In the 1850s, much of the milk supply in New York was anything but appetizing and wholesome – it was often deadly. But efforts to address the problem were blocked by corrupt officials.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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a few minutes to history, glass, a production of Iheart radio hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm how we try and I'm tracery rope it. Ok, Here is a sort of an obvious heads up. If you saw the title of today's podcast. The topic that we're too about today involves real unsanitary practices. That too, when there were not really laws regarding food safety and quality. The way we think about it today, so it is kind of gross, that's an understatement, and there is also miss treatment of animals. So it is also upsetting on that front. Just that go in and maybe maybe all too intense for you we're covering a period of time where the milk supply in New York was anything but appetising said, actually been going on for quite some time, but their stairs one kind of very pivotal moment in the middle of it. That's really were focused
and then we'll talk about the way that problem was brought to the public's attention and how it was handled after them. But first we just gonna talk a little bit about why milk became known as an essential item in U S kitchens, particularly for families with children. If you grew up in the? U S, even if you don't drink milk yourself, Eve almost certainly become accustomed to this idea that people think of milk as a staple foods. I know when I was a kid I loved milk and I drink it all the time my brother was allergic so that its provisions are household. This is one of the things that just flies off of supermarket dairy case shelves any time there's a heavy storm coming, and people joke about like water people doing without this milk in bread is it french, toast termed her think during the snow storm
milk is treated like a cornerstone of every meal in a lot of families, and it is really popular. We have talked about cheese and butter on the show before which are, of course, also dairy items, but those are made the idea of longevity, so a food that you can have on hand for at least a little while milk does not have that long shelf life, especially in the Arab before artificial radiation. So it's kind of impractical thing to just have on hand all the time. The concept of a of heavy milk consumption is pretty new if he plodded out on the timeline of Human history, yeah for a long time dearly as a human consumable was primarily use just as a means to feed babies. This is also true with a very passionate and centuries long debate about human milk versus
milk from other animals and what is appropriate for children even further, two puritan cotton Mather had opinions about, breast feeding being the only suitable way to feed a child and intimated in his writing. That God would take whether a mother, breastfed or not into account when her day of judgment came in. The nineteenth century. There were plenty of people willing to voice their opinions that breastfeeding was downright uncivilized. Obviously those are two extremes to illustrate the vast range of positions: P, had on the issue that they continued. You will still find people, probably who feel both of those ways. That debate is thankfully way out of our scope here. Also Tracy and I are now mom. So we also have quite the same mistaken conversation that other people might have. So the keys But we need to focus on is that in cases where a mothers or a wet nurses, milk work an option for whatever reason, overtime people started
Turning to other milk sources for infants and me His cows are fairly docile and pretty easy to work with and produce milk in quantity them urged over time as the most popular nonhuman milk source. There were people who studied the mortality rates of babies in regard to being FED animal milk. Much was called artificial feeding era. Comparing that's you. People, two were fed built from their mother or a wet nurse. All the way back to the seventeen hundreds and Joy theory. As we know it today was not really in the mix with this. Yet so there were some stabs in the dark regarding cause and effect of illnesses. That seems like they were linked to milk. One idea, which was conceived by french doktor alfonse. The right in the seventeen Seventys was for children to suckle directly from an animal to get the freshest past.
