Venetian portraitist Carriera achieved a surprising level of success in the male-dominated European art world of the early 1700s. Her work helped popularize pastels and her portraits were commissioned by Europe's most prominent figures.
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day. With eighty welcome to stuff you missed in history class, the production of I hurt radios how stuff works, allow unwelcome upon cast I'm Holly fry and I'm Tracy wealth in tracing. Everybody knows that I worked wrapped Zadig Alla time about vision of long shared is one of my very favorite artists. This is not about her but she's kind of loosely tied to it. We haven't featured and artist biography in a minute, and I love them so today we're gonna talk about someone who is actually want to visualize influences, and that is resolved by Korea, who had been on my list for a bit and then she also came up a discussion that Tracy and I were having recently. We are also coming up on her birthday, so it came a seemed like a good time to talk about her surprising level of success in the male dominated european, our world of the early seventeen hundreds its.
Surprising because most people don't really know about her unless they study art history, she's, not one of lake. The painters that you get the list of in a standard art, class, and much of what we know about the particulars of Rihanna's life come from her diary, which was initially published in seventeen. Ninety three, that was almost forty years after she died, and since you pretty clearly not intending for that diary. To be published biography, her life story has largely been pieced together through the notes that she was taking. It then diary on her daily life and some of those are fairly inconsistent in terms of like how she lifted her commissions statuses and their payments, so really it was like if you have a check list or some sort of journal where you keep track of. What's going on in your day dimension, I got publish Europe our story, probably people would think you were maybe disorganized or just inconsistent, but I think most people are
for example, she had a system of marking things, but it seemed to change and evolve, and there are some notations that no one's really decided yet exactly what they meant, whether they included Exciting time or it was like a system to denote what phase of of the beast this transaction. They were at making it all sort of tricky. And additionally, she did not keep any sort of consistent diary. After them seventeen twenty kind of fell offer that habit so even What we have is kind of a small section of her life, but she incredibly successful in her lifetime, but because of the nature of her work and the art that she did in her style of art kind of falling out a favor after her lifetime, all of which we are going to talk about her story. Berkeley been forgotten outside of our history circle, so we're going to give her a little love today. Rosalba is Giovanna. Carrietta was born in Venice ITALY on October, seventh, one thousand six hundred and seventy five sources list her birthdate, as at the end of one thousand six hundred and seventy three
Father Andrea, carry out, it was a legal clerk in the government and her mother Albert for SD carry era. Was a lace maker resolve it? two sisters, her sister Giovanna, might have been born in one thousand six hundred and seventy five, and that could have contributed to this confusion on the birth date. Her youngest sister, there was an Zola Cecilia, was born in sixteen seventy, seven and Zola. With later Mary, the famed venetian painter Giovanni Antonio Pellegrino Yanza. You will sometimes see her name appear angler size to Angela so forever king anything up about them, that's what's going on. There result, but most likely learned lace making from her mother. But most of the information that we have about this is pretty speculative. It is certainly possible that she learned this trade is also possible that her initial artistic efforts were making least designs for her mother. But we don't really know what we do know that At some point. She turns a visual art
She might have been tutored by one or more of Venice is prominent artists. At the time, included Antonio as our aim, the engraver, the antennae and painter Antonio Palaestra, all of them come up as possible. Mentor is, but it's not totally clear whether she received formal instruction for many of them. She said. to render portraits in miniature on snuff boxes, which were popular with tourists in Venice, things that made her work and snuff box. Portraits unique was her use of ivory as a background rather than Belgium and using tempera as the painting medium. Let you ivory, eventually became commonplace in miniature portraiture, but she was the known to do this in her first known, pastel portrait, which is something she came to be known for, was begun most likely in one thousand six hundred and ninety nine. So she was already in her twenties at that point and it was a rendering of the artist and art dealer Antonio Muddy as an entity in nineteen fifteen, that is it
