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To the Hon. Chester A. Arthur; Respectfully, Julia I. Sand

2019-05-20 | 🔗

In 1882 and 1883, decades before women had the right to vote, Julia Sand wrote a series of letters to President Chester A. Arthur that may have influenced his presidency. 

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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you missed in history class of production of I hurried use. How stuff works, hello and love into the pot hath, I'm tracing relocate. How, with eighteen. Eighty two decades before women have the right to Julia Band, wrote a theories of letters to President chest or a Arthur, but first before he was even president and those letters might really have influenced the presidency will talk about. But a little later this all happened during a period. That's known as the gilded age. Not term was popular as by Mark TWAIN to describe a society that was very glittery on the surface, but also rotten underneath it was a time
reform and progress. Some other reformers that we ve talked about in the show before were during this period, but there was also a lot of corruption and inequality any very deeply partisan political process and this story of Julia Sand and Chester Arthur connects to all of that. Before we get to Julia Sands letters, we need to talk about history, Arthur's courier before he became president and how he wound up in that office because her letter, grow out of all of that. He was born on October, fifth, eighteen, twenty, nine, His father, William, was a minister, a teacher and an abolitionist and the fair We moved around a lot living in towns in Vermont, New York and cut back Arthur, who was friends called chat, worked as a teacher and a school principle before moving, to New York City to pursue a career and law. One of his first cases was known as the lemon slave case.
Jonathan and Juliet Lemon of Virginia had brought eight enslaved people with them to New York. They were planning to emigrate to Texas and they were going to get honest. were in New York to go to Texas, but New York at that point had abolished slavery and a judge ordered for the enslaved people that they brought with them to be Reed Arthur and William, W Everts successfully represented the state of New York when the ruling was appealed, so that ruling stood that these people should be freed in eighteen, fifty five Arthur also successfully represented past podcast. Subject: Elizabeth Jennings Gram and her discrimination suit against the Third Avenue Railway company Arthur didn't come from money and he was always looking for a way to move up the economic ladder to that end summer of eighteen. Fifty seven he went to Kansas, which was in held in a violent dispute over slavery. In spite of his power, our legal work in his family's deep ties to abolition a big
innovation was that he hoped to make money. really thinking he might get into some land speculation. It wasn't so much about the principles of slavery there. He didn't stay in Kansas, very long, though, he was engaged to a woman named Ellen Herndon, it went by Nell. He would later. Mary Nell Father was killed on September 12th, one thousand eight hundred and fifty seven when the Ss Central America sank off the coast of Cape Hatteras after storm. After learning that her father had died, Nell wrote to Chester, she asked him to come home and he did the central issue occur had been carrying gold. That was meant to replenish the supply in New York banks. So when the ships the laws of all that needed gold, combined with existing economic issues, set off a financial panic. If this sounds familiar, it is the same shipwreck and panic that came up in our Levi Strauss episode, not too long and even though Arthur's legal work had earned him some respect. He just didn't: have the experience or connections to earn a good luck?
as a lawyer during such tumultuous economic times, looking for another direction for his career, Arthur became more and more involved with New York's republican political machine. If you're familiar with that term. Political machine is the political party organisation that has a boss or a very small click of people at the top and then a hierarchy of deeply loyal. If, rules and supporters extending all through every level of the government and then out into the community, the name comes from the organizations ability to achieve its goals with an almost mechanical efficiency. Whether that goal is enacting some kind of actual change or just stay. and power, especially in the nineteenth century. These organizations became synonymous with bribery, fraud and corruption. There wanted to stay in power, not necessarily because they thought they do a better job than someone else, but because they ran the guy.