Well, milk. So he was onto the idea that spoiling could be a problem but he didn't really know that bacteria was the culprit for that spoiling, but keeping live animals on hand for that purpose, not exactly realistic for a lot of places, especially places orphanages or hospitals right and even like anybody that lived in more metropolitan area. Smet lake go to the goat route. Or the that, certainly not a cow in the house. There have been So various types of formula over the years, which can include any number of ingredients such as flowers or even came a girl mixed with water or milk or some combination of the two, and sometimes that was used as a way to stretch milk where that supply was not, as you know, constantly available. But over time there were doctors is. To recommend milk with various added ingredients as something like a pretty effectively Rep
Kate, the nutrition and infant would get from breast feeding. So what doctors touting its benefits milk, really to take on an image as a nutritious and health bolstering beverage. This was not a youth. Firstly held opinion, though, and there were still plenty of instances where milk caused people to get sick. included episodes when multiple people and communities got milk sickness after milk from cows, that had ingested. Some poisonous plants was introduced into the food supply, but the trend of feeding infants and children. Milk continued upward in the U S and in other parts of the world, as cities got bigger and populations boomed, so that just lead to more and more demand for cow's milk, specifically naturally, that growing population of metro areas that needed and wanted milk led to a boom in the day the industry, but in many cases,
The dairies that emerge to meet those demands were not exactly hygienic and the cows that were used were not fed the best diet, feeding more cows meant far greater overhead for milk producers, so of them worked out what seemed like a cost effective solution, and they move next to breweries and distilleries and a lot of instances distilleries started theories of their own as a way to get a piece of the ever increasing demand. Tell a lot of alcohol start out with green. That's combined with water to give the yeast something to work with, but this spent grain is not part of the finnish
However, it is a waste product, and very producers made deals with alcohol producers to take their run off to feed their animals or, in the cases of these combo businesses. The distillers didn't really bother to source any other food for their animals. They were just feeding them the run off from their distilleries. So we should mention here that there are cases where this is ok. If someone is soaking aims that straining them out before fermentation. These grains can be and are fed to livestock like that, are a lotta breweries today that our feeding their spent grain to farm animals and it's this is really just. The agreements that have been used to make the work to make the beer not like run off. That also contains alcohol and other waste products. Right am the brewer That brings the beer for our wedding padded deal with farmers. Lots of places do this and it is proof
we find, so we are not coming now mother, I believe you know someone who does that are as partner one of those we're not dog on them. What we about tell you will explain the problem of yeah yeah. So what we are talking about here is dairy cows being fed this watery Spence will of MASH that had been through the fermentation process and boiled without being strained, and this run off swill. Was not only kind of growth. It really didn't have a lot of nutritional value any more. It could also go bad really quickly. Unlike just spent grain. these today, this was not a good food source for Anna although anyone really and, as a consequence, the queen worthy of the milk being produced by animals being fed. This swill was poor at best, that's a very kind way to put it, that milk was often watery. It did not have the normal fat content of a whole milk
and also it was often blue in color. So to make that milk appear more some than it was dairies that use, will run off to feed their cows, started out all kinds of things to the milk food colourings, Lasses were added to make it look and taste good and in instances Where the dairy watered down the already watery milk to stretch, profits, chalk and sometimes even plaster of Paris was also added to improve the texture. This sounds like it would be really bad for babies and it was an infant mortality, was really high. Some estimates are that nearly half of the babies in Manhattan died pretty routinely and because there were, new marble issues developing as the city became more and more crowded. It actually took a while for people to realise that the milk supply had become poisonous