significant jump become with us. Often Dobson wrote of result buzz choice to work in pastels, a medium that was not particularly popular and he wrote quote in painting. The field was crowded with formidable competitors, but the less power Miller Pastel with it's brilliant contrasts and silvery transparencies its view intense and velvety softness offer special facilities for the display of resolve as gifts as well as the disguise of her deficiencies. So this point, pastels were mostly used for quick drawing studies or preparation sketches to lay out a work that was gonna later be rendered in oil. Her our work was quickly recognised, Especial she was still young and pretty new in the field and within a very short time resolved had become a member of Rome is prestigious academy at the same LUCA, and that was an
association that sought to govern, educate and elevate the arts yeah. That was by some accounts within a year of her really starting her our careers. So that's quite notable can here, a game, a significant and following that, when nobles and royalties visited Venice, they were sure two commission portraits, either in miniature or in larger size. throughout her early career, her reputation rapidly spread throughout Europe due to these tourist commissions. When the healthy visitors then brought their Caruana portraits back home. They showed them off to their friends and thus expanded her audience, who all hope that they would eventually get their odorous out about portraits maiden among her commissions in her early career were portraits of Maximilian. The second of Bavaria and Frederick the Force of Denmark and seventeen o eight when Fernando Carlo Gun, Duke of Mantua and Mont brought died, result carrier
stayed and managing his art collection as it was distributed to new owners. She catalogue the pieces that were involved and sent the lists to buyers. She also Indeed, one of the works of Painter Guido Kashshi, which was in the dukes collection, that is a study yeah. There's a lot of talk of copies, threw out her career like she would make copies of other people's work. People happy her work. It did not seem to have the same concern and programmes of legality or stealing of intellectual property than it does at this point. On April, first, seventeen nineteen runs out Buzz Father died, and this was, of course, a very difficult laws. The cutting edge of family was incredibly close. But it also on the upside opened up some avenues of opportunity, because up to that point resolved by had stayed her entire life in Venice, but once he passed she free to travel for the first time which people wanted her to do- and she was in her forties at that point, though in seven
twenty carry atta, who is encouraged by collector Pierre crows. I travelled to Paris cars that had assured her tat. Paris would just love her and he was right. We really pause for a moment to acknowledge how influential unimportant Cosette was and the European ART world not the time over him. I've time he amassed one of the most impressive private art collections and history. In this collection, which was and said, and further developed by his nephew. After his death was acquired in its entirety by the State Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, Russia, in one thousand seven hundred and seventy two is part of Catherine, the great private collection. This is one of the biggest acquisitions of its time, the entire in collection remains at the hermitage to so all of
that is the context will as the fact that, when Croatia told rose Alba Carry era that she should come to Paris as his guest, and that would be good for her career. That advice was carrying considerable weight and in just a moment we will talk about this big Paris trip which most art historians note as incredibly important event in carrying out his life. But first we're gonna. Take a quick sponsor break. This episode of stuff you missed in history, glances brought to you by eighty tea. Would you like to get the latest innovation and smart home security combined with twenty four seven monitoring from the most trusted name in whom security? If so eighty is for you, eighty has a team of professionals that will design and install a secure, smart home. Just for you and there are eighty
thousand employees safeguarding. You was connection to first responders. You'll get the nations number one smart home security provider and you will get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells indoor, an outdoor cameras, smart locks and lights all controlled from the eighty app or just using the sound of your voice. Andy get professionally monitored carbon monoxide and smoke detection, which I know is a huge factor and safety for a lot of families. You also get a system that is custom design just for your home, and the great thing is that all of this safety can be taken on the go. Whether a car whether your grocery shopping, your work, your kids, are at school. You just need the eighty go up, which has a handy s, o s button this epoch it was brought to you by eighty tee.