and in a way that personally benefited the boss and his cronies. At the same time, political machines could inspire general We deep loyalty among voters, for example the boss, might handout food and clothing an impoverished neighbourhood, making it clear who was to thank for that help
but when that wasn't enough incentive to get voter support, the machine might also turned to intimidation, threats and fraud. Arthur got his start and all this working with publisher and republican boss, Thomas we'd, he was a huge proponent of what was known as the spoils system, and that system was also connected to the way political machines were working under this system, which is also known as the patronage system, elected officials and political bosses routinely handed out jobs to their friends and supporters. Basically, as rewards this bread, a lot of inefficiency and corruption, people were being appointed to positions that they really had no qualifications or just because they were connected to somebody in power or people were convinced to support some
in power by being promised a job in exchange for that support, Arthur's most obvious benefit from the spoil system was still to come, leading up to the civil war. He joined the New York State Militia again more with the hope of advancement than over the issue of slavery. He rose to the ranks and eventually became quartermaster general for the state of New York. He also became connected to Edward De Morgan. Another Republican who became governor of New York Arthur was increasingly involved in republican politics during and after the war by eighteen. Seventy Thomas we'd was getting older than his grip, as the boss was slipping. Moving into his face was Roscoe Conklin, who eventually became a senator Are there also had connections to William H, tweed known as boss tweed, who ran the opposing and also notorious democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall Tweed created a job for Arthur working as council to the City Tax Commission
he had an annual salary of ten thousand dollars doing. Nobody is exactly sure what those jobs on December first, one thousand eight hundred and seventy one arthur- became a customs collector for the port of New York. President Ulysses S Grant appointed him to the position based on the recommendations of Senator Conkling and the previous customs collector Tom Murphy Murphy was leaving in disgrace. After numerous allegations of fraud, criminal activity and firing customs, to replace them with men loyal to Roscoe Conklin. In spite of this tarnished reputation, he was allowed to name has replacement. Customs collector was an incredibly powerful and very lucrative role.
in terms of his own pay. Arthur was earning as much as eighty thousand dollars a year, which is roughly equivalent to more than half a million dollars today, and this included a portion of the fines that were collected and the goods that were received at the The federal government made a lot of money at the poor too. There was no federal come tax, so most of the federal government's revenue was coming from customs and most of those customs we're coming through New York collectors so the government in general and the customs collector specifically have a financial incentive to assess fines and fees at the port or two goods for reasons that were either overblown or flat out made up Arthur, had always had an affinity for nice things. He liked fashionable clothes and find food and good cigars. Later on. After becoming president, he would have Louis Comfort, Tiffany completely redecorate the White House and host state dinners that required seven different ones.
as for every guest. So this posed as customs inspector really let him indulge his love of finer things as he was taking a cut of all these fines and the goods that we're moving through the port. Some of those fines and seized goods beings for completely fabricated reason, people called him the gentlemen boss, the role also Arthur in a good position to do favors for his cronies lake waving their shipments through the port without there having to pay collected, bribes and seized goods were passed around the republican political machine, Arthur so requested that his employees donate to his faction of the Republican Party, known as the stalwarts, and this was superb. ITALY Voluntary, but not really, civil service rules implemented and eighteen,
seventy to ban these types of political contributions, but Arthur continued to request them anyway. That cut of the revenue that Arthur personally got also disappeared in eighteen. Seventy four after Congress PATH, the Anti Moiety ACT that act followed an investigation into a fine that was assessed. That fine was for more than two hundred and seventeen thousand dollars and it had been levied against the firm of Phelps Dodge Arthur and said of his cronies, had all gotten a share of this fine Arthur's cut of it was more than twenty one thousand dollars, but it turned out that the fine was almost entirely fraudulent. Corruption was that all through american politics. At this point, but Arthur developed, a reputation for being particularly corrupt, plus two republican factions. The moderates and stalwarts were increasingly at odds with each other. After moderate Republican referred, be, hey, succeeded. Grant as president
an incredibly contentious election. He nominated Theodore, Roosevelt Senior, to take Arthur's place as customs collector, but the stalwart faction of the Senate repeatedly voted against, confirming him and Roosevelt died of stomach cancer with the matter still unsettled. Arthur was, only suspended from the job on July 11th, one thousand eight hundred and seventy eight during his campaign, Rutherford B Hayes had pledged to spend only one term in office, so at the end of that term, public and party needed to find a new candidate to run in the eighteen, eighty presidential election, the stalwarts preferred former president, rat and the moderates worried that real acting grant would cause more division, especially since that would mean he was returning to office for a third term. We haven't gotten into it, but his earlier terms had a lot of the types of corruption that we ve been talking about.