there were lots of lots of efforts at attribution about, like oh crowding, is making disease spread more quickly? Yes, that's part of it. You know there were lots of other things that they could points you, and I think this might be the problem it just it took a bit. In just a moment. We will talk about the journalists who started to write about this problem, with adulterated milk being fed to babies, but first we're gonna pause for a sponsor break. you are three audio presents the new series art bust, scandalous store. of the art world. In this investigative podcast, UK, author and art, expert Ben Louis explores the shadowy and staggeringly lucrative global art market, throwing compelling new light on an abiding art mystery. The world is a bizarre and dazzling space. There is beauty and glamour, marbled, museums and White Walled galleries, but be This sheen there is a grimy dark side filled with greed, disregard and scandal. Any
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look titled, am historic, scientific and practical essay on milk as an article of human sustenance, the consideration of the effects consequent upon the present natural methods of producing it for the supply of large cities hardly believe that milk produced in a wholesome way was a perfect food and he traced its history and the animals that produce it in this book to support his stance. He include the testimonial from a doctor in the book that reads quote: I live in the country, but occasionally go to the city and wild there. I make a practice of securing if possible my accustomed glass of milk morning and evening instead of coffee and tea, which for some years I have laid aside altogether. Three years ago, last winter I took lodgings at a respectable house near Broadway and bespoke as usual, my glass of milk. I observed that the taste of this myth
was unnatural unsavory and I have no relish for it. In fact, it soon became loathsome and at the end of one week I found myself greatly enfeebled with loss of appetite, a feverish heat of the hands and a slightly furred tongue with other indications of disorder. The milk I was informed, came from a dairy supplied with swill from a distillery. I left the boarding house into lodgings at the Clinton Hotel, where I found a well flavoured glass of milk morning and evening, and in three days I was well Mr H. The landlord assured me that was supplied with milk from Harlem by a farmer who fed his cows on wholesome food, so that doctors account goes on to warn parents that if they are going to buy milk for their children, they shouldn't The dairy, the supply comes from themselves to see the horrible conditions the animals live in and how their
either in abysmal condition from bad food, and all of this smells anything but wholesome hardly is right up, which is credited with coining the term swill mill, includes a number of other accounts in their horrifying secludes abysmal conditions regarding animal welfare, instances of dying cows too weak to stand still being milked. Hardly then lays out his own proof that the milk these poorly fed cows produce is bad. He had conducted a number of experiments with it and found that it couldn't be made answer butter and his words quote. The nutrient properties of milk we have shown consists chiefly of oil and album, and but so deficient is slop. Milk of these essential attributes that it is incapable of producing butter
The author proclaims quote: there is not a more certain poison in the form of food than this swill milk and his strongest case in terms of connecting swill milk to public health is the statistics that he cites in one thousand, eight hundred and fifteen thirty three percent. Deaths in Boston were children younger than five years old by the enemy. team thirties that number had grown to forty three percent, any Klute, similar members for New York in Philadelphia, and then you go on to name five hundred berries in New York. There were actively prick,
sing swill milk. You would think of information would be explosive, but it took a long time for the issues identified by hardly to be investigated. Some of this was because of heartless Association with the Temperance movement, which was not popular in New York. There is a common perception that hardly was attacking distillery dairies that an effort to hurt the distilleries themselves. This is all part of his temperance activism. Swill milk wasn't studied by the New York Academy of Medicine for another six years, and that study of course found it nutritionally deficient The practice of producing swill milk continued by the MID eighteen. Fifty is an estimated two thirds of New York's six million dollar annual spend on milk went to swill milk. Slowly, though, the information and heartless book became more and more commonly known. People started to question where their milk with coming from and whether that was the source of child deaths
we're malnutrition. Finally, in eighteen, fifty seven and investigation was launched by city officials of Brooklyn. You recall at this, Brooklyn in New York, were kind of two different entities. The resulting report with horror fine detailing a seemingly endless array of animal mistreatment and the handling of the milk those animals produced. Those aims. Were crowded so tightly together that they never moved and their stalls were rarely mucked out. Life expectancy for a cow at a sweet milk. Jerry was only about six months. This report, which was doktor did through the official investigation, also had await the sceptics, may have found whacking and heartless anonymous. Eyewitness accounts, the sweet milk is This point was at last getting very wide scale exposure. While the report compiled by Brooklyn authorities was really banning, it wasn't as though everyone was reading municipal that