When she travelled to Paris resolved by brought her entire remaining family. Along for the ride. Her sister Anne Zola, husband, Giovanni Pellegrino, accompanied her Pellegrino having his own business, to conduct in Paris on a commission to paint a bank ceiling her sister she Avant had begun to assist her in her work, and so she travelled with her and her mother was also part of their travelling party. While in France, or as Albert, painted several dozen commissions, including one of Louis, the fifteenth, he was still a child of ten at the time, while Louis what he had died five years earlier, Lily the fifteenth wasn't actively ruling yet due to his young age, this port, Peters Lui, the fifteen, but our red coat with a blue sash and a White Lady Isabel Survey,
by a main of curly hair. He has large brown eyes that become the focal point of the portrait their rendered in slightly sharper detail. Then his other features here there's an eyelash situation going on in that painting that I love Kenny at us, to Paris also resulted in her being invited to join the French Royal Academy on them of that portrait of Louis once the members, the academy saw her rendering of what they were, calling the dough fire again. There's that weird thing with him, not quite being king, yet her acceptance was according to her own diary, instant and unanimous, and this is truly a moment of note, as women were rarely admitted to the academy in I think on previous occasions, there had been a lot of voting involved carriers. pastel to the Royal Academy in Paris, is part of her admitted as a member. It was called nymph DE last. Sweet definite
the collection of the Louvre today, while she had been accepted based on her portrait of losing the fifteenth she wanted to send a different work which she ship later on from Venice and she wrote of this portrait quote, I have tried. the depict a young girl, knowing that to youth. Many faults are forgiven. She also said, For a nymph of Apollos choir to those on our own part, to offer to the Academy of Paris a wreath of laurels, judging that body alone worthy to wear. It went to preside over all the others. There were a number of reasons that the timing was perfect for result, but to visit Paris, one
that there was a new trend among the aristocracy too by their own Paris apartments rather than living at Versailles. There was also a rising merchant class that also found themselves suddenly having property and they all needed art to decorate those spaces. But, of course, the Wall space available in apartments was smaller than what they had been use. He threw tracing I've Benda Versailles. Those walls are large and ready for big art, so any smaller spaces they needed appropriately sized our work. So up produce that was brought to the city and lauded by one of the continent's most well known and well respected. Art collectors was in high demand, indeed, thus her many many conditions. The other factors had to deal with the shift in appreciation for pastel lists in their work. Before this era, oil painting had been far more popular because production of plate
ass. It had advanced significantly delicate pastel. Works could be preserved without fear that the powdery pigment would flake or would fall away for the backing that made larger portrait pieces possible instead of just the many ensures that had started carriers, career and one other significant contributor was the advancement in the production of pastel crayons. As past work became more and more highly regarded in part because of getting at his skill in popularity and in History of art, suppliers rose up to meet, it creates maker started, producing more and more colors and artists could easily carry them to clients, homes to work. There was no drying time and it did not take up nearly as much space to invite a pastel artist into your home to make your portrait as it would have an oil painter who might require a lot more sittings and also need to leave that work in city between those sittings. Occupying a chunk of your house
by her great success in France, though, she wanted to return to Venice. After a year of being, the toast of Paris must also coincided with a significant financial crash in France that had been brewing for some time under the regent, the Duke of Orleans but a career. I had ties to the scottish economist, John LAW, who served us. Roller France's finances at the Duke of Orleans appointment, law had been responsible for the creation of the financial disaster, known as the Mississippi bubble, which was the catalyst for this whole crash. He ended up please. In Paris in the dead of night Kitty S sort of captured laws last few days in Paris in her journal describing days that involved meeting with him, as the bank notes that he had been issuing work
Lately devalued and riots began in the city. There's one entry where she just starts bad day. She had been working on a commission for him, so she was pretty immediately adjacent to the family as they were planning to leave. Oh, she really does it delve into the specifics economy in her accounts of each day but once he loves sheep, just kind of busied herself with all of the other work that she had been hired to. Do he as much as they had been very entwined in each other's lives. Up to that point, once
gone, she kind adjust, wipe the slate clean on him and doesn't really refer to him again. She had, among her other commissions, portrait of the artist and Twond Watch, oh, but also work for a number of other nobles that she wasn't really all had interested in. So in seventeen, twenty one, having made a nice bit of money and worked tirelessly for more than a year resolve our return home to ITALY as a little historical trivia side note and to unwanted o is where the name, why tell pleads come from which, if you look at pictures of dresses from this century and Marie Antoinette dresses as well those long fleets that start at the back of the neck and and carry down in a cascade those Ernie after him, because he painted them so beautifully. And one thousand seven hundred and twenty three Rosalbo went to Modena ITALY and created several portraits of the princess Heinrich headed this day, as well as the rest of the Duke's daughters. The intention was that these portraits would be sent around to potential marriage matches, which is a pretty common practice