The Anti Grant wing of the party wound up splitting their votes between two candidates before eventually rallying round James, a Garfield. After thirty six rounds of voting, Garfield finally became the parties Nominee Arthur was selected as his running may, mostly to appease the stalwarts and with the hope of getting votes from the sea of New York and the election Arthur accepted. The nomination, even though he was still grieving from the recent death of his wife thinking of the whole, is an honour and a possible chance it redemption. This wasn't a particularly popular move, though Almost immediately rumours started to spread that Arthur had not been born in the United States that he was from Canada or from his father's birthplace of Ireland and thus was not eligible to be vice president. This was such a convoluted and weird and fascinating story we're going to have a whole podcast on it later hooray Garfield won the election, but on July sack
Eighty, maybe one not quite four months after his inauguration, he was shot by Charles J Guiteau Police, a meal we apprehended Guiteau, who proclaimed quote, I did it and I will go to Yale for it. I am a stalwart and Arthur is now President ghettos, behaviour and statements were odd and erratic beyond just the fact that he had shot the president and is often described as a disappointed office seeker because he had been repeatedly turned away while trying to get an appointment as an ambassador. He was so persistent that the Secretary state eventually ordered him to leave and never come back. But Chester. A Arthur was notorious in this whole system of spoils and cronyism so his convoluted logic and disordered thinking Guiteau seems to have thought if Arthur where President he would get a job and therefore Julia Sand finally comes into this picture. We will get to her after
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corners and shut out Maza for letting that happened. So if you are Information on Malta and the first ever six thirty head over to Maza, USA, dot com, such Iheart or better, yet go check it out in person at a local area Masilo today, President James Garfield live or nearly eighty days after being shot on July. Second, eighteen, eighty one enduring time. Chester Arthur was the best kind of freaked out. He had not really even considered that he could become president when he accepted the nomination. Just being the vice president was almost Beyond the scope of his imagination, Arthur was on a boat that was taking him from Albany back to New York when the shooting happened, as the boat was passing by a p, here, someone shouted across the water. The Garfield had been assassinated, one of Arthur
colleagues on the deck heard this and came to the saloon too, given the news and Arthur literally crumpled into his chair, in addition to Thing Arthur is now President Charles Guiteau had told the officers who apprehended him that Arthur quote and all those men were his friends and that Guiteau would have the arresting off First made chief of police people had already been suspicious of Arthur's character, and then these bizarre statements, the guitar, was making world getting people to wonder whether the vice president had orchestrated the shooting general reaction in the press was stunned, horror, but so the shooting, and to the idea that Arthur was going to become president. The Chicago Tribune called it. A calamity so did former President Rutherford be Hayes,
and the word calamity seems to be the one virtually everyone gravitated toward when describing a potential Arthur presidency. Then Arthur really didn't do much to try to take control of the narrative. He had always been extremely secretive when it came to the press, the rather than making some kind of statement or a stepping into lead. As the president was incapacitated, he mostly head. He was also afraid to assume the president's duties, because he'd justifiably worried that it reinforce the idea that he had been behind the shooting. In a brief visit to Washington DC, he told the president's cabinet quote: I pray to God that the president will recover. God knows I do now I want the place I was never elected to. As quickly as he could, he went back to New York and then just try to stay out of the spotlight, as all of this was happening. Roscoe Conkling was also in the news
He had resigned his Senate at sea, along with the other senator from New York, in an attempt to derail the confirmation of Garfield's choice for once again the New York City Customs collector. He hoped that the New York legislator would return him too. after he had done this, and the media was sure that if that happened and the president died, not only would there be this calamitous Arthur presidency, but also the notorious Roscoe com one would really be running everything from behind the scenes, thirty one year Old Julia Sand was following all of this with Bated breath Juliet the youngest child of Christian Henry Sand who have emigrated from Germany and Isabella Julia Carter. Christian sand had gone on to become president of metropolitan Gaslight Company of New York, so the family was well off and cultured Julia had at least nine siblings and in eighteen eighty wine seen several family members were living at seventy six east
when the fourth street and a home to her brother and she was educated and unmarried. Whenever relatives would later describe her as a bluestocking, which was slang for an intellectual woman, she was also chronically Well, it's really not clear whether diagnosis might have banned, but she had problems with her spine and a number of illnesses that sometimes left her unable to leave her room at other times there. She was well enough to travel to some of the areas more fashionable resorts and springs to try to regain her health. You might describe Julia Sand as a pole. uncle junkie. She didn't have the right to vote and there were no women in New York, state legislature or the federal government, but she devour political news and she was informed about candidates and elected officials and about the issues of the day and on August First eighteen,
seven, she wrote Chester, eight Arthur a seven page letter. It began in part quote the hours of Garfield's life are numbered. Before this meets your eye. You may be president, the people are bowed and grief, but do you realize it not so much because he is dying as because you are his successor, what President ever entered office under circumstances so sad the day he was shot, the thought rose and a thousand minds that you might be the instigator of the I'll act is that not a humiliation which cuts deeper than any bullet can pierce? Then she went on to say quote, but making a man president can change him. Great emergencies awaken generous traits which have lain dormant half alive.