myths story really broke open on the pages of Frank Leslie Illustrated newspaper on May eighth, eighteen, fifty eight with the first instalment in a serious about swill milk and a five thousand word experts, a Leslie shared all of the grizzly details that had been part of the city's findings and more wisely said that he had been spurred into investigation when a bottle of milk delivered to his door had obviously contained heads up. This is gross pus floating in the milk, and the details, as reporters had uncovered, were accompanied with equally unsettling illustrations. He's articles alerted the public to the fact that even cows, with bovine tuberculosis, were being used to produce the milk they might buy from a vendor. Cart right on their own street
It was reported that in some cases, meat from the sick cows that had died in these distillery dairies had been sold at markets in poor neighbourhoods, and this milk was being sold to the public with the assurance that it was good and wholesome off. and the bottles were labeled with things like Pure Orange County milk or some similar nomenclature to suggest that this wholesome milk, from presumably healthy cows keep in mind too, that all of this predated routine pasture regime pastor was working on his idea that there were germs in play in the spillage of liquids intended for consumption. As this will, scandal was playing out, but commercial milk pasteurized word produced until the late eighteen, abies man that every minute that even a wholesome milk was on a street car. It was inching toward spoiling because it had never. and sterilised, but swimming started out dirty and just got worse and milk,
yet being bottled. At this time it was often doled out of pales into smaller pails, and that meant that it was also armies. Hearts open to debrief falling in it at any time. The images and levies which were drawings, of course, included sick cows being held up with straps that they could be milt cows, with swords on their bodies from malnutrition and really filthy conditions. Leslie took out adds another newspapers to advertise the expos, a series of swill milk. He sent his staff artists to try to sneak into dairies and get material for their renderings according to less these quote, swill milk should be branded with the word poison. Just as narcotics are so Frank, Leslie was genuinely exposing some truly gnarly things going on in these theories, but he was also definitely doing so in a very sensationalist manner. Its word note:
but he had worked a pity Barnum on his publishing endeavours prior to going out on his own as a publisher Wesley not only reported the news, but he did so in a way that he knew would incense readers and he also wished illustrations in his articles that stereotyped irish immigrants, who worked in the dairies While his exposition series was raising important issues to public awareness, it came with it problems and in some ways that led him to be discredited by people. He was also
very clearly on the side of the temperance movement and the third instalment of the loveliest illustrated story about swill milk. This was evident and writing that mentions the evil of drink in the same sentence as the dangers of swill milk quote wherever large masses of people congregate, thus creating a great demand for milk. A distillery springs up at once, and while this furnishes the fiery alcohol, which makes the fathers and husbands drunkards, loafers and perhaps murderers, the filthy cow stables which hang around it like. loaded parasites dispense the poison that deals death to the mothers and children and the bubbling did get angry when they learn that they had been feeding their babies. Milk that was purposely filled with things like chalk, because, frankly, we had publish the names and addresses of theories that we're making swill milk and passing off his fresh milk from country. Dairies me
many of those Dearie soon found angry mobs at their doors for people and our porters, who had been talking about the obviously growth milk for a while it seemed like there was. Finally, some hope a May thirteenth eighteen, fifty eight article titled how we poison our children that in the New York Times. Red quote swill. Milk is no new thing in our city. Wherever there is a distillery, there is a temptation to manufacture that particular right up walked through all the investigations, the completely gross things that had been found and milk. The dance associated with the dairies that had become more and more of a concern as cities grew in the neighborhoods were built adjacent to the stables. There is a tone in this peace that logs Leslie a sort of a Savior figure and encourages every high
a household to examine their own milk for contaminants. While the city manages punitive measures for the people involved in producing swill I may twenty seconds and article appeared in the New York Times: titled swill milk and infant mortality, The lead of the story stated that the health commissioners agreed with mere team in that the problem of swill milk had to be addressed and that they quote promise to enter upon the performance of a long neglected duty essentially Yes, we should have been on top of this sooner, but we're doing now. Ok, so the plan for the health commission was to quote