KEDO was one of the young women who was on the short list of potential wives were Lui. The fifteenth of France but how he wasn't able to discern whether he got one of these portraits and part of his search for a suitable queen. and by the time resolved by returned home to Venice, from Medina shed a raft of commissions waiting for her ordered from all over Europe, particularly in England, people had really fallen in love with her work. When she had become one of the wealthiest and most successful artists of her time, working in a medium that no one had been especially interested in before she began creating portraits The things that's interesting is that in some cases, people would send her portraits that other artists had made of them and said they can. You do a better verse and she also had a constant list of people who wanted to be taught by her and seventy thirty. She travelled to Vienna and became a favourite of Charles, the sixth holy roman emperor, Elizabeth
steam was. The empress asked her to teach her after the artist had completed her portrait after Vienna carrier returned once again of Venice and for the next several years her life was really a steady stream of work and then in seventeen thirty seven everything changed too and rose out of a sister she Evanna died on May nines Giovanna as we mentioned head, assisted Rosalba in her studio and the two of them were very close. They are often referred to as best friends and confidants. They were so close that it went up Katie at a self portraits that she produced in one thousand, seven hundred and fifteen. She had chosen to include a portrait of her sister. She is holding that portrait in her hands so they're kind of together in this self portrait. and then had another tragedy in one thousand. Seven hundred and thirty, eight their mother Alba also died, and this combination of grief, as well as the loss of her trusted assistant, release Kitty S productivity significantly by the seventy
Another problem arose that further stunted her work. She started to have some trouble in her vision by one thousand seven hundred and forty five or one thousand seven hundred and forty six at the end back. She had surgery to try to correct her cataracts. This probably what's called couching, and that involves surgically depressingly opaque lines to the bottom of the eye, to let the light in around the town the carrier. I had her surgery. A french physician named Jacques Davy was experimenting with cataract extraction, but it's not likely that she had this new procedure from accounts that the surgery was. What caused her total blindness, but it's more likely that the couching didn't affect any permanent fix, asked surgery. She had written to a friend that she seemed quite hopeful regardless. Any improvement that she might have had in her vision was pretty short lived and, within a few years renowned and successful career had ended because she was completely blind
catching is one of those procedures that actually still happens today in less advanced countries is not the best way to the old cataracts, but it is sort of fascinating if you're in the ice science and during this late period of her work and the seventeen forties, while her sight was failing, resolve produced what is believed to have been her last self portrayed in this portrait is fifty six point, seven by forty five point. Eight centimetres is about twenty two by eighteen inches. To give you a sense of the size, the portress she was doing, its rendered on buff paper in
she is aged and the tone of the piece is quite casual. She actually made this for a friend, but what's interesting is that, even though her eyesight was going, her technique remains as striking as ever. She rendered the lace and jewelry really beautifully through the careful use of texture to mimic to tail. Her work is one of those things that, when you get right up to it, it just looks like a bunch of strokes, and then you just take one step back and everything kind of snaps into a really beautiful focus, with some softness to a lot of the pieces, and she was still just as good, even really struggling with her eyesight ass. She had been earlier in her life and the years followed resolve a lived in her home in Venice, with her surviving sister who had been widowed. She dictator respondents to her friends and had news and literature read to her, but she was unwilling to go out very often and them of seventeen. Fifty six she made out her will leaving everything she had to her sister and a few other relatives.
and resolved by died on April fifteen. Seventeen fifty seven in Venice, at the age of eighty one She was buried next to her sister, she of honour in the church of Saint Veto and Sand Modesto. She had popularized pastel portraiture, to a point where she was one of the most copied artists of all time and in a way the timing of her passing was fortuitous she did not live quite long enough to see the rococo frills that were so much of a part of her work fall out of Favor The timing of her death, which took place in the early seeds of NEO classicism, were being sound, contributed to her name falling out of the public eye and see relative obscurity, especially compared some of her male counterparts. Still she has continued to delight art historians even in recent years, and we're gonna talk about that after we take another call
sponsor break. This message has brought to you by eighty homes. Security made easy. What does real protection mean for your home and business? It means the latest innovation and smart home security combined or twenty four seven monitoring from eighteen, the most trusted name in homes, security, you get a team of professionals designing and installing a secure, smart home. Just for you, you get eighteen thousand employees, safeguarding you with connection to first responders. You get the name and number one smart home security provider, you get a secure, smart home with everything from video, doorbells, indoor and outdoor cameras, smart locks on lights, controlled from the eighty app or from the sound of your voice. You professionally, monitored carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. You get a system custom designed to fit your home. You get safety on the go in the,
