a while for the finances of the country to be re. Is the british forces in India were also reorganized. When the supply revolt began, there had been far more indian men in the british Army is, then there had been european men, but there Asia was shifted to make supplies the minority after the revolt Personally, while Britain continued to recruit men from India, they didn't do so in the areas that had revolted the hour He was so carefully arranged to ensure diversity in units. The hope was that mixing together a variety of ethnicities, there wouldn't be any one dominant group that could lead to an uprising. Again. Britain also adopted a policy of actually consulting
representatives of India to avoid the cultural tone deafness that had led to the state of such frustration and unrest to begin with, but of course it it is this they were like. Ok, we understand, will go now. They also continued to expand the british administration. There tell her. Return home to Great Britain was soured once the rebellion began and news reached Europe and while he had been lauded for his accomplishments for the company and the crown in his seven years of service, governor general criticism was also levelled that his ambition had created unnecessary tension that, in turn had catalyzed the rebellion. There are plenty of of places where, see, a large proportion of the blame place squarely on Thou housing for this and he is recognised as you naming much of India into a more centralized entity rather than a scattering of separate states, but that, as well as the transportation improvements that he
is often eclipsed by his part and fuelling the unrest that led to the eighteen. Fifty seven rebellion, thou how's. He died in eighteen, sixty just four years after he left India and in a thing that struck me as a little funny in terms of coincidence, because he had only daughters and no funny in terms of coincidence, because he had only daughters and no sons. His Marcus eight ended with him While pamby is seen as a hero and freedom fighter in India and whose story has been adapted into books as well as film television and stage productions, given the magnitude of this event and like how, violent and devastating that it was. It does not surprise me at all that there is a lot of like fix lized version it from it. Richer and then also a lot of it in nineteenth century british literature too near
really was sort of like a flash point in terms of global events, and particularly the relationship of course, between Britain and India, which carried on in additional ways. We hadn't gotten to the point at this stage. Yet when Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India troubling troubling situation, but then so I mean that that relationship continue to evolve in some some unfortunate ways, but just the same, this is still considered the beginning of the end, the british rule, even though the British really took more power and for a little while and then things eventually shift
yeah! It's really! It's all those things that I found a lot of things that wrote about it and it's like some of those things were so horrific, like the men being shot out of cannons and stuff that some histories tend to want to gloss through it. Just because you could tell you don't want to get into gory details, they go, it was her effect just no, it was her effect and here's what happened next, like instead of getting into the nuts and bolts of how truly unkind and brutal people could be. Do you want some slightly less Hetty and more fun listener mail? I definitely do the sun is about coordination, and this is from our listener, Madison when it says high, Tracy and Holly. absolutely love listening, thereby aghast and I've had the best time travelling through the archives. I was listening to the latest episode, carry a nation part one on the website, and I was struggling to figure out where I had seen the image of her before and by the end of the episode I remembered. I live in West of Sydney, Australia and there's a trick
wine bar. He here called the temperance society and their logo is a picture of none. They carry a nation. Whenever I suggest two friends or family who aren't local to our suburb, that we go there for a drink, they think I'm making a terribly clever joke. I've sent you a link to their facebook page where you can see their profile, it is carry nation herself. I was so check to realise that one of my favorite part CAS had a tiny, quite abstract, linked to my life and Sydney. Australia, thanks for all the work you do. I spent many hours my these listening to your intelligent and insight. Discussions Bateson! Thank you so much. I love that we have been like sort of finding out that many people have thumb their noses hip, carry nations, temperance desires and have opened bars I'm not just the one above the other kind of cracks me up. I feel bad, I'm sorry coronation and should feel bad. I shouldn't them. I shouldn't laughter. The thing you fought for is now a kind of turned into a way to me,
money and sell booze, but I do it. I also are really Q postcard that we got from our listened earlier. I am, and it is from the National Museum of Rome, scathing, which I did not even know existed, but it isn't Lincoln Nebraska about is on my list of museums. I would love to go to you, because I have found memories of roller skating in my basement, as child is as high treason away. I thought you might enjoy this lovely historical roller, skating fashion. This museum is actually fall of beautiful costumes and fascinating relics for the history of roller skating. Thank you so much for your pack ass. You make every I wish I a better day- and I have learned so much from you- keep up the great work and its is beautiful picture of a woman and a little victorian ensemble.
During her rollers gates and looking varies as he and, like always happens. When we get cool pictures like this, like I want to make that outfit. Will it happened? I dont know how rollers gave it a long time had probably breakneck, but I would like to write to us. You can do so at history by gas to house of works dot com. You can also find us across the spectrum of social media as misty in history. So that's on Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Facebook tumblr. If you would like to visit our parents site which this house to work see, you can do that taken almost anything you're interested in the search bar you're gonna get an assortment of fun and contents to explore and learn from you, girls to visit us at Miss in history. That com, where we
have an archive of every episode of the shoe ever of all time, as well as show notes for any of the episodes. The Tracy and I have worked on together, an occasional other giddy, so we hope you come and visit a set missed in history that calm and house towards darker for more on this and thousands of other topics visit Housetop Work, Stockholm. available. Now from my heart, a new series presented by T Mobile for business, the restless ones join me Jonathan Strickland, as I deplore. The coming technological revolution would be restless business leaders who stand right on the cutting edge. They know there is a better way to get things done, and they are ready, curious excited for the night. Technological innovation to unlock their vision of the future. In each episode
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