operate with energy and firmness to purify the stables where the disgusting stuff is manufactured. The article stated clearly that, if the Board of Health function at all, this should be something it addressed and called for wide sweeping condemnation and punishments to everyone in the supply chain. Stating quote we take it that the city inspector is prepared to serve his three days, notice upon the distillers to furnish the swill at wholesale upon the proprietors of the stables and upon the milkman, who hawk the period and stuff at the doors of Citys. but they all and severally show cause before the board why their work of death should not be discontinued that same article gets a job in it. Politicians who fail to be virtuous and care about their concern. torrents, but then do nothing once therein office ended. It treats the administrators involved to act like that, but do pretty
intelligently, and remember that the public health is at stake. The writer also compares the milk crisis to the yellow fever outbreak in eighteen, fifty six, so just a couple years prior during which, Lord of Health convene daily and took action Comparing the relatively low number of deaths from yellow fever in the city to the thousand children they calculated had died in eighteen, fifty seven from swill milk consumption. What came of all this information being shared and calls to action, and the press you'll get into that in just a moment. But first we will hear about the sponsors that keep the show going. Support for this by cast comes from, invest, go Q, Q, he'll what, while the greatest innovations have in common patrons ordinary people who shape the
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Yours enjoy a stroll across the nearest keyboard and visit apartments, dot com. To start your rental search today, apartments dot com, the most popular place, to find a place. Let me, city, aldermen, assigned to the school milk case did inspect the dairies. A team was formed. made up of Tammany Hall Politician and newly elected aldermen, Michael twelve me who led the to an Alderman E Harrison Reed and William Tucker, with two additional investigators assigned, but the two gave the accused dairies a heads up that they were coming. There were
reports of disease cows being moved in the night and replaced with healthy ones brought in from the country, farms and also of stables being hastily cleaned, and there was also a five day hearing and which testimony was heard regarding the whole matter. In an unusual turn, the defense was heard first at when peace myth. He was the superintendent of the Johnson and stable on sixteen street, which was one of the dairy stables called out in numerous articles about swill milk, was the first to testify. He stated that there were about five hundred cows in the stable there. There had been as many as eight hundred earlier in the year. He said there have been sick cows there at various times, but very few. Any claim that facility was running as normal as it always had, including before the experts say, and that his family always drank milk from the swill FED cows and were in fine health. The next witness was this
labels beating manager, James Acheson, who corroborated Psmith story, never found a very clear reason why they went with the defence first other than the fact that all the accusations had kind of been levelled in the press for awhile before this started, so for some reason they wanted to get first in Acheson, also added that some of the cows who may have appeared sick, we're just re thing to routine inoculations and that he had never seen any of his animals lose their teeth from either swill. He gave hard numbers their their true or not. Regarding the proportion of sick cows, he said that three of the five hundred they had at the time of the year were sick, any who stated that cows, only very rarely quote, lost the use of their limbs from standing in the stable that is according to coverage of the hearing by the New York Times. There were several other witnesses called on behalf of the sweet milk stables. A doctor wells he was superintendent. Smith's family doctor testified that he
and for the entire Smith family and had never seen any of them ill from drinking swill milk. Animal keeper Louis Thomas testified that he had cared for a large number of the Johnson dairy cows and that they did not milk sick cows. Even a butcher who purchased cows from the Johnson and Sons dairy testified that the stuff, was good and the meat he had sold was high quality. On the following day. The hearing was delayed. It was supposed to start at two p m, but the aldermen showed up late and then went to a private office instead of the hearing room in event. We re emerged into the Pact City Hall Room and announced the aldermen Tucker was sick but that they were going to carry on they called doc. J W France's to testify Darter Francis I ve been studying the issue of swill milk for years. At that point, Anne had Eddie dairy practices, both in the U S and abroad, was very open in his opinion that swill milk was terrible for children that cows fed.