are or when your kids are at school. With the eighty t go up complete with an s button, so go on secure your home or business today with eighty One of the things that gives throws out by carrying out his work, it's ethereal beauty also added a dimension of danger to shipping her pieces around to their various destinations, Pastels are, of course, just sticks of pigment and a filler that makes them opaque their retain their crayon shape through some sort of binding medium pastel, don't require drying time, but they can be easily smudged or distorted, and often in letters or diary notes carry ETA a mentioned concerns about her portraits. Going into their recipients intact, Rosella was so concerned about the safety of her works that she even included little good luck, charms when she slipped them and twentys
Nineteen one of these was discovered by the royal collection, trust and that's the organization. That's tasked with the management and care of the British Royal art collection and residents is in seventeen sixty two George, the third purchased, the entire collection of Joseph Smith, who was a british art agent and collector, who lived in Venice during carrier is career. She produced several work four Psmith over the years, including a personification of winter, which carry Europe used in the seventeen twenties. piece of work features: a young woman with dark hair wrapped in a fur lined cloak the closest falling off of one shoulders on her shoulder and her neck are exposed in her faces at an angle, and it's quite striking and it is rendered on blue paper. Although you really can't see very much actual blues through the pastel
and the young woman looks just luminous. The softness of the past elles make her skin looked utterly velvety and also sort of globally, while details like the ribbons and her hair and her earring look sharper, in contrast with glimmer of light on them, and Joseph Smith described this work in his list of his collection, as quote them, excellent. This virtuoso ever painted a conservator working with this artwork discovered a tiny card tucked in between the arts wooden frame and the canvas liner. This is a small card. Four point: three three point. Three centimetres and it features the three Madge I, which was a topic that carry era, was very fond of card wasn't exactly a surprise. There is plenty of documentation that result both placed images of the magic into parcels with her works when she ship them. She would tell us aussi it's that all of her works that travelled with their little saints that send teeny in italian all. Got to their destination safe and sound of the
Servitor worked with this peace extra carefully because of the fragile nature of pastels. They noticed the small. The paper than it was immediately recognised as one of carrier is good luck, sense, rainy cards and Those pastels continue to be a topic of conservation discussions in the modern era and because often the basis used for older pastel art are fragile themselves. Select the paper backing there are now, a huge number of special exhibits, featuring pastels that were, during resolve us time, including hers. The lack of varnish, like you wouldn't varnish pastel means that fading is a real concern for some of them, and exposure to light has to be carefully managed. So that also contributes to the difficulty of shipping pieces for special exhibitions about the Good NEWS is that because she was so popular and prolific during her time and her work was collected so avidly throughout Europe, you can find rest but carrier is works than many museums throughout the world, as well as checking out her work online. We
already mentioned they heritage, museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia and the live in Paris and her work is also in the collection that the National Gallery of Ireland, the met in New York, the Museum of Fine arts, Austin and the Harvard ART museums. That's just making sure the work is on display before you go, because pastels require really careful preservation, so they're not always on display for the public Yeah they're, spectacularly beautiful, but it's one of those things were even lake the vibration of moving it from spot, despite can affect how it look now, which makes them all the more special in my opinion. So I have a little bit of listener mail. This is from our listener. Melissa, ensure a tiny, Tracy and Holly absolutely of your pod canst, I'm a scientist by training, but absolutely love learning about everything. I'd probably still be in university. Taking courses if I didn't have bills to pay which may plain why I chose to teach at a university. Thank you so much for the way for being an educator from US
Recently, my dad was cleaning out my great ants home after she passed away. She was a clear woman who worked for the new Yorker. She was quite the collector, an amateur historian, one of the fines that had me exclaiming much to my dad's confusion: Hollywood love. This was a trio of Prince by Charles Adams of the Addams family. I quickly had to explain my lover for the podcast in reminded him that one of my Christmas gift request last year. And the last show in Seattle on safety coffins he may or may not have thought. I was a bit too enthusiastic anyway. I have attached to quit picture. I managed to grab the prince before they were included in a pile of items being set to be assessed, restored and framed. it gives us a fun suggestion and then She sends best to you both and will continue to eagerly listen to every pie cast on your show. She also attached a photo of her car Zuzu, which is pretty great because hears is another secret. Holly trivia thing we used to
the cat names issue. I almost named her Zuzu and thank you so much analyse. I love that it's it's to my heart sort of Charles Adam season. Now that we're in the fall and even though his what was going on throughout the year, because the Addams family is a little bit. You know creepy and cookie. I think of them is especially family at Halloween time and I think we're all ready for some Charles Adams Fun.
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