If there is a spark of true nobility in you now is the occasion to let it shine faith in your better nature. Forces me to write to you, but not to beg you to resign, do what is more difficult and more brave reform. It is not the proof of highest goodness, never to have done wrong, but it is a proof of it. Some time in one's career. Pause and ponder to recognize the evil to turn resolutely against rise to the emergency disappoint, our fears and this letter s, and also imagine what might happen if Arthur were shot. She wrote that no one would pray for his well being, as so many people were doing at that moment for Garfield and said she thought the american people would probably They were well rid of him. This letter was incredibly direct and forward, especially considering that sand and Arthur or total strangers to one another,
she didn't pull any punches about how disliked distrusted he was and how justified those perceptions were. But she also bolstered him up and imagined a word in which Arthur left all of the wheeling and dealing in corruption of the republican political machine behind him? When fan wrote this letter, Garfield's condition seemed relatively stable, but also was not really improve. But then in the middle of August, after being moved from the human and swampy capital to long Brand New Jersey, he took a sudden turn for the worse on September nineteenth. It became clear that he would not survive Arthur, got a telegram from the attorney general informing him of this, which led him to shut himself up in his home later that evening, after some of his colleague left and went for a walk by himself at about one thousand, one hundred and thirty. That night, when Arthur, was back at home a reporter brought him the news that the president had died. Arthur's response was this quote
oh- no, it cannot be true. It cannot be. I have heard nothing after. He got a telegram confirming that. Yes, it was true. He KIDS room and wept in the early morning, hours of September 20th, one thousand eight hundred and eighty one. Are there composed himself New York Supreme Court Judge John. Our Brady arrived at about two thirty in the morning to administer the oath of office, a formal public inauguration was held in Washington DC two days later. He got his next letter from Julia Sand about a week after that and we're gonna talk more about bad after we have a little sponsor break. This episode is broad you, I Mazda and the Mossy Ex thirty a truly remarkable suv. The six thirty aside, to be agile and the city, while still having the interior space and utility to go anywhere at any time. Encouraging and active lifestyle. One thing, Mazda has done, is design a vehicle that is meant to enhance your experience
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Mazda vehicle lineup visit your local area, Mazda dealer today? Julia fans next letter to Chester eight Arthur she wrote about what she thought of the unique nature of his grief over the president's death. She noted that Garfield's, why and family, we're all going through what ordinary families had weathered for all of human history. Arthur's grief, other hand also carried the weight of his new found and unasked for responsibility. She wrote quote: well: all endured during the terrible months of anxiety just past you two endured intensified a thousand fold by their reflection that you were the one human being to benefit by his death that you had been opposed to him that some believed you capable of have
plotted for his cruel end. You were alone, in your sorrow, perfectly isolated. She went on to praise his conduct during those last week's Garfield's life, in which he had, by all appearances, avoided scandal and anxiously hope for the late president's recovery. She suggested that people's opinions of might be changing, but Arthur's presidency got off to an inconsistent start, as we mentioned you're in the show he wanted to renovate in redecorate the White House before moving in Louis Comfort, Tiffany team removed, thirty barrels of China and twenty four wagons full of furniture in the process which people considered extravagance. He continued to associate with republican stalwarts, especially when he made trips back to New York. Leading people to wonder whether their worst fears for an Arthur presidency would turn out to be true Soon, though he started shifting direction when com
being demanded that Arthur, replace the customs collector for New York with some one of his choosing Arthur refused not long after you take up the cause of civil service reform. People had already been trying to reform the civil service system before Garfield assassination, but while most people had concluded that Guiteau was mentally ill, they also thought that this very corrupt and favouritism based civil service system was at the heart of his illness. Consequently, after Garfield's death, civil service reform became a major political issue with Arthur, who was a man who had directly better it'd from the existing system, being one of its champions fanned praise this commitment in her letters sands letters ranged from almost casual conversation to specific matters of policy on October. Twenty seven