Larry Swill were in a continuous state of inflammation. He also said that there, rivers and stomachs where disease their tails and hoofs often fell off. There was something that also been shown in some of the illustrations that it appeared in the press and that they certain to become ill due to their diet. Twoam he kept asking if Doktor Frances had chemically analyzed any of the milk himself on the doktor replied that he had not but had read many reports on the matter and had treated children that had become seriously ill from a diet of swill milk Doktor Frances also cited the fact. The issue of swill milks danger had been well known and well documented in the medical community. For years already throughout the hearing, aldermen Swami was hostile to witnesses, who testified against the swell berries, starting with Doktor Frances Huey, interrupted repeatedly and accused of spreading rumors
the aldermen. Also let the Johnson theories, medical experts, question Doctor Francis the next doktor called was a doktor grist he reiterated a lot of doktor. France's points you have you read through the by word accounts printed in the paper assembly. Twa me was just Only going are you done, are you done? Are you dont like? While they were in the middle of discussing things? He was not not cool. A farmer named Norman Van Nostrand testified that, yes, there were cows, they were so ill in the sixteenth street dairy that they had to be suspended from straps, but He was under the impression that their milk was given to the hogs and never sold to the public, but after this first two days, a lad of testimony backed up all the stories of horrible animal treatment and adulterated milk. Before the Saturday session of the hearings could even began. There was a lot of back and forth about whether legal counsel should be on hand and whether the hearing was considered a
go investigation. All present were assured that it was not a legal matter but merely an inquiry. I a committee of the Board of Health with a narrow focus of determining whether swill mill was detrimental to the next witness called. Was the city inspector, a Mister Morton and his testimony was quite damning. He's of having the stables watched years before seeing diseased cows dressed for market after they died there. He spoke his employees that were sent to watch the swell stables being driven away by dairy employees he also noted that he had visited some of the stables to find cow is being kept installs too small to allow
to move around at all or even to lie down Help Warren Louis J Kirk also testified. He had performed postmortem examinations of some of the swiss MELT cows and describe them as being quote very much diseased. When asked about the conditions of the stables he stated quote, it is not just the place for a cow You want to keep her healthy. He was quickly dismissed the rest of the hearing played out in a similar way with witnesses who spoke well of the school milk. Stables being asked the same, so so softball questions repeatedly reiterating the health of the animals. suitability of the milk for consumption witnesses who critical of the school milk dairies were often cut off or interrupted, or had there credibility undermined by the committee, Frank Leslie,
I'm so frustrated that he stopped attending midway through the five day hearing, as the newspapers reported on the daily events and testimonies, these accounts off and ran alongside expert opinions in the paper the June first, one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight New York Times included a statement that opened with quote now that the public mind is aroused to the horrible evils of the spot milk trade and its destructive effects on infant life. The time appears opportune to present the testimony of physicians on the subject or, however, indisputable and conclusive. Maybe the language of facts and experience and reference to the evil, yet from its very nature of the demonstration, might appear incomplete in some mines without the testimony of medical men. That statement was signed by more than
were dozen doctors. They included deaths, statistics of infants and their belief that swill milk was contributing to many of the infant fatalities in New York in Brooklyn. At the end of the investigation, the aldermen took several weeks to review the material, and then they issued their opinion, and now this will milk was not dangerous to the health of infants or adults. The the criticisms they made were that the ventilation in the stables could be better and that the stalls could be widened, but the base all healthy animals in good condition and well kept facilities when they visited. So we should mention that there was one Vogel defence, her on the city council, and that was councilmen Charles H, Haswell he was one of the investor It is assigned to the team. He wrote his own minority report as the hearings conclusion. He believed that the stables had been cleaned only for the committee's visit and that swill milk was in fact quote injurious to health. One journal
it's called this a manly and sensible minority report that turn of phrase made me laugh a little bit that majority report of the council caused outrage. Of course In the July sixteenth Edition of the New York Tribune, a commentary on the situation started with quote upon printing the second base proceedings of the committee on the school milk business on the third of June. We foresaw the affair was to be a mere farce. That the report would be as favourable as possible to the swill men, but The highest medical talent in the city came forward to denounce the business as little shit, of licensed infanticide when the health officer showed that the rotten carcasses of cows were surreptitiously sold for human food, even in the best markets, when sitting of high standing added their personal knowledge of the filthy, nature of the business and the offensive character, the stables when not have was raised in favour of the nuisance, except from persons
mediately interested therein. We could I believe that could induced any three members of the committee to make a report, so early opposed to the evidence as that which they finally produced a frank levies. Newspaper secured the committee members on July. Tenth writing quote the Committee of the Board of Health selected by Mayor Timon. Having ended their labors have handed in their report. Everyone predicted the nature of the report, not, however, from the character of the evidence brought forward, but from the character of certain men composing the committee. They have subscribed their names to a series of deliberate lies. They have distorted facts. They have become false witnesses at the same time being corrupt judges. They have trifled with imperilled the health of the city. They have taken council with the
owners of the nuisance, they were looks to abate. They have betrayed the trust reposed in them by their constituents in the Board of Health. They have proved themselves every way, a measurably, false, incapable and correct. This article excludes has well as a quote gentleman and consequently an honest man for his dissenting report. in an effort to prove that Tommy had possibly taken a bribe to find in vain of the school milk producers and affidavit that, sworn to Robert stray Big Commissioner of Deeds was printed in less Liese up her and not named by the paper. Although they said they would provide that information to the appropriate authorities said that they were mistily alderman visiting British Johnson, the owner of the sixteen street dairy on May twenty sixth, two days before committee visited the facility that same person, all Software me returned to Johnson's home later that evening, stay
three hours from seven thirty, two ten thirty p M, Michael Twoam me, along with red and Tucker, were also featured in a cartoon and Frank Leslie. illustrated showing the three men whitewashing sick cows, their pockets, stuffed with Money Swami in Red, filed libel suits against Frank, Leslie, other theirs. suit, seem to fizzle out. They were abandoned, maybe at an effort on the part of these aldermen to distance themselves. From this whole thing and, of course this entire episode had the effect of scaring a lot of people away from all milk so that legitimate dairy farmers found themselves worried about their futures. A right up to old, the milk business of long island appeared in the Brooklyn evening STAR on June, Eleventh eighteen, fifty eight, The committee was still prepping its report and in evening star, the case was made that only about ten thousand of the one hundred thousand courts of milk consumed in Brooklyn each day
came the railroad from wholesome dairies it deserves. The farmers producing this wholesome milk, as quote well, can do and quakers, owning their own farms and conducting their affairs with industry and conscientiousness. was just a matter of getting consumers on board with this higher quality of milk, which could be gotten much greater amounts. According to this placed article, there was also list of the dairies of long island that had been certified for their quality, touting that they have full grazing pastures filled with healthy cows and that their farms were for anyone to visit for inspection. Michael dwell me and for Congress later that year, but was soundly beaten, he did continue a political career, but the swill milk scandal stuck to his reputation for decades ends one thousand eight hundred and seventy eight twenty years after the worst of the New York milk prices. This was still used to
You were him in the press when he ran for coroner that year, along article came out that rehashed his part in the events of eighteen. Fifty eight and reiterated the commonly held belief that corruption had been at the centre of the committee's handling of this matter, although one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight committee's findings were disappointment to New York and Brooklyn activists and residents, who hopes that this will melt problem would be addressed. The issue did not end there calls for reform to save the city's. Children continue to be made of local and state government concurrently issue of adulterated milk and protests over it. D lived in other. U S: cities as well as trade, transport and preservation. Science advanced
it became easier to supply the growing needs of heavily populated area with healthy milk from trustworthy dairies. On April twenty third eighteen sixty two an act to prevent the adulteration of milk and prevent the traffic and impure and unwholesome milk was passed into law in New York, so as one many steps toward the passage of the pure food and drug active nineteen o six at the federal level. So that's pretty pretty grows verifying yeah. It's an I mean a lot and newspapers from that time were really sensationalize than how they covered things, but even taking that into account still horrifying yeah. I mean a lot of we're running like the word for word, testimonies from the hearing, and so it becomes pretty obvious lake how that was playing out and how utterly horrible. It was yeah super gross.