one thousand eight hundred and eighty one. She wrote a letter in which she named herself his quote little dwarf a reference to the idea that a court jester, who often had some form of dwarfism was the only person with the power to the truth to the monarch. In another letter in the fall of that year she suggested that Arthur come to visit her. She also discouraged from visiting his old political cronies in New York and encouraged him to take care of his health in the fall of eighteen. Eighty two she told him quote Member that you are president of the United States work only for the good of the country when the first version of the chinese Exclusion ACT, which banned emigration from China to the United States, past Congress fanned urged Arthur to veto at which he did on April. Fourth, eighteen, eighty two calling its terms quote a breach of our national faith after that sand wrote to him that the veto delighted her. Although her letter
also revealed her own prejudice. Is it said, quote I sent for a horse and there being no heathen chinese around showed by superiority to race prejudice by taking a colored fellow being out to drive. He never thanked me, though, and probably expects to be rewarded. Such is the demoralising effective civil rights. Humans are complicated Chris tried and failed to override Arthur's veto of the chinese Exclusion ACT and then passed a revised version that restricted immigration from China for ten years rather than twenty. Are there sign that version into law on May sixth, one thousand eight hundred and eighty you sand did not disguise her anger over this saying quote when you vetoed the chair these bill. The better class of people throughout the country were delighted now, sign it, and what is the difference as it now stands in quantity less, but in quality does idiotic and unnecessary as the first, the zoo,
of Russia might well respond to your remonstrance against the persecution of the Jews with an expostulation against the persecution of the Chinese. She was like this bill is almost exactly the same as the previous I accept that it shorter you do not want. After that Congress past the rivers and Harbours ACT of eighteen, eighty two, which earmarked nineteen million dollars for things like lighthouse, upkeep and navigational buoys, but the act was also viewed as fondling a lot of money into the hands of corrupt local authorities. When Arthur vetoed it sand wrote to praise his decision thinks that she was deeply moved by his taking such a correct action under such huge pressure from Congress. To do the opposite. This time, though, Congress did overturned the president's veto. All
in eighteen. Eighty two federal prosecution began in the star route scandal, which was a bribery, fraud and corruption. Scandal connected to mail delivery, basic as the United States, expanded, westward mail delivery needed to expand along with it. The federal government contracted with private carriers to handle these long remote western roots. This looped back around to the spoils system, with the contract process, just riddled with bribery and corruption and cronyism, including contracts being issued for routes that didn't exist and contractors that didn't actually do the work that they were being paid to do. The first investigations into this had started under President Grant in eighteen, seventy two, but it was during Arthur's administration that this corruption, was finally shut down. There was a whole series of federal prosecutions as the investigations and the trials were going on sand advised Arthur to quote, suffer for the sake of truth, and
she may be too was also the year that Chester, a Arthur, visited Julia Sand. He went to her home in New York on August twentieth of that year. His sudden appearance rendered her speechless something she chest eyes herself for in letter she wrote later on, although they did discuss some of his recent political decisions, while he was there, she was oh highly, vexed that her entire family happened to be at home. That day and dominated the president's visit in a later letter, SAM suggested that she hoped for another visit. Maybe this time she could paint the president's portrait on January 16th. One thousand eight hundred and eighty three Arthur signed the Pendleton Civil Service ACT, which was the nation's first comprehensive civil service reform bill. It made the selection of certain government employees, the responsibility of the civil Service Commission not have office holders.