I'm in the middle of a fascination with group poison. Things right now for no particular reason, so there might be more or less. advance, while before we get a listener mail Should we talk about something a little more pleasant like like travel, that sounds grants. We are hoping that it will finally be safe for us to take our many times. Postpones trip to ITALY, this November letters, crofts yeah, so this trip was originally planned to take place in twenty twenty of course, and that did not happen. It's been postponed several times, hopefully happening November for through eleven of this year, which is twenty twenty one there's still
if available a lot of folks have stuck with it. Through all of these many delays and totally I mean obviously necessary cancellations, but we also have some space on it because it just has not worked out for some people. Some people, you know not really comfortable, who had idea. That's point. So there are still space available and you can learn more about it at defined destinations, dot com. Interested in learning more about bad. We would love to have you along yeah, cautiously optimistic when they eat so much on the trip. but which is also, I thought it would be good to to do. A listener may offer this when that involve food and a delightful way I'll get ass. Others Zimmer listener. Kristen grades greetings from Sonny boiling hot southern California, also man West Coast. I m sorry, you ve,
having a really rough somewhere. But christen goes on. I just finished listening to the vacuum episode and the cooking talk at the end got me for years I asked my mother to write down various recipes, but the when I begged for the most was her meat loaf. Yes, meat, loaf, the staple of every seventies kitchen. Every time I went ass, she would waggle a finger tipps disc and say not yet. I can't reveal my secret ingredients what a jerk right. These kinds of stories often take a turn for the worse. Mine is no different. She died and twenty sixteen m dad came to live with us. We bemoaned the loss of that and other recipes. After a year we finally got down to going through all the stuff. My dad brought when he moved in to be fair. Some It was mine, a foot locker of it to be exact in a knife All letters that my mom had written when I moved out and went to school on the other side of the country was really nice to see and have her handwriting in front of me. at the bottom of the pile was a folded typed page. I opened it up and Bam meat loaf recipe,
I yelled I got you and ran to my add to show him my fine. He cheered I made it that night, moms meat, loaf, green beans and baked potatoes. We laughed and cried, and leaned back Wingfold bellies. It was great secret ingredient, Lipton Onion Soup mix up I'm guessing It was the same thing every seven these mom used, I still over how she guarded that secret. I have attached a copy of the rest, be here in case. You want to give it a go. She left excellent instructions. Criminals are lost her dad this year. But this whole story is one of her favorite memories with them She continues like so many others who said your podcast has been a friend and companion last year and a half in comfort women. you need to get out of my own head for me: do actually
in thanks. I send you pictures and my cue cats, Angus, the orange and white drooling. Sixteen pound Mean Coon, sweet, timid, pogo in her safe place and, last but not least, tiny kitten, six pounds a fury who would attack just ass, soon ass. She would smuggle and unfortunately, tiny kittens now no longer with Christian, but what a beautiful story. Also, I am one hundred percent making your mom's Meatloaf recipe, one because I loved cook tube his, I love Meatloaf three, because, yes to the onion suit mix in me, oh yeah, something I love is the meat loaf sandwich made of left over meat loaf the next day. For some reason I love that would be more than just the meat loaf The day that it was made, love will do more for a re heed them he loved and put it on bread for no particular reason them. I just love Meatloaf on its own, so Kristen, please, now that yeah you're Emily Recipe and your mom's memory is being kept alive. In my kitchen as well, I think that Super
in a great way to to keep everyone connected through times like this and really any time we're on living history, your monsters, There is no part of my history, so this other things that I love about recipes handed down through time. It connects all of us if you would like to write to us and send us good Meatloaf recipes listened very. Do that or any recipe for something yummy. You think people see redrawing you can. History, pike ass. It I heard radio dot com. You can also find us anyway, on social media if you would like to subscribe, and you haven't got around to it. That would be great, and also you can do that. On the I hurt radioactive or anywhere you listen to your favorite podcast stop pms than history class. The production of Iheart radio for more per capita I heard radio visit by her radio have added my cans or wherever you listen, Favorite payment
This is my armies own dj here then co host of the drink, chance podcast on the black afresh, cast network in thy heart radio. Every week Norman. I sit down with the most legendary artist producers and I cons in the music industry and the culture at large. So if you like to hear some legendary stories, some hip, hop history or just want to have a good laugh, makes. You go to subscribe to drink checks on thy heart, radio, apple, podcast or wherever you get your pie cast
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Transcript generated on 2021-07-29.