Selves exams were also implemented to encourage hiring that was based on merit. Instead of favouritism, the bill scope was limited. It only covered Washington based federal jobs, along with customs houses and post offices that had more than fifty employees. This was only about ten percent of federal jobs. Although subsequent administrations have expanded, the scope of this act dramatically, fan letters or veal. Her pleasure, at his signing this bill into law but also some scepticism about whether he would uphold its terms. This reflected the prevailing attitude among the general public as well, because with Arthur's history, it was really hard to believe that he was committed to the bill that he had signed, but as the summer of eighteen. Eighty three war on you started assembling this new commission and avoiding here
political cronies, he was doing that may also started implementing all those reform measures that he had promised sand wrote her last known letter to Arthur on September, fifteenth eighteen. Eighty three Arthur's presidency continued until now fourth, eighteen, eighty five, if he ever wrote her back, she never mentioned it, and no such letter survives So we don't really know whether these letters directly influenced Arthur's decisions as president, but his actions very strongly suggest that they matter to him early in his presidency, he had been diagnosed with bright disease, which was used to describe various types of nephritis. There was no effective treatment cure and by the time he got sands last known letter, he was exhausted and in severe pain, Arthur Maids kind of a half hearted campaign for re election
but the Republican Party did not select him as its candidate. This ended a complicated and definitely not altogether positive presidency, but it also was not at all the presidency that anyone had expected when he took the oath of office. He died. November Eighteenth eighteen, eighty six, the day before he died, Arthur, ordered his son to burn his personal papers almost certainly because he was ashamed and embarrassed over his earlier political career. Chester, a Arthur Junior supervised, the filling and refilling of three burn barrels. Adding new papers as the previous batch burned down, but twenty three letters from Julia Sand were set aside in a special on the local labour
in Arthur's handwriting Julius and died in May of nineteen. Thirty three at the age of eighty three, she was buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn. For years later, Chester a Arthur Jr died and Chester a Arthur, the third he went by Gavin inherited what remained of his grandfather's papers. He became intensely curious about these twenty three letters from Julius and and their special envelope on February, tenth, one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight. He placed an ad in the New York Herald Tribune to see if he could find any of sans relatives. He finally heard from a nephew who it actually been there on the day of the visit. This nephew suggested that SAM had kept her letters to Arthur a secret from family and friends, and the family had no idea why the president would have visited them in about one thousand, nine hundred and ten,
The library of Congress undertook an extensive search for any of our three surviving papers. At that point, the library only have two documents that bore his signature over the next few decades of gathered a small collection, largely from the descendants of Arthur's correspondence, but also from Gavin Arthur the Library of change. Julia sands there's a nineteen. Fifty eight Gavin Arthur left the remainder of his father's and grandfather's papers to the library upon his own death in nineteen. Seventy two he was the last surviving descendant of President Chester. Arthur will end on a quote from sands Letter of August 28th, one thousand eight hundred and eighty two, which really sums up how Julius answer
herself she was a quote poor little woman, who has always been the youngest of her family, who, consequently, if she lives to be fifty, will always be treated like a child who would have no comfort in life if she could not occasionally scold some very big man. I like the idea of its who, like I know, I'm scolding, this very big man, but I'm definitely doing it. Eddie Do you have any Scooby was scenario scolding at all? This is a very recent listener. Male, that's mostly about a much older episode, but I wanted to read it because it connects to something that we said today. Sperm J J starts off talking a little bit about some kiddies yeah he's jail of high Holly and tracing. Let me for office that my husband and I and our forecasts are huge fans of yours. Our middle cap, Pippin is so sassy and full of spunk that we have taken the calling her Pippen fry. Our youngest cat olive is called
v Wilson because he's the quieter more reserved one. We obviously have too much time on our hands, especially in winter at my affair, I find that story very charming. I do to my Emily and I live on a small farm and North Central Minnesota. It gets bitterly cold here in late winter and when it does, I always give your school house blizzard of eighteen. Eighty eight episode, another listen. I love this episode, my farmers nestled in the rolling hills and legs of Minnesota Central Lakes region. I can count at least three one room: school houses within a ten mile radius of my
Oh, since I live in an area that was hit hard by the blizzard, its natural that I'm drawn to this topic has seen a few blizzards since moving to Minnesota, but nothing on a scale of eighteen. Eighty eight lizard, the thought of going through that experience with the thing, but horses, buggies oil, lamps and no modern forms of communication is horrifying to me. It must have felt like the end of the world anytime. Someone in the area asked me about the blizzard. I always direct them to your episode possible episode idea. I've searched the archiving can find nothing related to Louis Comfort, Tiffany, the stained glass guy, not his
the jewelry designer you should put em on your list of possible episodes. I'm an amateur stained glass artists that I really admire the windows, the lamps of Tiffany, most people know of Tiffany lamps, but what they don't realize that the majority of these lamps were designed and constructed by a team of women called the Tiffany girls Clara Driscoll was the head of the women's department within the last ten years has been revealed that she and her tipping girls, not Louis Tiffany, were responsible for the designs of many of Tiffany. Is most iconic lamps. Take a dive into the topic. If you get some time, keep up the good work you as make our days a little more brighter shea and also Eric
he's so much say and Eric presenting this note. It was a total coincidence that this came over the weekend where I was working on this episode or we talk about the president. Just re Arthur having Louis comfortably totally redecorate the White House, but he actually wound up on my topic to do list. I think it was late last year where it just seemed like every time I turned around somebody was talking about Louis Comfort, Tiffany. I went to a thing called history camp and there was somebody there. There was talking about a historic building, restoration here in Boston. That was an entire decoration work done by Louis Comfort, Tiffany and then shortly thereafter, I was walking through town and one of the churches that has all the stained glass windows done by Tiffany was allowing people to come in and look
at the windows and like you just kept coming up over and over, and I was like, I feel, like the universe- is telling me to do a Pakistan Louis comfort Tiffany. So I dont know win that might happen, but he is on my list. I am still very honoured. That kitty is, you know in any way referred to with my name. That's the bigger in my book yeah. I have a cat named after I've to cast never two of my favorite imagining Ursa Disney, and I know what an honour it was, in my opinion, cabinets names. So it means a great deal to me. Also, we split does cats up over which ones we think bar like me and which ones are like my husband. So I understand this logic completely that doesn't sound like too much time on your hands to me at all. You know we currently have no cats in my house and that we are currently hoping to change that and the relatively near future. If you like,
to us about your kiddies per hour, podcast or disobey high, where history, pod gas, but how stuff works and then we're all we're social media Agnes than history. That is where you find our Facebook Pinterest Instagram Twitter. All that stuff. You can come to our website, which is based in history, dot, com and find these show notes brow the absurd the Hollywood I have worked on together and searchable archive every episode ever and you can subscribed our show on thy heart, radio, app or apple podcast or wherever you listened aghast. Stuckey missed an extra glasses of production I might radios how stuff works for my hands from Radio visit thy heart, radio, Appleton guests or wherever you listen to your favorite, shows everybody. So this episode of Swift Blue
mind sponsored by the all New Mazda, see Ex thirty, which actually just got to test. Dr recently, in the beautiful mountains of southern california- and I say as some of you, we ve told you on the show before were not really car guys. We don't know a lot about cars, I'm sort of a automobile philistine, but from this auto Philistines hard, I will say this was a really wonderful card to drive. I truly enjoyed cruising around the mountains thing he was very smooth very stylish its sung to my non car heart in a way that cars- usually don't so what's actually in this thing details why so it has class leading standard horse power and I active all we'll drive with G vector in control plus for ultimate control, and I will say there is a very special thing about this car. I am Ivan driven another car like this, where you, when you go around a corner in it,
something about it feels almost like predictive like it. You know you don't need to do like Jerkin around trying to correct your turn like it. Everything in it is extremely smooth, then and continuous, and I think that's what's going on here, but it's also got a beautiful design on the outside. Made. It basically is exerting its size to be achieved in the city while still having the interior space inutility to go anywhere at any time. You know encouraging an active lifestyle and to your point is that the idea that you not haven't a twitter wrestle the machine to get where you're going there is there is a meeting of the man in the machine is also a very nice driving experience in a visual way where I, like. The car doesn't have a touch screen and it in a word it like you, can see those touch screens come up in kind of distracting, while you're trying to navigate the features and stuffily driving instead, its more traditional kind of command controls that you go with
ends and levers from the steering wheel, but it actually makes for a much nicer, less distracted drive. You got your eyes on the road you safer to you, not playing the video game to drive the car you're driving a car, but it's also got connected car features. They give you convenient safety peace of mind. This got an income. WI fi option. Remote engine start stop and door lock vehicle status, navigation service view go, find her automatic nine, when one dialing in the event of an accident also is We got it all and I really truly enjoyed driving this car so for more formation on Mazda and the first ever see Ex Thirty go to Mazda, USA, dot com, slash, Iheart or better, yet to see the entire Mazda vehicle line up visit your local area, Mazda dealer today,